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#!/usr/bin/env perl
#
# SlugImage : Manipulate NSLU2 firmware images
# Dwayne Fontenot (jacques)
# Rod Whitby (rwhitby)
# www.nslu2-linux.org
#
# Copyright (c) 2004, 2006, Dwayne Fontenot & Rod Whitby
# All rights reserved.
#
# Redistribution and use in source and binary forms, with or without
# modification, are permitted provided that the following conditions
# are met:
#
# Redistributions of source code must retain the above copyright
# notice, this list of conditions and the following disclaimer.
# Redistributions in binary form must reproduce the above copyright
# notice, this list of conditions and the following disclaimer in the
# documentation and/or other materials provided with the distribution.
# Neither the name of the NSLU2-Linux Development Team nor the names
# of its contributors may be used to endorse or promote products
# derived from this software without specific prior written
# permission.
#
# THIS SOFTWARE IS PROVIDED BY THE COPYRIGHT HOLDERS AND CONTRIBUTORS
# "AS IS" AND ANY EXPRESS OR IMPLIED WARRANTIES, INCLUDING, BUT NOT
# LIMITED TO, THE IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS
# FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE ARE DISCLAIMED. IN NO EVENT SHALL THE
# COPYRIGHT OWNER OR CONTRIBUTORS BE LIABLE FOR ANY DIRECT, INDIRECT,
# INCIDENTAL, SPECIAL, EXEMPLARY, OR CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES (INCLUDING,
# BUT NOT LIMITED TO, PROCUREMENT OF SUBSTITUTE GOODS OR SERVICES;
# LOSS OF USE, DATA, OR PROFITS; OR BUSINESS INTERRUPTION) HOWEVER
# CAUSED AND ON ANY THEORY OF LIABILITY, WHETHER IN CONTRACT, STRICT
# LIABILITY, OR TORT (INCLUDING NEGLIGENCE OR OTHERWISE) ARISING IN
# ANY WAY OUT OF THE USE OF THIS SOFTWARE, EVEN IF ADVISED OF THE
# POSSIBILITY OF SUCH DAMAGE.
#
use strict;
use warnings;
use Getopt::Long qw(:config no_ignore_case);
use POSIX qw(tmpnam);
my($debug) = 0;
my($quiet) = 0;
my($flash_start) = 0x50000000;
my($flash_len) = 0x00800000;
my($block_size) = 0x00020000;
my($kernel_offset) = 0x00060000;
my($kernel_size) = 0x00100000;
my($ramdisk_offset) = 0x00160000;
my(@cleanup);
# The last 70 bytes of the SercommRedBootTrailer (i.e. excluding MAC
# address). Needed to create an image with an empty RedBoot partition
# since the Sercomm upgrade tool checks for this trailer.
# http://www.nslu2-linux.org/wiki/Info/SercommRedBootTrailer
my @sercomm_redboot_trailer = (0x4573, 0x4372, 0x4d6f, 0x006d, 0x0001,
0x0400, 0x3170, 0x5895, 0x0010, 0x0000, 0x0000, 0x0000, 0x0000,
0x0000, 0x0000, 0x0000, 0x0000, 0x0000, 0x0000, 0x0000, 0x0000,
0x0000, 0x0000, 0x0001, 0x0000, 0x0000, 0x0000, 0x0003, 0x2300,
0x0063, 0x0000, 0x7320, 0x7245, 0x6f43, 0x6d4d);
# There's a 16 byte Sercomm trailer at the end of the flash. It is used
# by RedBoot to detect a Sercomm flash layout and to configure the
# Sercomm upgrade system.
# http://www.nslu2-linux.org/wiki/Info/SercommFlashTrailer
my @sercomm_flash_trailer = (0x0100, 0x0000, 0x6323, 0xf790, 0x5265,
0x4f63, 0x4d6d, 0xb400);
# Take $data, and pad it out to $total_len bytes, appending 0xff's.
sub padBytes {
my($data,$total_len) = @_;
# 0xFF is used to pad, as it's the erase value of the flash.
my($pad_char) = pack("C",0xff);
my($pad_len) = $total_len - length($data);
# A request for negative padding is indicative of a logic error ...
if (length($data) > $total_len) {
die sprintf("padBytes error: data (%d) is longer than total_len (%d)", length($data), $total_len);
}
return $data . ($pad_char x $pad_len);
}
# Return the next multiple of block_size larger than or equal to $data_len.
sub paddedSize {
my($data_len) = @_;
use integer;
return (($data_len - 1) / $block_size) * $block_size + $block_size;
}
# Return the number of block_size blocks required to hold $data_len.
sub numBlocks {
my($data_len) = @_;
use integer;
return (($data_len - 1) / $block_size) + 1;
}
# Pack the name, address, size and optional skip regions of a partition entry into binary form.
sub createPartitionEntry {
my($name, $flash_base, $size, $skips) = @_;
my $entry;
my($zero_long) = 0x0000;
# Pack the partition entry according to the format that RedBoot (and the MTD partition parsing code) requires.
$entry = pack("a16N5x212N2",$name,$flash_base,$zero_long,$size,$zero_long,$zero_long,$zero_long,$zero_long);
# Optionally put a skip header into the padding area.
if (defined $skips) {
my $i = scalar(@$skips);
foreach my $region (@$skips) {
substr($entry, -8 - 12*$i, 12) =
pack("a4N2", "skip", $region->{'offset'}, $region->{'size'});
$i--;
}
}
return $entry;
}
# Parse partition entry and return anon array ref [$name, $offset, $size, $skip] or return 0 on partition terminator.
sub parsePartitionEntry {
my($partition_entry) = @_;
my($entry_len) = 0x100;
length($partition_entry) eq $entry_len or die "parsePartitionEntry: partition entry length is not $entry_len!\n";
# Unpack the partition table entry, saving those values in which we are interested.
my($name, $flash_base, $size, $dummy_long, $padding, $skips);
($name, $flash_base, $dummy_long, $size, $dummy_long, $dummy_long, $padding, $dummy_long, $dummy_long) =
unpack("a16N5a212N2",$partition_entry);
# A partition entry starting with 0xFF terminates the table.
if (unpack("C", $name) eq 0xff) {
# %%% FIXME: This should only skip, not terminate. %%%
$debug and print "Found terminator for <FIS directory>\n";
return 0;
