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change directory mm and interrupts to match the style of folder naming

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mudongliang committed Oct 29, 2016
1 parent ce3a38a commit f83c8ee29e2051a8f4c08d6a0fa8247d934e14d9
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@@ -92,7 +92,7 @@ Where the `percpu_alloc_setup` function sets the `pcpu_chosen_fc` variable depen
enum pcpu_fc pcpu_chosen_fc __initdata = PCPU_FC_AUTO;
```
If the `percpu_alloc` parameter is not given to the kernel command line, the `embed` allocator will be used which embeds the first percpu chunk into bootmem with the [memblock](http://0xax.gitbooks.io/linux-insides/content/mm/linux-mm-1.html). The last allocator is the first chunk `page` allocator which maps the first chunk with `PAGE_SIZE` pages.
If the `percpu_alloc` parameter is not given to the kernel command line, the `embed` allocator will be used which embeds the first percpu chunk into bootmem with the [memblock](http://0xax.gitbooks.io/linux-insides/content/MM/linux-mm-1.html). The last allocator is the first chunk `page` allocator which maps the first chunk with `PAGE_SIZE` pages.
As I wrote above, first of all we make a check of the first chunk allocator type in the `setup_per_cpu_areas`. We check that first chunk allocator is not page:
@@ -352,7 +352,7 @@ This function starts from the reserving memory block for the kernel `_text` and
memblock_reserve(__pa_symbol(_text), (unsigned long)__bss_stop - (unsigned long)_text);
```
You can read about `memblock` in the [Linux kernel memory management Part 1.](http://0xax.gitbooks.io/linux-insides/content/mm/linux-mm-1.html). As you can remember `memblock_reserve` function takes two parameters:
You can read about `memblock` in the [Linux kernel memory management Part 1.](http://0xax.gitbooks.io/linux-insides/content/MM/linux-mm-1.html). As you can remember `memblock_reserve` function takes two parameters:
* base physical address of a memory block;
* size of a memory block.
@@ -185,7 +185,7 @@ memset(bm_pte, 0, sizeof(bm_pte));
pmd_populate_kernel(&init_mm, pmd, bm_pte);
```
That's all for this. If you feeling puzzled, don't worry. There is special part about `ioremap` and `fixmaps` in the [Linux Kernel Memory Management. Part 2](https://github.com/0xAX/linux-insides/blob/master/mm/linux-mm-2.md) chapter.
That's all for this. If you feeling puzzled, don't worry. There is special part about `ioremap` and `fixmaps` in the [Linux Kernel Memory Management. Part 2](https://github.com/0xAX/linux-insides/blob/master/MM/linux-mm-2.md) chapter.
Obtaining major and minor numbers for the root device
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
@@ -490,7 +490,7 @@ void x86_configure_nx(void)
Conclusion
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
It is the end of the fifth part about linux kernel initialization process. In this part we continued to dive in the `setup_arch` function which makes initialization of architecture-specific stuff. It was long part, but we have not finished with it. As i already wrote, the `setup_arch` is big function, and I am really not sure that we will cover all of it even in the next part. There were some new interesting concepts in this part like `Fix-mapped` addresses, ioremap and etc... Don't worry if they are unclear for you. There is a special part about these concepts - [Linux kernel memory management Part 2.](https://github.com/0xAX/linux-insides/blob/master/mm/linux-mm-2.md). In the next part we will continue with the initialization of the architecture-specific stuff and will see parsing of the early kernel parameters, early dump of the pci devices, direct Media Interface scanning and many many more.
It is the end of the fifth part about linux kernel initialization process. In this part we continued to dive in the `setup_arch` function which makes initialization of architecture-specific stuff. It was long part, but we have not finished with it. As i already wrote, the `setup_arch` is big function, and I am really not sure that we will cover all of it even in the next part. There were some new interesting concepts in this part like `Fix-mapped` addresses, ioremap and etc... Don't worry if they are unclear for you. There is a special part about these concepts - [Linux kernel memory management Part 2.](https://github.com/0xAX/linux-insides/blob/master/MM/linux-mm-2.md). In the next part we will continue with the initialization of the architecture-specific stuff and will see parsing of the early kernel parameters, early dump of the pci devices, direct Media Interface scanning and many many more.
