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Adding the newest version of the DCPU-16 specification by Notch

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1 parent f009f75 commit 61348f24d18c383d175f5f0ed9688b56519699c2 @joskuijpers joskuijpers committed Apr 24, 2012
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  1. +195 −0 ASM/Draft_DCPU-16_Specification_v2.txt
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195 ASM/Draft_DCPU-16_Specification_v2.txt
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+DCPU-16 Specification
+Copyright 1985 Mojang
+Version 1.1
+
+
+
+=== SUMMARY ====================================================================
+
+* 16 bit words
+* 0x10000 words of ram
+* 8 registers (A, B, C, X, Y, Z, I, J)
+* program counter (PC)
+* stack pointer (SP)
+* extra/excess (EX)
+* interrupt address (IA)
+
+In this document, anything within [brackets] is shorthand for "the value of the
+RAM at the location of the value inside the brackets". For example, SP means
+stack pointer, but [SP] means the value of the RAM at the location the stack
+pointer is pointing at.
+
+Whenever the CPU needs to read a word, it reads [PC], then increases PC by one.
+Shorthand for this is [PC++]. In some cases, the CPU will modify a value before
+reading it, in this case the shorthand is [++PC].
+
+For stability and to reduce bugs, it's strongly suggested all multi-byte
+operations use little endian in all DCPU-16 programs, wherever possible.
+
+
+
+=== INSTRUCTIONS ===============================================================
+
+Instructions are 1-3 words long and are fully defined by the first word.
+In a basic instruction, the lower five bits of the first word of the instruction
+are the opcode, and the remaining eleven bits are split into a five bit value b
+and a six bit value a.
+b is always handled by the processor after a, and is the lower five bits.
+In bits (in LSB-0 format), a basic instruction has the format: aaaaaabbbbbooooo
+
+In the tables below, C is the time required in cycles to look up the value, or
+perform the opcode, VALUE is the numerical value, NAME is the mnemonic, and
+DESCRIPTION is a short text that describes the opcode or value.
+
+
+
+--- Values: (5/6 bits) ---------------------------------------------------------
+ C | VALUE | DESCRIPTION
+---+-----------+----------------------------------------------------------------
+ 0 | 0x00-0x07 | register (A, B, C, X, Y, Z, I or J, in that order)
+ 0 | 0x08-0x0f | [register]
+ 1 | 0x10-0x17 | [register + next word]
+ 0 | 0x18 | (PUSH / [--SP]) if in b, or (POP / [SP++]) if in a
+ 0 | 0x19 | [SP] / PEEK
+ 0 | 0x1a | [SP + next word] / PICK n
+ 0 | 0x1b | SP
+ 0 | 0x1c | PC
+ 0 | 0x1d | EX
+ 1 | 0x1e | [next word]
+ 1 | 0x1f | next word (literal)
+ 0 | 0x20-0x3f | literal value 0xffff-0x1e (-1..30) (literal) (only for a)
+ --+-----------+----------------------------------------------------------------
+
+* "next word" means "[PC++]". Increases the word length of the instruction by 1.
+* By using 0x18, 0x19, 0x1a as PEEK, POP/PUSH, and PICK there's a reverse stack
+ starting at memory location 0xffff. Example: "SET PUSH, 10", "SET X, POP"
+
+
+
+--- Basic opcodes (5 bits) ----------------------------------------------------
+ C | VAL | NAME | DESCRIPTION
+---+------+----------+--------------------------------------------------------
+ - | 0x00 | n/a | special instruction - see below
+ 1 | 0x01 | SET b, a | sets b to a
+ 2 | 0x02 | ADD b, a | sets b to b+a, sets EX to 0x0001 if there's an overflow,
+ | | | 0x0 otherwise
+ 2 | 0x03 | SUB b, a | sets b to b-a, sets EX to 0xffff if there's an underflow,
+ | | | 0x0 otherwise
+ 2 | 0x04 | MUL b, a | sets b to b*a, sets EX to ((b*a)>>16)&0xffff (treats b,
+ | | | a as unsigned)
+ 2 | 0x05 | MLI b, a | like MUL, but treat b, a as signed
+ 3 | 0x06 | DIV b, a | sets b to b/a, sets EX to ((b<<16)/a)&0xffff. if a==0,
+ | | | sets b and EX to 0 instead. (treats b, a as unsigned)
+ 3 | 0x07 | DVI b, a | like DIV, but treat b, a as signed
+ 3 | 0x08 | MOD b, a | sets b to b%a. if a==0, sets b to 0 instead.