}
# Remove trailing nulls from the partition name.
$name =~ s/\000+//;
# Extract the skip regions out of the padding area.
$padding =~ s/^\000+//;
$padding =~ s/\000*skip(........)\000*/$1/g;
$padding =~ s/\000+$//;
# Store the skip regions in an array for later use.
while (length($padding)) {
my $region = {};
($region->{'offset'}, $region->{'size'}) =
unpack("N2", $padding);
$debug and printf("Found skip region at 0x%05X, size 0x%05X\n",
$region->{'offset'}, $region->{'size'});
push(@$skips, $region);
$padding = substr($padding,8);
}
return [$name, $flash_base - $flash_start, $size, $skips];
}
# Return partition table from data is one exists, otherwise return 0.
sub findPartitionTable {
my($data_buf) = @_;
unpack("a7", $data_buf) eq 'RedBoot' or return 0;
return substr($data_buf, 0, 0x1000)
}
# Parse partition table and return array of anonymous array references ([$name, $offset, $size, $skips], ...).
sub parsePartitionTable {
my($partition_table) = @_;
my(@partitions, $fields_ref);
my($entry_len) = 0x100;
my($partition_count) = 0;
# Loop through the fixed size partition table entries, and store the entries in @partitions.
# %%% FIXME: This doesn't handle the case of a completely full partition table. %%%
while ($fields_ref = parsePartitionEntry(substr($partition_table, $partition_count * $entry_len, $entry_len))) {
$debug and printf("Found <%s> at 0x%08X (%s)%s\n", $fields_ref->[0], $fields_ref->[1],
($fields_ref->[2] >= $block_size ?
sprintf("%d blocks", numBlocks($fields_ref->[2])) :
sprintf("0x%05X bytes", $fields_ref->[2])),
(defined $fields_ref->[3] ?
sprintf(" [%s]",
join(", ",
map { sprintf("0x%05X/0x%05X", $_->{'offset'},$_->{'size'}) }
@{$fields_ref->[3]})) :
""));
$partitions[$partition_count++] = $fields_ref;
}
return(@partitions);
}
# Create an empty jffs2 block.
sub jffs2Block {
return padBytes(pack("N3", 0x19852003, 0x0000000c, 0xf060dc98), $block_size);
}
# Write out $data to $filename,
sub writeOut {
my($data, $filename) = @_;
open FILE,">$filename" or die "Can't open file \"$filename\": $!\n";
if (defined($data)) { print FILE $data;}
close FILE or die "Can't close file \"$filename\": $!\n";
}
# Not used at the moment.
sub trailerData {
my($product_id) = 0x0001;
my($protocol_id) = 0x0000;
my($firmware_version) = 0x2325;
my($unknown1) = 0x90f7;
my($magic_number) = 'eRcOmM';
my($unknown2) = 0x00b9;
return pack("n4a6n",$product_id,$protocol_id,$firmware_version,$unknown1,$magic_number,$unknown2);
}
# Print the contents of the Sercomm RedBoot trailer.
sub printRedbootTrailer {
my($redboot_data) = @_;
my($correct_redboot_len) = 0x40000;
my($redboot_data_len) = length($redboot_data);
if ($redboot_data_len != $correct_redboot_len) {
printf("Redboot length (0x%08X) is not 0x%08X\n", $redboot_data_len, $correct_redboot_len);
return;
}
# The trailer is the last 80 bytes of the redboot partition.
my($redboot_trailer) = substr($redboot_data, -80);
writeOut($redboot_trailer, 'RedbootTrailer');
my($mac_addr0, $mac_addr1, $mac_addr2, $unknown, $prefix, $ver_ctrl, $down_ctrl, $hid, $hver, $prodid, $prodidmask,
$protid, $protidmask, $funcid, $funcidmask, $fver, $cseg, $csize, $postfix) =
unpack("n3Na7n2a32n10a7",$redboot_trailer);
printf("MAC address is %04X%04X%04X\n", $mac_addr0, $mac_addr1, $mac_addr2);
printf("unknown: %08X\n", $unknown);
printf("%s:%04X:%04X:%s\n", $prefix, $ver_ctrl, $down_ctrl, $postfix);
printf("VerControl: %04X\nDownControl: %04X\n", $ver_ctrl, $down_ctrl);
printf("hid: %04X %04X %04X %04X %04X %04X %04X %04X %04X %04X %04X %04X %04X %04X %04X %04X\n", unpack("n16", $hid));
printf("Hver: %04X\nProdID: %04X\nProtID: %04X\nFuncID: %04X\nFver: %04X\nCseg: %04X\nCsize: %04X\n",
$hver, $prodid, $protid, $funcid, $fver, $cseg, $csize);
}
# remove the optional Loader partition
sub removeOptionalLoader {
my($partitions_ref) = @_;
my $index;
my $count = 0;
map {
if (not defined $index) {
if ($_->{'name'} eq "Loader") {
$index = $count;
}
$count++;
}
} @$partitions_ref;
defined $index or die "Cannot find the Loader partition\n";
splice(@$partitions_ref, $index, 1);
# Set fixed offsets and sizes for Kernel and Ramdisk
map {
if ($_->{'name'} eq 'Kernel') {
$_->{'offset'} = $kernel_offset;
$_->{'size'} = $kernel_size;
$_->{'variable'} = 0;
}
if ($_->{'name'} eq 'Ramdisk') {
$_->{'offset'} = $ramdisk_offset;
}
} @$partitions_ref;
return;
}
# populate @partitions based on the firmware's partition table
sub spliceFirmwarePartitions {
my($firmware_buf, $partitions_ref) = @_;
# we know that partition table, if it exists, begins at start of 'FIS directory' and has max length 0x1000
my($partition_table);
map {
$_->{'name'} eq 'FIS directory' and
$partition_table = findPartitionTable(substr($firmware_buf, $_->{'offset'}, $_->{'size'}));
} @$partitions_ref;
# return 0 here if no partition table in FIS directory
return if not $partition_table;
my @new_partitions = parsePartitionTable($partition_table);