If you have any questions or suggestions write me a comment or ping me at [twitter](https://twitter.com/0xAX).
@@ -500,7 +500,7 @@ for (; pmd < last_pmd; pmd++, vaddr += PMD_SIZE) {
}
```
After this we set the limit for the `memblock` allocation with the `memblock_set_current_limit` function (read more about `memblock` you can in the [Linux kernel memory management Part 2](https://github.com/0xAX/linux-insides/blob/master/mm/linux-mm-2.md)), it will be `ISA_END_ADDRESS` or `0x100000` and fill the `memblock` information according to `e820` with the call of the `memblock_x86_fill` function. You can see the result of this function in the kernel initialization time:
After this we set the limit for the `memblock` allocation with the `memblock_set_current_limit` function (read more about `memblock` you can in the [Linux kernel memory management Part 2](https://github.com/0xAX/linux-insides/blob/master/MM/linux-mm-2.md)), it will be `ISA_END_ADDRESS` or `0x100000` and fill the `memblock` information according to `e820` with the call of the `memblock_x86_fill` function. You can see the result of this function in the kernel initialization time:
```
MEMBLOCK configuration:
@@ -4,7 +4,7 @@ Kernel initialization. Part 7.
The End of the architecture-specific initialization, almost...
================================================================================
This is the seventh part of the Linux Kernel initialization process which covers insides of the `setup_arch` function from the [arch/x86/kernel/setup.c](https://github.com/torvalds/linux/blob/master/arch/x86/kernel/setup.c#L861). As you can know from the previous [parts](http://0xax.gitbooks.io/linux-insides/content/Initialization/index.html), the `setup_arch` function does some architecture-specific (in our case it is [x86_64](http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/X86-64)) initialization stuff like reserving memory for kernel code/data/bss, early scanning of the [Desktop Management Interface](http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Desktop_Management_Interface), early dump of the [PCI](http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/PCI) device and many many more. If you have read the previous [part](http://0xax.gitbooks.io/linux-insides/content/Initialization/%20linux-initialization-6.html), you can remember that we've finished it at the `setup_real_mode` function. In the next step, as we set limit of the [memblock](http://0xax.gitbooks.io/linux-insides/content/mm/linux-mm-1.html) to the all mapped pages, we can see the call of the `setup_log_buf` function from the [kernel/printk/printk.c](https://github.com/torvalds/linux/blob/master/kernel/printk/printk.c).
This is the seventh part of the Linux Kernel initialization process which covers insides of the `setup_arch` function from the [arch/x86/kernel/setup.c](https://github.com/torvalds/linux/blob/master/arch/x86/kernel/setup.c#L861). As you can know from the previous [parts](http://0xax.gitbooks.io/linux-insides/content/Initialization/index.html), the `setup_arch` function does some architecture-specific (in our case it is [x86_64](http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/X86-64)) initialization stuff like reserving memory for kernel code/data/bss, early scanning of the [Desktop Management Interface](http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Desktop_Management_Interface), early dump of the [PCI](http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/PCI) device and many many more. If you have read the previous [part](http://0xax.gitbooks.io/linux-insides/content/Initialization/%20linux-initialization-6.html), you can remember that we've finished it at the `setup_real_mode` function. In the next step, as we set limit of the [memblock](http://0xax.gitbooks.io/linux-insides/content/MM/linux-mm-1.html) to the all mapped pages, we can see the call of the `setup_log_buf` function from the [kernel/printk/printk.c](https://github.com/torvalds/linux/blob/master/kernel/printk/printk.c).