+ 1 | 0x09 | AND b, a | sets b to b&a
+ 1 | 0x0a | BOR b, a | sets b to b|a
+ 1 | 0x0b | XOR b, a | sets b to b^a
+ 2 | 0x0c | SHR b, a | sets b to b>>>a, sets EX to ((b<<16)>>a)&0xffff
+ | | | (logical shift)
+ 2 | 0x0d | ASR b, a | sets b to b>>a, sets EX to ((b<<16)>>>a)&0xffff
+ | | | (arithmetic shift) (treats b as signed)
+ 2 | 0x0e | SHL b, a | sets b to b<<a, sets EX to ((b<<a)>>16)&0xffff
+ - | 0x0f | - |
+ 2+| 0x10 | IFB b, a | performs next instruction only if (b&a)!=0
+ 2+| 0x11 | IFC b, a | performs next instruction only if (b&a)==0
+ 2+| 0x12 | IFE b, a | performs next instruction only if b==a
+ 2+| 0x13 | IFN b, a | performs next instruction only if b!=a
+ 2+| 0x14 | IFG b, a | performs next instruction only if b>a
+ 2+| 0x15 | IFA b, a | performs next instruction only if b>a (signed)
+ 2+| 0x16 | IFL b, a | performs next instruction only if b<a
+ 2+| 0x17 | IFU b, a | performs next instruction only if b<a (signed)
+ - | 0x18 | - |
+ - | 0x19 | - |
+ - | 0x1a | - |
+ - | 0x1b | - |
+ - | 0x1c | - |
+ - | 0x1d | - |
+ - | 0x1e | - |
+ - | 0x1f | - |
+---+------+----------+----------------------------------------------------------
+
+* The branching opcodes take one cycle longer to perform if the test fails
+* Signed numbers are represented using two's complement.
+
+
+
+Special opcodes always have their lower five bits unset, have one value and a
+five bit opcode. In binary, they have the format: aaaaaaooooo00000
+The value (a) is in the same six bit format as defined earlier.
+
+--- Special opcodes: (6 bits) --------------------------------------------------
+ C | VAL | NAME | DESCRIPTION
+---+------+-------+-------------------------------------------------------------
+ - | 0x00 | n/a | reserved for future expansion
+ 3 | 0x01 | JSR a | pushes the address of the next instruction to the stack,
+ | | | then sets PC to a
+ - | 0x02 | - |
+ - | 0x03 | - |
+ - | 0x04 | - |
+ - | 0x05 | - |
+ - | 0x06 | - |
+ - | 0x07 | - |
+ 4 | 0x08 | INT a | triggers a software interrupt with message a
+ 1 | 0x09 | ING a | sets a to IN
+ 1 | 0x0a | INS a | sets IN to a
+ - | 0x0b | - |
+ - | 0x0c | - |
+ - | 0x0d | - |
+ - | 0x0e | - |
+ - | 0x0f | - |
+ 2 | 0x10 | HWN a | sets a to number of connected hardware devices
+ 4 | 0x11 | HWQ a | sets A, B, C, X, Y registers to information about hardware a
+ | | | a+b is a 32 bit word identifying the hardware type
+ | | | c is the hardware revision
+ | | | x+y is a 32 bit word identifying the manufacturer
+ 4+| 0x12 | HWI a | sends an interrupt to hardware a
+ - | 0x13 | - |
+ - | 0x14 | - |
+ - | 0x15 | - |
+ - | 0x16 | - |
+ - | 0x17 | - |
+ - | 0x18 | - |
+ - | 0x19 | - |
+ - | 0x1a | - |
+ - | 0x1b | - |
+ - | 0x1c | - |
+ - | 0x1d | - |
+ - | 0x1e | - |
+ - | 0x1f | - |
+---+------+-------+-------------------------------------------------------------
+
+
+
+=== INTERRUPTS =================================================================
+
+When IA is set to something other than 0, interrupts triggered on the DCPU-16
+will push PC to the stack, followed by pushing A to the stack, then set the PC
+to IA, and A to the interrupt message. A well formed interrupt handler must pop
+A from the stack before returning (popping PC from the stack)
+
+If IA is set to 0, a triggered interrupt does nothing.
+
+The DCPU-16 will attempt to perform one clock interrupt 60 times per second,
+with the A message being 0.
+
+
+
+=== HARDWARE ===================================================================
+
+The DCPU-16 supports up to 65536 connected hardware devices. These devices can
+be anything from additional storage, sensors, monitors or speakers.
+How to control the hardware is specified per hardware device, but the DCPU-16
+supports a standard enumeration method for detecting connected hardware via
+the HWN, HWQ and HWI instructions.
+
+Interrupts sent to hardware can't contain messages, can take additional cycles,
+and can read or modify any registers or memory adresses on the DCPU-16. This
+behavior changes per hardware device and is documented in the hardware
+documentation.
+
+Hardware must NOT start modifying registers or ram on the DCPU-16 before at
+least one HWI call has been made to the hardware.
+
+The DPCU-16 does not support hot swapping hardware. The behavior of connecting
+or disconnecting hardware while the DCPU-16 is undefined.

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