# Remove the optional second stage bootloader if it is not found in the FIS directory.
if (not grep { $_->[0] eq 'Loader' } @new_partitions) {
removeOptionalLoader($partitions_ref);
}
my($partition_count) = 0;
my($splice) = 0;
map {
# Skip pseudo partitions.
while (($partition_count < scalar(@$partitions_ref)) and
$partitions_ref->[$partition_count]->{'pseudo'}) {
$debug and printf("Skipped <%s> (pseudo partition)\n", $partitions_ref->[$partition_count]->{'name'});
$partition_count++;
}
# If we are in a variable area, and we haven't reached the end of it,
# then splice in another partition for use by the later code.
if ($splice and ($partitions_ref->[$partition_count]->{'name'} ne $_->[0])) {
$debug and printf("Splicing new partition <%s> before <%s>\n",
$_->[0], $partitions_ref->[$partition_count]->{'name'});
splice(@{$partitions_ref}, $partition_count, 0, ({'name' => "",'variable'=>1,'header'=>0}));
}
my $partition = $partitions_ref->[$partition_count];
# Variable partitions can be overridden by the real FIS directory
if ($partition->{'variable'}) {
# Only override the filename if the partition name is not set or doesn't match
if ($partition->{'name'} ne $_->[0]) {
if (length($partition->{'name'})) {
$debug and printf("Overwriting <%s> with <%s>\n",
$partitions_ref->[$partition_count]->{'name'}, $_->[0]);
}
$partition->{'name'} = $_->[0];
$partition->{'file'} = $_->[0];
}
# Set the offset, size and skips based on the real partition table
$partition->{'offset'} = $_->[1];
$partition->{'size'} = $_->[2];
$partition->{'skips'} = $_->[3];
$debug and printf("Locating <%s> at 0x%08X (%s)\n",
$partition->{'name'}, $partition->{'offset'},
($partition->{'size'} >= $block_size ?
sprintf("%d blocks", numBlocks($partition->{'size'})) :
sprintf("0x%05X bytes", $partition->{'size'})));
$splice = 1;
}
# Fixed partitions cannot be overridden
else {
($partition->{'name'} eq $_->[0]) or
die "Unexpected partition <",$_->[0],"> (expecting <",$partition->{'name'},">)\n";
$debug and printf("Locating <%s> at 0x%08X (%s)\n",
$partition->{'name'}, $partition->{'offset'},
($partition->{'size'} >= $block_size ?
sprintf("%d blocks", numBlocks($partition->{'size'})) :
sprintf("0x%05X bytes", $partition->{'size'})));
$splice = 0;
}
$partition_count++;
} @new_partitions;
return;
}
# Read in an 8MB firmware file, and store the data into @partitions.
# Note that the data is only stored in a partition if 'offset' and 'size' are defined,
# and it does not already have data stored in it.
sub readInFirmware {
my($filename, $partitions_ref) = @_;
my($firmware_buf);
open FILE,$filename or die "Can't find firmware image \"$filename\": $!\n";
read FILE,$firmware_buf,$flash_len or die "Can't read $flash_len bytes from \"$filename\": $!\n";
close FILE or die "Can't close \"$filename\": $!\n";
$debug and printf("Read 0x%08X bytes from \"%s\"\n", length($firmware_buf), $filename);
spliceFirmwarePartitions($firmware_buf, $partitions_ref);
# Read the parts of the firmware file into the partitions table.
map {
if (defined $_->{'offset'} and defined $_->{'size'}) {
if (defined $_->{'data'}) {
$debug and printf("Not overwriting data in <%s>\n", $_->{'name'});
}
else {
# Slurp up the data, based on whether a header and/or data is present or not
if ($_->{'header'}) {
# Read the length, and grab the data based on the length.
my($data_len) = unpack("N", substr($firmware_buf, $_->{'offset'}));
# A length of 0xFFFFFFFF means that the area is not initialised
if ($data_len != 0xFFFFFFFF) {
$debug and printf("Found header size of 0x%08X bytes for <%s>\n", $data_len, $_->{'name'});
$_->{'data'} = substr($firmware_buf, $_->{'offset'} + $_->{'header'}, $data_len);
}
}
elsif ($_->{'pseudo'} and not defined $_->{'file'} and
(substr($firmware_buf, $_->{'offset'}, $_->{'size'}) eq
(pack("C", 0xff) x $_->{'size'}))) {
$debug and printf("Skipping empty pseudo partition <%s>\n", $_->{'name'});
}
else {
# Grab the whole partition, using the maximum size.
$_->{'data'} = substr($firmware_buf, $_->{'offset'}, $_->{'size'});
}
# If skip regions are defined, remove them from the data.
if (defined $_->{'skips'}) {
my $removed = 0;
foreach my $region (@{$_->{'skips'}}) {
if (($region->{'offset'} > 0) or
not ($_->{'header'} > 0)) {
$debug and printf("Removing 0x%05X bytes from offset 0x%05X\n",
$region->{'size'}, $region->{'offset'});
$region->{'data'} = substr($_->{'data'}, $region->{'offset'} - $removed, $region->{'size'}, '');
}
$removed += $region->{'size'};
}
}
$quiet or defined $_->{'data'} and printf("Read %s into <%s>\n",
(length($_->{'data'}) >= $block_size ?