The `setup_log_buf` function setups kernel cyclic buffer and its length depends on the `CONFIG_LOG_BUF_SHIFT` configuration option. As we can read from the documentation of the `CONFIG_LOG_BUF_SHIFT` it can be between `12` and `21`. In the insides, buffer defined as array of chars:
@@ -296,7 +296,7 @@ BUILD_BUG_ON((unsigned long)__fix_to_virt(VSYSCALL_PAGE) !=
(unsigned long)VSYSCALL_ADDR);
```
Now `vsyscall` area is in the `fix-mapped` area. That's all about `map_vsyscall`, if you do not know anything about fix-mapped addresses, you can read [Fix-Mapped Addresses and ioremap](http://0xax.gitbooks.io/linux-insides/content/mm/linux-mm-2.html). We will see more about `vsyscalls` in the `vsyscalls and vdso` part.
Now `vsyscall` area is in the `fix-mapped` area. That's all about `map_vsyscall`, if you do not know anything about fix-mapped addresses, you can read [Fix-Mapped Addresses and ioremap](http://0xax.gitbooks.io/linux-insides/content/MM/linux-mm-2.html). We will see more about `vsyscalls` in the `vsyscalls and vdso` part.
Getting the SMP configuration
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
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@@ -214,7 +214,7 @@ There are many different function calls after the `early_trap_pf_init` in the `s
#endif
```
Note that it depends on the `CONFIG_EISA` kernel configuration parameter which represents `EISA` support. Here we use `early_ioremap` function to map `I/O` memory on the page tables. We use `readl` function to read first `4` bytes from the mapped region and if they are equal to `EISA` string we set `EISA_bus` to one. In the end we just unmap previously mapped region. More about `early_ioremap` you can read in the part which describes [Fix-Mapped Addresses and ioremap](http://0xax.gitbooks.io/linux-insides/content/mm/linux-mm-2.html).
Note that it depends on the `CONFIG_EISA` kernel configuration parameter which represents `EISA` support. Here we use `early_ioremap` function to map `I/O` memory on the page tables. We use `readl` function to read first `4` bytes from the mapped region and if they are equal to `EISA` string we set `EISA_bus` to one. In the end we just unmap previously mapped region. More about `early_ioremap` you can read in the part which describes [Fix-Mapped Addresses and ioremap](http://0xax.gitbooks.io/linux-insides/content/MM/linux-mm-2.html).
After this we start to fill the `Interrupt Descriptor Table` with the different interrupt gates. First of all we set `#DE` or `Divide Error` and `#NMI` or `Non-maskable Interrupt`:
@@ -329,7 +329,7 @@ __set_fixmap(FIX_RO_IDT, __pa_symbol(idt_table), PAGE_KERNEL_RO);
idt_descr.address = fix_to_virt(FIX_RO_IDT);
```
and write its address to the `idt_descr.address` (more about fix-mapped addresses you can read in the second part of the [Linux kernel memory management](http://0xax.gitbooks.io/linux-insides/content/mm/linux-mm-2.html) chapter). After this we can see the call of the `cpu_init` function that defined in the [arch/x86/kernel/cpu/common.c](https://github.com/torvalds/linux/blob/master/arch/x86/kernel/cpu/common.c). This function makes initialization of the all `per-cpu` state. In the beginning of the `cpu_init` we do the following things: First of all we wait while current cpu is initialized and than we call the `cr4_init_shadow` function which stores shadow copy of the `cr4` control register for the current cpu and load CPU microcode if need with the following function calls:
and write its address to the `idt_descr.address` (more about fix-mapped addresses you can read in the second part of the [Linux kernel memory management](http://0xax.gitbooks.io/linux-insides/content/MM/linux-mm-2.html) chapter). After this we can see the call of the `cpu_init` function that defined in the [arch/x86/kernel/cpu/common.c](https://github.com/torvalds/linux/blob/master/arch/x86/kernel/cpu/common.c). This function makes initialization of the all `per-cpu` state. In the beginning of the `cpu_init` we do the following things: First of all we wait while current cpu is initialized and than we call the `cr4_init_shadow` function which stores shadow copy of the `cr4` control register for the current cpu and load CPU microcode if need with the following function calls:
```C
wait_for_master_cpu(cpu);
@@ -449,7 +449,7 @@ Links
* [CPU caches](https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/CPU_cache)
* [VFS](https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Virtual_file_system)
* [Linux kernel memory management](http://0xax.gitbooks.io/linux-insides/content/mm/index.html)
* [Fix-Mapped Addresses and ioremap](http://0xax.gitbooks.io/linux-insides/content/mm/linux-mm-2.html)
* [Fix-Mapped Addresses and ioremap](http://0xax.gitbooks.io/linux-insides/content/MM/linux-mm-2.html)
* [Extended Industry Standard Architecture](https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Extended_Industry_Standard_Architecture)
* [INT isntruction](https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/INT_%28x86_instruction%29)
* [INTO](http://x86.renejeschke.de/html/file_module_x86_id_142.html)
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@@ -3,6 +3,6 @@
This chapter describes memory management in the linux kernel. You will see here a
couple of posts which describe different parts of the linux memory management framework:
* [Memblock](https://github.com/0xAX/linux-insides/blob/master/mm/linux-mm-1.md) - describes early `memblock` allocator.
* [Fix-Mapped Addresses and ioremap](https://github.com/0xAX/linux-insides/blob/master/mm/linux-mm-2.md) - describes `fix-mapped` addresses and early `ioremap`.
* [kmemcheck](https://github.com/0xAX/linux-insides/blob/master/mm/linux-mm-3.md) - third part describes `kmemcheck` tool.
* [Memblock](https://github.com/0xAX/linux-insides/blob/master/MM/linux-mm-1.md) - describes early `memblock` allocator.
* [Fix-Mapped Addresses and ioremap](https://github.com/0xAX/linux-insides/blob/master/MM/linux-mm-2.md) - describes `fix-mapped` addresses and early `ioremap`.
* [kmemcheck](https://github.com/0xAX/linux-insides/blob/master/MM/linux-mm-3.md) - third part describes `kmemcheck` tool.
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@@ -518,4 +518,4 @@ Links
* [Memory management unit](http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Memory_management_unit)
* [TLB](http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Translation_lookaside_buffer)
* [Paging](http://0xax.gitbooks.io/linux-insides/content/Theory/Paging.html)
* [Linux kernel memory management Part 1.](http://0xax.gitbooks.io/linux-insides/content/mm/linux-mm-1.html)
* [Linux kernel memory management Part 1.](http://0xax.gitbooks.io/linux-insides/content/MM/linux-mm-1.html)
@@ -4,7 +4,7 @@ Linux kernel memory management Part 3.
Introduction to the kmemcheck in the Linux kernel
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
This is the third part of the [chapter](https://0xax.gitbooks.io/linux-insides/content/mm/) which describes [memory management](https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Memory_management) in the Linux kernel and in the previous [part](https://0xax.gitbooks.io/linux-insides/content/mm/linux-mm-2.html) of this chapter we met two memory management related concepts:
This is the third part of the [chapter](https://0xax.gitbooks.io/linux-insides/content/mm/) which describes [memory management](https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Memory_management) in the Linux kernel and in the previous [part](https://0xax.gitbooks.io/linux-insides/content/MM/linux-mm-2.html) of this chapter we met two memory management related concepts:
* `Fix-Mapped Addresses`;
* `ioremap`.
@@ -61,7 +61,7 @@ $ sudo cat /proc/ioports
...
