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Scripts to build PostgreSQL and its dependencies on Windows automatically
Perl PowerShell Shell

These scripts create a PostgreSQL build environment for Windows, and build PostgreSQL.

The scripts use Perl as a wrapper around Microsoft's nmake, the build tool that comes with the Microsoft Windows SDK and with Visual Studio.

You will need installs of ActiveState Perl, ActiveState TCL, Python 2, MinGW, git (from, and the Microsoft SDK 7.1 to use these scripts. If you want to use a different Windows SDK, see "Other SDKs".

I recommend that you avoid running these scripts on a machine you use to run a real PostgreSQL instance you care about. These scripts won't break anything (that I'm aware of), but on Windows it's generally risky to do dev work on a production machine. As always, keep good backups and make a restore point before proceeding.

Automatically installing tools and SDKs

Use the PowerShell script:


to download and install all the required dependencies. Just open PowerShell and run:

Set-ExecutionPolicy -ExecutionPolicy Unrestricted -Scope Process -Force
cd pg_build_win

The execution policy command will permit PowerShell to run the script without changing any persistent settings.

If you want to install them manually instead, see doc/

Configure the build

Copy to and edit it to reflect your environment. You can pass the settings on the command line instead, but currently an empty is still required.

Settings on the command line are passed as nmake variables, eg:

SETTING="the value"

and in as Perl hashmap entries, eg:

'SETTING' => 'the value',

To see what you can override, see the settings summary printed when you run /, or examine PgBuildWin\ .

There are two build modes offered; you must pick whether you want the build scripts to manage the PostgreSQL sources trees for you by checking them out from git, or whether you want to manage them yourself. These modes do not affect libraries, only management of the PostgreSQL sources.

In either case, you must set LIBDIR to the absolute path you want to put the dependencies that the build scripts manage for you, eg:


Anything inside LIBDIR will be deleted by "build{git|cwd}.pl really-clean"

Automatic PostgreSQL source trees -

If you use specify where to put the source trees (PGDIR), where to find a PostgreSQL git mirror (PG_GIT_URL), what branch to check out (PG_BRANCH) and optionally the location of the git executable (GIT), the build scripts will manage your builds for you under PGDIR. Eg, in

'GIT' => 'c:\Program Files (x86)\Git\bin\git.exe',
'PGDIR' => 'c:\postgresql-build',
'PG_GIT_URL' => 'c:\postgresql-git-bare-mirror',
'PG_BRANCH' => 'master'

Anything inside PGDIR will be deleted by " really-clean". The source tree will be reset using "git clean -fdx" when you " clean" or " postgresql-clean", so don't do work in the script-managed PostgreSQL trees; either push to a branch and have the tools build the branch, or manually manage the source tree (see below).

Builds and installs will go in different locations (PGBUILDDIR) based on their settings

  • /x86 vs /x64, /release vs /debug, SDK version, target OS, and Pg branch. For example, REL9_2_STABLE built for /x86 /release /xp built with Windows SDK 7.1 with PGDIR set to c:\postgresql-build will go in:


As cloning Pg from scratch takes time and bandwidth, I recommend cloning a bare copy of the Pg repo outside LIBDIR and PGDIR, eg:

git clone --bare --mirror git:// d:/postgresql-git

and specifying the path to it as PG_GIT_URL:

'PG_GIT_URL' => 'd:\postgresql-git'

To pull new changes into that repository use, "git fetch".

Manually managed PostgreSQL source trees - set PGBUILDDIR

If you're developing PostgreSQL in an existing working tree or you're using these scripts for a buildfarm / continuous integration setup, you or some other tools might be managing your git checkouts, or you could even be working from source tarballs. In that case you won't want the build scripts messing around with git. will look for in the current directory, then in the scripts directory. This means that it'll execute any "" in the directory you invoke it in, so keep that in mind when running builds on untrusted branches.

Just cd to the source tree and invoke from there:

For example:

    cd \path\to\pg_source_tree

If using, the scripts won't use git and you don't need it installed. In this mode, " postgresql-clean" and " clean" will use "src\tools\msvc\clean.bat dist" to clean the source tree, rather than using git.

(Optional) Download library source archives

The build tools will download the source archives into LIBDIR\pkg for you if it can't find them.