sprintf("%d blocks", numBlocks(length($_->{'data'}))) :
sprintf("0x%05X bytes", length($_->{'data'}))), $_->{'name'});
}
}
} @$partitions_ref;
}
# Write the partition data stored in memory out into the files associated with each.
sub writeOutFirmwareParts {
my(@partitions) = @_;
# Write out the parts of the firmware file.
map {
# We can only write if 'data' and 'file' are defined.
if (defined $_->{'file'} and defined $_->{'data'} and length($_->{'data'})) {
writeOut($_->{'data'}, $_->{'file'});
$quiet or printf("Wrote 0x%08X bytes from <%s> into \"%s\"\n",
length($_->{'data'}), $_->{'name'}, $_->{'file'});
}
else {
$debug and printf("Skipping <%s> (%s)\n", $_->{'name'},
(not defined $_->{'file'}) ?
"no filename specified" :
"no data to write");
}
} @partitions;
return;
}
# Read in the partition data from the files associated with each and store in memory.
sub readInFirmwareParts {
my(@partitions) = (@_);
undef $/; # we want to slurp
map {
my $file = $_->{'file'};
if (defined $file) {
open FILE,$file or die "Can't find firmware part \"$file\": $!\n";
# Slurp in the data
$_->{'data'} = <FILE>;
# close the file
close FILE or die "Can't close file \"$file\": $!\n";
# Optionally byteswap the data
if ($_->{'byteswap'}) {
# Byte swap the data (which has to be padded to a multiple of 4 bytes).
$_->{'data'} = pack("N*", unpack("V*", $_->{'data'}.pack("CCC", 0)));
}
# Keep track of the actual size.
my $size;
if ($_->{'header'}) {
if ($_->{'pseudo'}) {
$size = $_->{'header'} + length($_->{'data'});
}
else {
$size = paddedSize($_->{'header'} + length($_->{'data'}));
}
}
elsif (not $_->{'pseudo'}) {
$size = paddedSize(length($_->{'data'}));
}
else {
$size = length($_->{'data'});
}
# Check to make sure the file contents are not too large.
if (defined $_->{'size'} and ($size > $_->{'size'})) {
die sprintf("Ran out of flash space in <%s> - %s too large.\n", $_->{'name'},
sprintf("0x%05X bytes", ($size - $_->{'size'})));
}
# If the partition does not have a fixed size, the calculate the size.
if (not defined $_->{'size'}) {
$_->{'size'} = $size;
}
# Keep the user appraised ...
$quiet or printf("Read 0x%08X bytes from \"%s\" into <%s> (%s / %s)%s\n",
length($_->{'data'}), $_->{'file'}, $_->{'name'},
($size >= $block_size ?
sprintf("%d blocks", numBlocks($size)) :
sprintf("0x%05X bytes", $size)),
($_->{'size'} >= $block_size ?
sprintf("%d blocks", numBlocks($_->{'size'})) :
sprintf("0x%05X bytes", $_->{'size'})),
($_->{'byteswap'} ? " (byte-swapped)" : ""));
}
} @partitions;
return;
}
# layoutPartitions : this function must be ugly - it needs to verify RedBoot, SysConf, Kernel, Ramdisk, and
# FIS directory partitions exist, are in the correct order, and do not have more data than can fit in
# their lengths (fixed for all but Ramdisk, which has a minimum length of one block).
# If Rootdisk and/or Userdisk exist, it must also verify that their block padded lengths are not
# too great for the available space.
# input : an array of hashes, some of which are populated with data
# output: same reference with start and size (partition not data) also populated. this populated structure
# can then be passed to buildPartitionTable() to generate the actual partition table data
sub layoutPartitions {
my(@partitions) = @_;
# Find the kernel partition, and save a pointer to it for later use
my $kernel;
map { ($_->{'name'} eq "Kernel") && ($kernel = $_); } @partitions;
$kernel or die "Couldn't find the kernel partition\n";
# Find the last variable size partition, and save a pointer to it for later use
my $lastdisk;
my $directory_offset;
my $curdisk = $partitions[0];
map {
if (not defined $lastdisk) {
if ($_->{'name'} eq "FIS directory") {
$lastdisk = $curdisk;
$directory_offset = $_->{'offset'};
}
else {
$curdisk = $_;
}
}
} @partitions;
$lastdisk or die "Couldn't find the last variable size partition\n";
$debug and printf("Last variable size partition is <%s>\n", $lastdisk->{'name'});
#
# here we go through the $partitions array ref and fill in all the values
#
# This points to where the next partition should be placed.
my $pointer = $flash_start;
map {
$debug and printf("Pointer is 0x%08X\n", $pointer);
# Determine the start and offset of the current partition.
if (defined $_->{'offset'}) {
$_->{'start'} = $flash_start + $_->{'offset'};
# Check for running past the defined start of the partition.
if (($pointer > $_->{'start'}) and not $_->{'pseudo'}) {
die sprintf("Ran out of flash space before <%s> - %s too large.\n", $_->{'name'},
sprintf("0x%05X bytes", ($pointer - $_->{'start'})));
}
}
# If offset is not defined, then calculate it.
else {
$_->{'start'} = $pointer;
$_->{'offset'} = $_->{'start'} - $flash_start;
}
my $size = defined $_->{'data'} ? length($_->{'data'}) : 0;
# Add skip regions for the partitions with headers.
if ($_->{'header'} > 0) {
# Define the skip region for the initial Sercomm header.
push(@{$_->{'skips'}},
{ 'offset' => 0, 'size' => $_->{'header'}, 'data' => undef });