```
can show us lists of currently registered port regions used for input or output communication with a device. All memory-mapped I/O addresses are not used by the kernel directly. So, before the Linux kernel can use such memory, it must to map it to the virtual memory space which is the main purpose of the `ioremap` mechanism. Note that we saw only early `ioremap` in the previous [part](https://0xax.gitbooks.io/linux-insides/content/mm/linux-mm-2.html). Soon we will look at the implementation of the non-early `ioremap` function. But before this we must learn other things, like a different types of memory allocators and etc., because in other way it will be very difficult to understand it.
can show us lists of currently registered port regions used for input or output communication with a device. All memory-mapped I/O addresses are not used by the kernel directly. So, before the Linux kernel can use such memory, it must to map it to the virtual memory space which is the main purpose of the `ioremap` mechanism. Note that we saw only early `ioremap` in the previous [part](https://0xax.gitbooks.io/linux-insides/content/MM/linux-mm-2.html). Soon we will look at the implementation of the non-early `ioremap` function. But before this we must learn other things, like a different types of memory allocators and etc., because in other way it will be very difficult to understand it.
So, before we will move on to the non-early [memory management](https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Memory_management) of the Linux kernel, we will see some mechanisms which provide special abilities for [debugging](https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Debugging), check of [memory leaks](https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Memory_leak), memory control and etc. It will be easier to understand how memory management arranged in the Linux kernel after learning of all of these things.
@@ -431,4 +431,4 @@ Links
* [flags register](https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/FLAGS_register)
* [tasklet](https://0xax.gitbooks.io/linux-insides/content/interrupts/interrupts-9.html)
* [Paging](http://0xax.gitbooks.io/linux-insides/content/Theory/Paging.html)
* [Previous part](https://0xax.gitbooks.io/linux-insides/content/mm/linux-mm-2.html)
* [Previous part](https://0xax.gitbooks.io/linux-insides/content/MM/linux-mm-2.html)
View
@@ -51,9 +51,9 @@
* [RCU]()
* [Lockdep]()
* [Memory management](mm/README.md)
* [Memblock](mm/linux-mm-1.md)
* [Fixmaps and ioremap](mm/linux-mm-2.md)
* [kmemcheck](mm/linux-mm-3.md)
* [Memblock](MM/linux-mm-1.md)
* [Fixmaps and ioremap](MM/linux-mm-2.md)
* [kmemcheck](MM/linux-mm-3.md)
* [SMP]()
* [Concepts](Concepts/README.md)
* [Per-CPU variables](Concepts/per-cpu.md)
View
@@ -80,7 +80,7 @@ __vsyscall_page:
ret
```
Let's go back to the implementation of the `map_vsyscall` function and return to the implementation of the `__vsyscall_page`, later. After we receiving the physical address of the `__vsyscall_page`, we check the value of the `vsyscall_mode` variable and set the [fix-mapped](http://0xax.gitbooks.io/linux-insides/content/mm/linux-mm-2.html) address for the `vsyscall` page with the `__set_fixmap` macro:
Let's go back to the implementation of the `map_vsyscall` function and return to the implementation of the `__vsyscall_page`, later. After we receiving the physical address of the `__vsyscall_page`, we check the value of the `vsyscall_mode` variable and set the [fix-mapped](http://0xax.gitbooks.io/linux-insides/content/MM/linux-mm-2.html) address for the `vsyscall` page with the `__set_fixmap` macro:
```C
if (vsyscall_mode != NONE)
@@ -390,7 +390,7 @@ Links
* [virtual address](https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Virtual_address_space)
* [Segmentation](https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Memory_segmentation)
* [enum](https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Enumerated_type)
* [fix-mapped addresses](http://0xax.gitbooks.io/linux-insides/content/mm/linux-mm-2.html)
* [fix-mapped addresses](http://0xax.gitbooks.io/linux-insides/content/MM/linux-mm-2.html)
* [glibc](https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/GNU_C_Library)
* [BUILD_BUG_ON](http://0xax.gitbooks.io/linux-insides/content/Initialization/linux-initialization-1.html)
* [Processor register](https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Processor_register)

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