If you like, you can create LIBDIR\pkg and copy the source archives from somewhere yourself for offline use. The filenames the build scripts look for are specified in settings-default.mak and can be overridden in settings.mak.

Be warned that "build{cwd|git}.pl really-clean" will delete LIBDIR and its contents, including any source packages you put there.


Set up your Visual Studio or Windows SDK environment for the build target you want. Either use the Start menu option to launch a suitable visual studio / sdk prompt, or use the setupsdk.cmd script. For one-off use, it's easiest to just launch a Visual Studio command prompt environment, e.g "VS2012 x86 Native Tools Command Prompt" from the Start menu or Visual Studio Tools folder.

If you want to use the script setupsdk.cmd instead, use an ordinary command crompt (cmd.exe). The script, when run, will detect the location of your requested Visual Studio or Windows SDK and call the appropriate SetEnv.cmd or vcvarsall.bat script to set up the environment for you after you set the variable TA to the target architecture (x86 or x64) and set the variable SDK to the desired SDK name. Current options are:

winsdk71    Microsoft Windows SDK 7.1
vs2010ex    Visual Studio 2010 Express (usually x86 only)
vs2012ex    Visual Studio 2012 Express
vs2013ex    Visual Studio 2013 Express

(Non-Express Visual Studio versions aren't supported yet, but should be trivial to add if you take a look at the script).

Example usage:

SET TA=x86
SET SDK=vs2012ex
call setupsdk.cmd


In a command prompt that's had its environment set up as per "SET UP VISUAL STUDIO ENVIRONMENT", do a full build using:

cd \some\postgresql\sources\
\path\to\pg_build_win\ postgresql

or to use automatically managed git trees:  postgresql 

Supported targets are:


  • postgresql: Build PostgreSQL and its dependencies
  • postgresql-check: Run the test suite
  • postgresql-clean: Clean postgresql working tree, leave libraries alone


If you want to build individual libraries, each library Makefile has "libname" and "libname-clean" targets, eg:

  • zlib
  • zlib-clean


To get a tree of installed PostgreSQL binaries, contrib modules, etc including the library dependencies, use the "install" target.

By default, "install" will install the binaries to a directory named "binaries" under PGBUILDDIR. Change this if desired by setting PGINSTALLDIR.

If you want just the PostgreSQL install but not the libraries, use "postgresql-install".

The interpreters for the PLs are not copied over. Neither is the Visual C++ redist for your SDK, which will need to be installed before the compiled binaries will run on another machine.


  • clean - remove built libraries and clean PostgreSQL working tree
  • really-clean: Remove built libraries and downloaded files, delete PostgreSQL checkout and working tree


Rather than making a new clone each time, you should really be using a local cache of PostgreSQL git.

The initial clone may be created with:

md c:\pg
cd c:\pg
"c:\Program Files (x86)\git\bin\git.exe" clone --bare --mirror git:// postgresql-git

The file Scheduled Task - Update Git Mirror.xml can be loaded into the Windows Task Scheduler to regularly pull all remotes added to the git mirror.

You can then set PG_GIT_URL in to the local mirror.

(Really, we should support using a --reference to the local mirror and still allow a remote URL, but that's not supported yet.)


SDK 7.1 / Visual Studio 2010 conflict with Visual Studio 2012

If you have Visual Studio 2012 installed on your computer, Windows SDK 7.1 may fail to compile programs with errors like:

LINK : fatal error LNK1123: failure during conversion to COFF: file invalid or corrupt

This is a known issue with Visual Studio 2010 that also appears to affect SDK 7.1, since the SDK uses the same compiler suite. The problem was fixed in Visual Studio 2010 SP1, but not in SDK 7.1. To work around the problem you must install Visual C++ Express Edition 2010 and then the Visual Studio 2010 Service Pack 1 update. For details, see the readme.htm file in the VS 2010 SP1 compiler update.

Install the tools in the following order:

SDK 7.1 install fails

One possible cause of a Microsoft Windows SDK 7.1 install failure is if newer versions of the Visual C++ 2010 redistributable runtime are installed. Many program installers will add these for you.

The only workaround I'm aware of is to uninstall any VC++ 2010 redistributibles, install the SDK, then reinstall the redistributibles. Note that uninstalling the redistributibles will cause some programs on your computer to fail to run until they're reinstalled.