# Allow for the Sercomm header to be prepended to the data.
$size += $_->{'header'};
# Determine if the partition overlaps the ramdisk boundary.
if (($_->{'offset'} < $ramdisk_offset) and
(($_->{'offset'} + $size) > $ramdisk_offset)) {
# Define the skip region for the inline Sercomm header.
push(@{$_->{'skips'}},
{ 'offset' => ($ramdisk_offset - $_->{'offset'}), 'size' => 16,
'data' => pack("N4", $block_size) });
# Allow for the Sercomm header to be inserted in the data.
$size += 16;
}
}
# Partitions without headers cannot have skip regions.
elsif (($_->{'offset'} <= $ramdisk_offset) and
(($_->{'offset'} + $size) > $ramdisk_offset)) {
# Pad the kernel until it extends past the ramdisk offset.
push(@{$kernel->{'skips'}},
{ 'offset' => ($ramdisk_offset - $kernel->{'offset'}), 'size' => 16,
'data' => pack("N4", $block_size) });
$kernel->{'size'} = $ramdisk_offset - $kernel->{'offset'} + $block_size;
$kernel->{'data'} = padBytes($kernel->{'data'},
$kernel->{'size'} - $kernel->{'header'} - 16);
$_->{'offset'} = $ramdisk_offset + $block_size;
$_->{'start'} = $flash_start + $_->{'offset'};
$pointer = $_->{'start'};
$debug and printf("Extending kernel partition past ramdisk offset.\n");
}
# If this is the last variable size partition, then fill the rest of the space.
if ($_->{'name'} eq $lastdisk->{'name'}) {
$_->{'size'} = paddedSize($directory_offset + $flash_start - $pointer);
$debug and printf("Padding last variable partition <%s> to 0x%08X bytes\n", $_->{'name'}, $_->{'size'});
}
die sprintf("Partition size not defined in <%s>.\n", $_->{'name'})
unless defined $_->{'size'};
# Extend to another block if required.
if ($size > $_->{'size'}) {
if ($_->{'name'} eq $lastdisk->{'name'}) {
die sprintf("Ran out of flash space in <%s> - %s too large.\n", $_->{'name'},
sprintf("0x%05X bytes", ($size - $_->{'size'})));
}
$_->{'size'} = $size;
printf("Extending partition <%s> to 0x%08X bytes\n", $_->{'name'}, $_->{'size'});
}
# Keep the user appraised ...
$debug and printf("Allocated <%s> from 0x%08X to 0x%08X (%s / %s)\n",
$_->{'name'}, $_->{'start'}, $_->{'start'} + $_->{'size'},
($size >= $block_size ?
sprintf("%d blocks", numBlocks($size)) :
sprintf("0x%05X bytes", $size)),
($_->{'size'} >= $block_size ?
sprintf("%d blocks", numBlocks($_->{'size'})) :
sprintf("0x%05X bytes", $_->{'size'})));
# Check to make sure we have not run out of room.
if (($_->{'start'} + $_->{'size'}) > ($flash_start + $flash_len)) {
die "Ran out of flash space in <", $_->{'name'}, ">\n";
}
$debug and printf("Moving pointer from 0x%08X to 0x%08X (0x%08X + 0x%08X)\n",
$pointer, paddedSize($_->{'start'} + $_->{'size'}),
$_->{'start'}, $_->{'size'});
# Move the pointer up, in preparation for the next partition.
$pointer = paddedSize($_->{'start'} + $_->{'size'});
} @partitions;
return;
}
sub buildPartitionTable {
my(@partitions) = @_;
my($flash_start) = 0x50000000;
my($partition_data) = '';
map {
# Collate the partition data for all known partitions.
if (not $_->{'pseudo'} and defined $_->{'offset'} and defined $_->{'size'}) {
# Pack and append the binary table entry for this partition.
$partition_data .= createPartitionEntry($_->{'name'}, $_->{'offset'} + $flash_start,
$_->{'size'}, $_->{'skips'});
# If this is the FIS directory, then write the partition table data into it.
if ($_->{'name'} eq "FIS directory") {
# Explicitly terminate the partition data.
$partition_data .= pack("C",0xff) x 0x100;
$_->{'data'} = padBytes($partition_data, $_->{'size'});
}
my $size = length($_->{'data'});
# Keep the user appraised ...
$debug and printf("Table entry <%s> from 0x%08X to 0x%08X (%s / %s)%s\n",
$_->{'name'}, $_->{'start'}, $_->{'start'} + $_->{'size'},
($size >= $block_size ?
sprintf("%d blocks", numBlocks($size)) :
sprintf("0x%05X bytes", $size)),
($_->{'size'} >= $block_size ?
sprintf("%d blocks", numBlocks($_->{'size'})) :
sprintf("0x%05X bytes", $_->{'size'})),
(defined $_->{'skips'} ?
