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Drush is a command line shell and Unix scripting interface for Drupal.  If you
are unfamiliar with shell scripting, reviewing the documentation for your shell
(e.g. man bash) or reading an online tutorial (e.g. search for "bash tutorial")
will help you get the most out of Drush.

Drush core ships with lots of useful commands for interacting with code like
modules/themes/profiles. Similarly, it runs update.php, executes sql queries
and DB migrations, and misc utilities like run cron or clear cache.


* To use Drush from the command line, you'll need a CLI-mode capable PHP binary
  version 5.2 or greater.

* Drush commands that work with git require git 1.7 or greater.

* Drush is designed for a Unix-like OS (Linux, OS X)

* Most Drush commands run on Windows.  See INSTALLING DRUSH ON WINDOWS, below.

* Drush works with Drupal 6, Drupal 7, and usually Drupal 8.


The preferred way to install Drush is via our PEAR channel. See instructions at If you prefer a more manual install, see

1. Place the uncompressed drush.tar.gz,, or cloned git repository in
   a directory that is outside of your web root.

2. Make the 'drush' command executable:

     $ chmod u+x /path/to/drush/drush

3. Configure your system to recognize where Drush resides. There are 2 options:

  a) create a symbolic link to the Drush executable in a directory that is
     already in your PATH, e.g.:

       $ ln -s /path/to/drush/drush /usr/bin/drush

  b) explicitly add the Drush executable to the PATH variable which is defined
     in the the shell configuration file called .profile, .bash_profile,
     .bash_aliases, or .bashrc that is located in your home folder, i.e.:

       export PATH="$PATH:/path/to/drush:/usr/local/bin"

     Your system will search path options from left to right until it finds a

     To apply your changes to your current session, either log out and then log
     back in again, or re-load your bash configuration file, i.e.:

       $ source .bashrc

  NOTE: If you do not follow step 3, you will need to inconveniently run Drush
  commands using the full path to the executable "/path/to/drush/drush" or by
  navigating to /path/to/drush and running "./drush". The -r or -l options will
  be required (see USAGE, below).

4. Test that Drush is found by your system:

  $ which drush

5. Optional. Help the Drush development team by sending anonymized usage
   statistics.  To automatically send usage data, please add the following to a
   .drushrc.php file:

     $options['drush_usage_log'] = TRUE;
     $options['drush_usage_send'] = TRUE;

   Stats are usually logged locally and sent whenever log file exceeds 50Kb.
   Alternatively, one may disable automatic sending and instead use usage-view
   and usage-send commands to more carefully send data.

6. Optional. See examples/example.bashrc for instructions on how to add some
   useful shell aliases that provides even tighter integration between
   drush and bash. You may source this file directly into your shell by adding to
   your .bashrc (rr equivalent): source /path/to/drush/examples/example.bashrc

7. Optional. If you didn't source it in Step 6 above, see top of file for instructions adding bash completion for drush
   command to your shell.  Once configured, completion works for site aliases,
   command names, shell aliases, global options, and command-specific options.

8. Optional. If is being sourced (ideally in
   bash_completion.d), you can use the supplied __drush_ps1() sh function to
   add your current drush site (set with `drush use @sitename`) to your PS1
   prompt like so:

      if [ "\$(type -t __git_ps1)" ] && [ "\$(type -t __drush_ps1)" ]; then
        PS1='\u@\h \w$(__git_ps1 " (%s)")$(__drush_ps1 "[%s]")\$ '

   Putting this in a .bashrc/.bash_profile/.profile would produce this prompt:

     msonnabaum@hostname ~/repos/drush (master)[@sitename]$


Users of MAMP will need to manually specify in their PATH which version of php
and MySQL to use in the command line interface. This is independent of the php
version selected in the MAMP application settings.  Under OS X, edit (or create
if it does not already exist) a file called .bash_profile in your home folder.

To use php 5.2.x, add this line to .bash_profile:

  export PATH="/Applications/MAMP/Library/bin:/Applications/MAMP/bin/php5.2/bin:$PATH"

If you want to use php 5.3.x, add this line instead:

  export PATH="/Applications/MAMP/Library/bin:/Applications/MAMP/bin/php5.3/bin:$PATH"

If you have MAMP v.1.84 or lower, this configuration will work for both version
of PHP:

  export PATH="/Applications/MAMP/Library/bin:/Applications/MAMP/bin/php5/bin:$PATH"

If you have done this and are still getting a "no such file or directory" error
from PDO::__construct, try this:

  sudo mkdir /var/mysql
  sudo ln -s /Applications/MAMP/tmp/mysql/mysql.sock /var/mysql/mysql.sock

Additionally, you may need to adjust your php.ini settings before you can use
drush successfully. See CONFIGURING PHP.INI below for more details on how to


Users of other Apache distributions such as XAMPP, or Acquia's Dev Desktop will
want to ensure that its php can be found by the command line by adding it to
the PATH variable, using the method in 3.b above. Depending on the version and
distribution of your AMP stack, PHP might reside at:

  /Applications/acquia-drupal/php/bin   Acquia Dev Desktop (Mac)
  /Applications/xampp/xamppfiles/bin    XAMP (Mac)
  /opt/lampp/bin                        XAMPP (Windows)

Additionally, you may need to adjust your php.ini settings before you can use
drush successfully. See CONFIGURING PHP.INI below for more details on how to


Running a specific php-cli version for Drush
- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

  If you want to run Drush with a specific version of php, rather than the
  php-cli defined by your system, you can add an environment variable to your
  the shell configuration file called .profile, .bash_profile, .bash_aliases,
  or .bashrc that is located in your home folder:

    export DRUSH_PHP='/path/to/php'


Usually, php is configured to use separate php.ini files for the web server and
the command line. Make sure that Drush's php.ini is given as much memory to
work with as the web server is; otherwise, Drupal might run out of memory when
Drush bootstraps it.