You can get the redists from:

Permission denied errors when cleaning

Unlike POSIX systems, on Windows a file or folder that is open by a program cannot be deleted or renamed.

If you've run regression tests and they've crashed out without properly terminating the server they've started, you will find that you can't clean your working directory and you'll get "permission denied" errors for files/folders you obviously do have full ownership and control of.

Open up Process Explorer (preferered) or Task Manager. Now find and terminate the problem processes - look for psql.exe, pg_regress.exe and postgres.exe . If you have a real PostgreSQL instance you use for real work on this machine, be careful not to terminate it.

postgres.exe or git.exe hung at max cpu forever, won't End Task

There appears to be a problem with building and testing PostgreSQL inside deep directory trees (130+ characters, roundabout). See:

Build extremely slow on regression tests, flex, bison

Sometimes you may notice that a build takes an extremely long time to run certain steps, like "flex", "bison", "diff", etc, when running builds under a Windows service account such as a Jenkins CI worker.

If so, see doc/

Other SDKs

Test reports for SDKs and Visual Studio versions listed as "untested" below would be greatly appreciated, particularly if they come with patches fixing any issues encountered. Add a GitHub issue with the results, or better, send a pull request with a docs patch.

Visual Studio 6 is not and will never be supported.

Visual Studio 8 (2005)


Not supported by setupsdk.cmd

Visual Studio 9 (2008)


Environment setup with vcvarsall.bat:

"C:\Program Files (x86)\Microsoft Visual Studio 10.0\VC\vcvarsall.bat" /?

Not supported by setupsdk.cmd

Visual Studio 10 (2010)

Visual Studio 2010 and its express edition should work fine with no changes. Environment setup with vcvarsall.bat.

"C:\Program Files (x86)\Microsoft Visual Studio 10.0\VC\vcvarsall.bat" /?

vcvarsall.bat does not set CONFIGURATION so you must set this environment variable yourself, to "Release" or "Debug".

SDK=vs2010ex for setupsdk.cmd (express edition only)

Visual Studio 11 (2012)

Installing Visual Studio 2012 breaks Visual Studio 2010 (pre-SP1) and Windows SDK 7.1 . See TROUBLESHOOTING.

Environment setup with vcvarsall.bat or VsDevCmd.bat:

"C:\Program Files (x86)\Microsoft Visual Studio 11.0\VC\vcvarsall.bat" /?

Build not supported for PostgreSQL 9.2 and older; 9.3 or newer is required for Visual Studio 2012 build support.

SDK=vs2012ex for setupsdk.cmd (express edition only)

Visual Studio 12 (2013)

Visual Studio 2008 and its express edition should work fine with no changes. Environment setup with vcvarsall.bat.

"C:\Program Files (x86)\Microsoft Visual Studio 12.0\VC\vcvarsall.bat" /?

Only PostgreSQL 9.3 and newer support building with Visual Studio 2013.

SDK=vs2013ex for setupsdk.cmd (express edition only)

Microsoft Platform SDK for Windows XP SP2


Microsoft Windows SDK for Windows 7 and .NET Framework 4 (7.1)

Known working, recommended. Environment setup with setenv.cmd.

"C:\Program Files\Microsoft SDKs\Windows\v7.1\Bin\SetEnv.cmd" /?

Known compatibility issues with Visual Studio 2010, .NET 4.5, and Visual Studio 2012. See TROUBLESHOOTING.

SDK=winsdk71 for setupsdk.cmd

Microsoft Windows SDK for Windows 8 and .NET Framework 4.5 (v8.0a)

You cannot compile PostgreSQL with this SDK because this version of the SDK does not include standalone compilers and build tools.

You must use Visual Studio 2012 or the express edition instead.

Obsolete versions

The following obsolete SDK and Visual Studio releases are not supported and will never be supported by pg_build_win. Patches adding support will be rejected.

  • Visual Studio 97
  • Visual Studio 6
  • Visual Studio 7 (.NET 2002, 2003)
  • All Microsoft Platform SDK releases prior to Microsoft Platform SDK for Windows XP SP2

Unlisted SDKs

If you have test results for an SDK not listed above, please add a GitHub issue with the results.


Compiling PostgreSQL from source on Windows: Windows SDK unattended: ActivePerl unattended: ActiveTCL unattended: Python unattended:

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