sprintf("\nTable entry <%s> skip %s", $_->{'name'},
join(", ",
map { sprintf("0x%08X to 0x%08X", $_->{'offset'},
$_->{'offset'} + $_->{'size'} - 1) }
@{$_->{'skips'}})) :
"")
);
}
else {
$debug and print "No table entry required for <", $_->{'name'}, ">\n";
}
} @partitions;
return;
}
sub writeOutFirmware {
my($filename, @partitions) = @_;
# Clear the image to start.
my $image_buf = "";
map {
# We can only write a partition if it has an offset, a size, and some data to write.
if (defined $_->{'offset'} and defined $_->{'size'} and defined $_->{'data'}) {
# Keep track of the end of the image.
my $end_point = length($image_buf);
# If the next partition is well past the end of the current image, then pad it.
if ($_->{'offset'} > $end_point) {
$image_buf .= padBytes("", $_->{'offset'} - $end_point);
$quiet or printf("Padded %s before <%s> in \"%s\"\n",
((length($image_buf) - $end_point) >= $block_size ?
sprintf("%d blocks", numBlocks(length($image_buf) - $end_point)) :
sprintf("0x%05X bytes", length($image_buf) - $end_point)),
$_->{'name'}, $filename);
}
# If the next parition is before the end of the current image, then rewind.
elsif ($_->{'offset'} < $end_point) {
$debug and printf("Rewound %s before <%s> in \"%s\"\n",
(($end_point - $_->{'offset'}) >= $block_size ?
sprintf("%d blocks", numBlocks($end_point - $_->{'offset'})) :
sprintf("0x%05X bytes", $end_point - $_->{'offset'})),
$_->{'name'}, $filename);
# if (($end_point - $_->{'offset'}) >= $block_size) {
# die "Allocation error: rewound a full block or more ...\n";
# }
}
# If skip regions are defined, add them to the data.
if (defined $_->{'skips'}) {
my $added = 0;
foreach my $region (@{$_->{'skips'}}) {
if (($region->{'offset'} > 0) or
not ($_->{'header'} > 0)) {
$debug and printf("Inserted 0x%05X bytes (at offset 0x%05X) into <%s>\n",
$region->{'size'}, $region->{'offset'}, $_->{'name'});
substr($_->{'data'},
$region->{'offset'} + $added - $_->{'header'},
0, $region->{'data'});
$added += $region->{'size'};
}
}
}
# Splice the data into the image at the appropriate place, padding as required.
substr($image_buf, $_->{'offset'}, $_->{'size'},
$_->{'header'} ?
padBytes(pack("N4",length($_->{'data'})).$_->{'data'}, $_->{'size'}) :
padBytes($_->{'data'}, $_->{'size'}));
# Keep the user appraised ...
$quiet or printf("Wrote %s (0x%08X to 0x%08X) from <%s> into \"%s\"\n",
($_->{'size'} >= $block_size ?
sprintf("%2d blocks", numBlocks($_->{'size'})) :
sprintf("0x%05X bytes", $_->{'size'})),
$_->{'offset'}, $_->{'offset'}+$_->{'size'}, $_->{'name'}, $filename);
}
# If we are not able to write a partition, then give debug information about why.
else {
$debug and printf("Skipping <%s> (%s)\n", $_->{'name'},
(not defined $_->{'offset'}) ? "no offset defined" :
((not defined $_->{'size'}) ? "no size defined" :
"no data available"));
}
} @partitions;
# Write the image to the specified file.
writeOut($image_buf, $filename);
return;
}
# checkPartitionTable: sanity check partition table - for testing but might evolve into setting @partitions
# so that we can write out jffs2 partitions from a read image
# currently not nearly paranoid enough
sub checkPartitionTable {
my($data) = @_;
my($pointer) = 0;
my($entry);
my($name, $flash_base, $size, $done, $dummy_long, $padding);
do {
$entry = substr($data, $pointer, 0x100);
($name,$flash_base,$dummy_long,$size,$dummy_long,$dummy_long,$padding,$dummy_long,$dummy_long) = unpack("a16N5x212N2",$entry);
$name =~ s/\0//g;
$debug and printf("pointer: %d\tname: %s%sflash_base: 0x%08X\tsize: 0x%08X\n",
$pointer, $name, (" " x (16 - length($name))), $flash_base, $size);
$pointer += 0x100;
$debug and printf("terminator: 0x%08X\n", unpack("C", substr($data, $pointer, 1)));
if (unpack("C", substr($data, $pointer, 1)) eq 0xff) {
$done = 1;
}
} until $done;
}
sub printPartitions {
my(@partitions) = @_;
my($offset, $size, $skips);
map {
# defined $_->{'size'} ? $size = $_->{'size'} : $size = undef;
if (defined $_->{'size'}) {
$size = $_->{'size'};
}
else {
$size = undef;
}
if (defined $_->{'offset'}) {
$offset = $_->{'offset'};
}
else {
$offset = undef;
}
if (defined $_->{'skips'}) {
$skips = $_->{'skips'};
}
else {
$skips = undef;
}
printf("%s%s", $_->{'name'}, (" " x (16 - length($_->{'name'}))));
if (defined $offset) { printf("0x%08X\t", $offset); } else { printf("(undefined)\t"); };
if (defined $size) { printf("0x%08X", $size); } else { printf("(undefined)"); };
if (defined $skips) {
printf("\t[%s]",
join(", ",
map { sprintf("0x%05X/0x%05X", $_->{'offset'}, $_->{'size'}); }
@$skips));
}
printf("\n");
} @partitions;
}
sub defaultPartitions {
return ({'name'=>'RedBoot', 'file'=>'RedBoot',