To see which php.ini file Drush is using, run:

  $ drush status

To see which php.ini file the webserver is using, use the phpinfo() function in
a .php web page.  See

If Drush is using the same php.ini file as the web server, you can create a
php.ini file exclusively for Drush by copying your web server's php.ini file to
the folder $HOME/.drush or the folder /etc/drush.  Then you may edit this file
and change the settings described above without affecting the php enviornment
of your web server.

Alternately, if you only want to override a few values, copy example.drush.ini
from the "examples" folder into $HOME/.drush or the folder /etc/drush and edit
to suit.  See comments in example.drush.ini for more details.

Drush requires a fairly unrestricted php environment to run in.  In particular,
you should insure that safe_mode, open_basedir, disable_functions and
disable_classes are empty.


Windows support has improved, but is still lagging. Consider using on
Linux/Unix/OSX using Virtualbox or other virtual machine.

There is a Windows msi installer for drush available at:

Please see that page for more information on running Drush on Windows.

Whenever the documentation or the help text refers to 'drush [option]
<command>' or something similar, 'drush' may need to be replaced by

Additional Drush Windows installation documentation can be found at


Once you have completed the installation steps, Drush can be run in your shell
by typing "drush" from within any Drupal root directory.

  $ drush [options] <command> [argument1] [argument2]

Use the 'help' command to get a list of available options and commands:

  $ drush help

For even more documentation, use the 'topic' command:

  $ drush topic

For a full list of Drush commands and documentation by version, visit

Many commands support a --pipe option which returns machine readable output.
For example, return a list of enabled modules:

  $ drush pm-list --type=module --status=enabled --pipe

For multisite installations, use the -l option to target a particular site.  If
you are outside the Drupal web root, you might need to use the -r, -l or other
command line options just for Drush to work. If you do not specify a URI with
-l and Drush falls back to the default site configuration, Drupal's
$GLOBAL['base_url'] will be set to http://default.  This may cause some
functionality to not work as expected.

  $ drush -l pm-update

Related Options:
  -r <path>, --root=<path>      Drupal root directory to use
                                (defaults to current directory or anywhere in a
                                Drupal directory tree)
  -l <uri> , --uri=<uri>        URI of the Drupal site to use
  -v, --verbose                 Display verbose output.

Very intensive scripts can exhaust your available PHP memory. One remedy is to
just restart automatically using bash. For example:

  while true; do drush search-index; sleep 5; done


Inside /path/to/drush/examples you will find some example files to help you get
started with your Drush configuration file (example.drushrc.php), site alias
definitions (example.aliases.drushrc.php) and Drush commands
( You will also see an example 'policy' file which can be
customized to block certain commands or arguments as required by your
organization's needs.


If you get tired of typing options all the time you can contain them in a
drushrc.php file. Multiple Drush configuration files can provide the
flexibility of providing specific options in different site directories of a
multi-site installation. See example.drushrc.php for examples and installation


Drush lets you run commands on a remote server, or even on a set of remote
servers.  Once defined, aliases can be references with the @ nomenclature, i.e.

  # Syncronize staging files to production
  $ drush rsync @staging:%files/ @live:%files

  # Syncronize database from production to dev, excluding the cache table
  $ drush sql-sync --structure-tables-key=custom --no-cache @live @dev

See and example.aliases.drushrc.php for more


Drush can be extended to run your own commands. Writing a Drush command is no
harder than writing simple Drupal modules, since they both follow the same

See examples/ for light details on the internals of a Drush
command file.  Otherwise, the core commands in Drush are good models for your
own commands.

You can put your Drush command file in a number of places:

  a) In a folder specified with the --include option (see `drush topic

  b) Along with one of your enabled modules. If your command is related to an
     existing module, this is the preferred approach.

  c) In a .drush folder in your HOME folder. Note, that you have to create the
     .drush folder yourself.

  d) In the system-wide Drush commands folder, e.g. /usr/share/drush/commands.

  e) In Drupal's sites/all/drush folder. Note, that you have to create the
     drush folder yourself.

In any case, it is important that you end the filename with "", so
that Drush can find it.


  Q: What does "drush" stand for?
  A: The Drupal Shell.

  Q: How do I pronounce Drush?
  A: Some people pronounce the dru with a long u like Drupal. Fidelity points
     go to them, but they are in the minority. Most pronounce Drush so that it
     rhymes with hush, rush, flush, etc. This is the preferred pronunciation.


* Originally developed by Arto Bendiken <> for Drupal 4.7.
* Redesigned by Franz Heinzmann (frando) <> in May 2007 for Drupal 5.
* Maintained by Moshe Weitzman <> with much help from
  Owen Barton, greg.1.anderson, jonhattan, Mark Sonnabaum, and Jonathan Hedstrom.