'offset'=>0x00000000, 'size'=>0x00040000,
'variable'=>0, 'header'=>0, 'pseudo'=>0, 'data'=>undef, 'byteswap'=>0},
{'name'=>'EthAddr', 'file'=>undef,
'offset'=>0x0003ffb0, 'size'=>0x00000006,
'variable'=>0, 'header'=>0, 'pseudo'=>1, 'data'=>undef, 'byteswap'=>0},
{'name'=>'SysConf', 'file'=>'SysConf',
'offset'=>0x00040000, 'size'=>0x00020000,
'variable'=>0, 'header'=>0, 'pseudo'=>0, 'data'=>undef, 'byteswap'=>0},
{'name'=>'Loader', 'file'=>'apex.bin',
'offset'=>undef, 'size'=>undef,
'variable'=>1, 'header'=>16, 'pseudo'=>0, 'data'=>undef, 'byteswap'=>0},
{'name'=>'Kernel', 'file'=>'vmlinuz',
'offset'=>undef, 'size'=>undef,
'variable'=>1, 'header'=>16, 'pseudo'=>0, 'data'=>undef, 'byteswap'=>0},
{'name'=>'Ramdisk', 'file'=>'ramdisk.gz',
'offset'=>undef, 'size'=>undef,
'variable'=>1, 'header'=>16, 'pseudo'=>0, 'data'=>undef, 'byteswap'=>0},
{'name'=>'FIS directory', 'file'=>undef,
'offset'=>0x007e0000, 'size'=>0x00020000,
'variable'=>0, 'header'=>0, 'pseudo'=>0, 'data'=>undef, 'byteswap'=>0},
{'name'=>'Loader config', 'file'=>undef,
'offset'=>0x007f8000, 'size'=>0x00004000,
'variable'=>0, 'header'=>0, 'pseudo'=>1, 'data'=>undef, 'byteswap'=>0},
{'name'=>'Microcode', 'file'=>'NPE-B',
'offset'=>0x007fc000, 'size'=>0x00003fe0,
'variable'=>0, 'header'=>16, 'pseudo'=>1, 'data'=>undef, 'byteswap'=>0},
{'name'=>'Trailer', 'file'=>'Trailer',
'offset'=>0x007ffff0, 'size'=>0x00000010,
'variable'=>0, 'header'=>0, 'pseudo'=>1, 'data'=>undef, 'byteswap'=>0});
}
# Main routine starts here ...
my($unpack, $pack, $little, $fatflash, $input, $output, $redboot);
my($kernel, $sysconf, $ramdisk, $fisdir);
my($microcode, $trailer, $ethaddr, $loader);
END {
# Remove temporary files
for my $file (@cleanup) {
unlink $file;
}
}
if (!GetOptions("d|debug" => \$debug,
"q|quiet" => \$quiet,
"u|unpack" => \$unpack,
"p|pack" => \$pack,
"l|little" => \$little,
"F|fatflash" => \$fatflash,
"i|input=s" => \$input,
"o|output=s" => \$output,
"b|redboot=s" => \$redboot,
"k|kernel=s" => \$kernel,
"s|sysconf=s" => \$sysconf,
"r|ramdisk=s" => \$ramdisk,
"f|fisdir=s" => \$fisdir,
"m|microcode=s" => \$microcode,
"t|trailer=s" => \$trailer,
"e|ethaddr=s" => \$ethaddr,
"L|loader=s" => \$loader,
) or (not defined $pack and not defined $unpack)) {
print "Usage: slugimage <options>\n";
print "\n";
print " [-d|--debug] Turn on debugging output\n";
print " [-q|--quiet] Turn off status messages\n";
print " [-u|--unpack] Unpack a firmware image\n";
print " [-p|--pack] Pack a firmware image\n";
print " [-l|--little] Convert Kernel and Ramdisk to little-endian\n";
print " [-F|--fatflash] Generate an image for 16MB flash\n";
print " [-i|--input] <file> Input firmware image filename\n";
print " [-o|--output] <file> Output firmware image filename\n";
print " [-b|--redboot] <file> Input/Output RedBoot filename\n";
print " [-s|--sysconf] <file> Input/Output SysConf filename\n";
print " [-L|--loader] <file> Second stage boot loader filename\n";
print " [-k|--kernel] <file> Input/Ouptut Kernel filename\n";
print " [-r|--ramdisk] <file> Input/Output Ramdisk filename(s)\n";
print " [-f|--fisdir] <file> Input/Output FIS directory filename\n";
print " [-m|--microcode] <file> Input/Output Microcode filename\n";
print " [-t|--trailer] <file> Input/Output Trailer filename\n";
print " [-e|--ethaddr] <AABBCCDDEEFF> Set the Ethernet address\n";
# %%% TODO %%% Document --ramdisk syntax
exit 1;
}
my(@partitions) = defaultPartitions();
if ($pack) {
die "Output filename must be specified\n" unless defined $output;
# If we're creating an image and no RedBoot, SysConf partition is
# explicitly specified, simply write an empty one as the upgrade tools
# don't touch RedBoot and SysConf anyway. If no Trailer is specified,
# put in one.
if (not defined $redboot and not -e "RedBoot") {
$redboot = tmpnam();
open TMP, ">$redboot" or die "Cannot open file $redboot: $!";
push @cleanup, $redboot;
# The RedBoot partition is 256 * 1024 = 262144; the trailer we add
# is 70 bytes.
print TMP "\0"x(262144-70);
# Upgrade tools check for an appropriate Sercomm trailer.
for my $i (@sercomm_redboot_trailer) {
print TMP pack "S", $i;
}
close TMP;
}
if (not defined $sysconf and not -e "SysConf") {
$sysconf = tmpnam();
open TMP, ">$sysconf" or die "Cannot open file $sysconf: $!";
push @cleanup, $sysconf;
# The SysConf partition is 128 * 1024 = 131072
print TMP "\0"x131072;
close TMP;
}
if (not defined $trailer and not -e "Trailer") {
$trailer = tmpnam();
open TMP, ">$trailer" or die "Cannot open file $trailer: $!";
push @cleanup, $trailer;
for my $i (@sercomm_flash_trailer) {
print TMP pack "S", $i;
}
close TMP;
}
# If the microcode was not specified, then don't complain that it's missing.
if (not defined $microcode and not -e "NPE-B") {
map { ($_->{'name'} eq 'Microcode') && ($_->{'file'} = undef); } @partitions;
}
}
# Go through the partition options, and set the names and files in @partitions
if (defined $redboot) { map { ($_->{'name'} eq 'RedBoot') && ($_->{'file'} = $redboot); } @partitions; }
if (defined $sysconf) { map { ($_->{'name'} eq 'SysConf') && ($_->{'file'} = $sysconf); } @partitions; }
if (defined $loader) { map { ($_->{'name'} eq 'Loader') && ($_->{'file'} = $loader); } @partitions; }
if (defined $kernel) { map { ($_->{'name'} eq 'Kernel') && ($_->{'file'} = $kernel); } @partitions; }
if (defined $fisdir) { map { ($_->{'name'} eq 'FIS directory') && ($_->{'file'} = $fisdir); } @partitions; }
if (defined $microcode) { map { ($_->{'name'} eq 'Microcode') && ($_->{'file'} = $microcode); } @partitions; }
if (defined $trailer) { map { ($_->{'name'} eq 'Trailer') && ($_->{'file'} = $trailer); } @partitions; }
if (defined $little) {
map {
if (($_->{'name'} eq 'Loader') or
($_->{'name'} eq 'Kernel') or
($_->{'name'} eq 'Ramdisk')) {
$_->{'byteswap'} = 1;
}
} @partitions;
}
if (defined $fatflash) {
$flash_len = 0x01000000;
map {
if (($_->{'name'} eq 'FIS directory') or
($_->{'name'} eq 'Loader config') or
($_->{'name'} eq 'Microcode') or
($_->{'name'} eq 'Trailer')) {
$_->{'offset'} += 0x00800000;
}
} @partitions;
}
if (defined $ethaddr) {
map {
if ($_->{'name'} eq 'EthAddr') {
$ethaddr =~ s/://g;
if (($ethaddr !~ m/^[0-9A-Fa-f]+$/) or (length($ethaddr) != 12)) {
die "Invalid ethernet address specification: '".$ethaddr."'\n";
}
$_->{'data'} = pack("H12", $ethaddr);
}
} @partitions;
}
if (defined $ramdisk) {
# A single filename is used for the ramdisk filename
if ($ramdisk !~ m/[:,]/) {
map { ($_->{'name'} eq 'Ramdisk') && ($_->{'file'} = $ramdisk); } @partitions;
}
# otherwise, it's a list of name:file mappings
else {
my @mappings = split(',', $ramdisk);
# Find the index of the Ramdisk entry
my $index;
my $count = 0;
map {
if (not defined $index) {
if ($_->{'name'} eq "Ramdisk") {
$index = $count;
}
$count++;
}
} @partitions;
defined $index or die "Cannot find the Ramdisk partition\n";
# Replace the Ramdisk entry with the new mappings
splice(@partitions, $index, 1, map {
# Preserve the information from the ramdisk entry
my %entry = %{$partitions[$index]};
# Parse the mapping
($_ =~ m/^([^:]+):([^:]+)(:([^:]+))?$/) or die "Invalid syntax in --ramdisk\n";
$entry{'name'} = $1; $entry{'file'} = $2; my $size = $4;
# If the mapping is not for the ramdisk, then undefine its attributes
if ($entry{'name'} ne 'Ramdisk') {
$entry{'offset'} = undef;
$entry{'size'} = undef;
$entry{'variable'} = 1;
$entry{'header'} = 0;
$entry{'pseudo'} = 0;
$entry{'data'} = undef;
$entry{'byteswap'} = 0;
}
# Support specification of the number of blocks for empty jffs2
if ($entry{'file'} =~ m/^[0-9]+$/) {
$size = $entry{'file'};
$entry{'file'} = undef;
}
# If the user has specified a size, then respect their wishes
if (defined $size) {
$entry{'size'} = $size * $block_size;
# Create an empty partition of the requested size.
$entry{'data'} = padBytes("", $entry{'size'} - $entry{'header'});
}
\%entry;
} @mappings);
}
}
# Read in the firmware image
if ($input) {
if ($debug) {
print "Initial partition map:\n";
printPartitions(@partitions);
}
my $result = readInFirmware($input, \@partitions);
if ($debug) {
print "After reading firmware:\n";
printPartitions(@partitions);
}
}
# Unpack the firmware if requested
if ($unpack) {
die "Input filename must be specified\n" unless defined $input;
# map {
# ($_->{'name'} eq 'FIS directory') and @partitions = checkPartitionTable($_->{'data'});
# } @partitions;
writeOutFirmwareParts(@partitions);
}
# Pack the firmware if requested
if ($pack) {
if (!defined $loader) {
removeOptionalLoader(\@partitions);
}
if ($debug) {
print "Initial partition map:\n";
printPartitions(@partitions);
}
my $result = readInFirmwareParts(@partitions);
if ($debug) {
print "after readInFirmwareParts():\n";
printPartitions(@partitions);
# map {
# ($_->{'name'} eq 'RedBoot') && (printRedbootTrailer($_->{'data'}));
# } @partitions;
}
layoutPartitions(@partitions);
if ($debug) {
print "after layoutPartitions():\n";
printPartitions(@partitions);
}
buildPartitionTable(@partitions);
if ($debug) {
print "after buildPartitionTable():\n";
printPartitions(@partitions);
# my($lastblock);
# map {
# if ($_->{'name'} eq 'FIS directory') {
# $lastblock = $_->{'data'};
# }
# } @partitions;
# print "checkPartitionTable():\n";
# checkPartitionTable($lastblock);
}
writeOutFirmware($output, @partitions);
}
exit 0;
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