Media relay for RTP/RTCP and UDP streams
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README

MediaProxy
----------

Authors: Ruud Klaver, Dan Pascu, Saul Ibarra
Home page: http://mediaproxy.ag-projects.com


License
-------

This software is licensed according to the GNU General Public License
version 2. See LICENSE file for more details.

For other licensing options please contact sales-request@ag-projects.com


Description
-----------

MediaProxy is a media relay for RTP/RTCP and UDP streams that works in
tandem with OpenSIPS to provide NAT traversal capability for media streams
from SIP user agents located behind NAT.

When using MediaProxy, NAT traversal for RTP media will work without any
settings in the SIP User Agents or the NAT router.


Features
--------

 - Scalability of thousands of calls per server limited only by the Linux
   kernel networking layer and network interface bandwidth
 - Supports multiple chained relays as long as each has a public IP
 - TLS encryption between the relays and dispatcher
 - T.38 fax support
 - Graceful shutdown capability
 - Automatic load balancing and redundancy among all media relays
 - Real-time sessions statistics
 - Configurable IP and UDP port range
 - Support for any combination of audio and video streams
 - Ability to use OpenSIPS' MI interface to close a call that did timeout
 - Radius accounting of IP network traffic
 - Database accounting of complete media information including all streams,
   their type, codecs and duration.
 - Supports ICE negotiation by behaving like a TURN relay candiate


Background
-----------

MediaProxy 2.0 is the second generation media relay application which is
based on a completely new design that allows for major improvements in areas
such as scalability (an order of magnitude more scalable than previous
version) and security (communication between relay and dispatcher is
encrypted).

New features have been added to support call flows related to user mobility
and fax transmission.


Architecture
------------

MediaProxy consists of a dispatcher and one or more media relays.

The dispatcher component always runs on the same host as OpenSIPS and
communicates with its mediaproxy module through a UNIX domain socket. The
relay(s) connect to the dispatcher using TLS. This relay component may be on
the same or on a different host as OpenSIPS. There may be several relays for
the dispatcher to choose from and a relay may service more than one
dispatcher.

When OpenSIPS requests that a call be relayed, the dispatcher will forward
this request to one of its connected relays, along with some data from the
SDP. The relay will allocate a set of UDP ports for this session, depending
on the number of proposed streams. It will inform the dispatcher which ports
it has allocated so that it may in turn notify the mediaproxy module of
OpenSIPS, which will replace the relevant parts of the SDP.

The same is done for any SIP messages from the callee, thus all the media
streams will be sent through the relay. When the session between caller and
callee has finished, either through a SIP BYE or because the media is no
longer flowing and has timed out, the relay will send session information to
the dispatcher, which can store this information using one or more accounting
modules.

The session information may also be queried using a management interface on
the dispatcher.

All of this is illustrated in the following diagram:

  +---+                                              +---+
  |   |   +---------------------+                    |   |
  |   |   |           SIP Proxy |                    |   |
  |   |   |  +----------+       |        SIP         |   |
  |   |<--+->| OpenSIPS |<------+------------------->|   |
  |   |   |  +----------+       |                    |   |
  |   |   |       ^             |                    |   |
  |   |   |       | UNIX socket |                    |   |
  | C |   |       v             |                    | C |
  | A |   | +------------+      |   +------------+   | A |
  | L |   | | Dispatcher |<-----+-->| Management |   | L |
  | L |   | +------------+  TCP |   |   client   |   | L |
  | E |   |         ^      /TLS |   +------------+   | E |
  | R |   |         |           |                    | E |
  |   |   +---------+-----------+                    |   |
  |   |             |                                |   |
  |   |             | TLS                            |   |
  |   |             v                                |   |
  |   |      +-------------+           UDP           |   |
  |   |<---->|    Relay    |<----------------------->|   |
  |   |      +-------------+        RTP / RTCP       |   |
  +---+                                              +---+

Please note that the accounting modules are not shown.


Compatibility and pre-requisites
--------------------------------

Both OpenSIPS and MediaProxy must use a public IP address.

To run the software, you will need a server running the Linux Operating
System using a kernel version 2.6.18 or higher that has been compiled with
connection tracking support (conntrack). IPtables 1.4.3 or higher is also
required. Because of this dependency on Linux, other operating systems are
not supported. This dependency only applies to the media relay component.
The dispatcher component which runs on the same host as OpenSIPS, can run
on any platform that has a python interpreter and supports the twisted
framework.

Communication between the dispatcher and the relays uses TLS encryption and
requires a set of X509 certificates to work. For more information about this
please read tls/README which contains information about the sample certificates
that are included as well as information about how to generate your own.

MediaProxy is meant to be used together with OpenSIPS' mediaproxy module.

This version of MediaProxy (2.0 or higher) cannot be used in combination
with any version of OpenSIPS older than 1.4 or any components of MediaProxy
older than 2.0. You must completely upgrade any previous installation of
OpenSER to OpenSIPS to use this version of MediaProxy.

No STUN or TURN support are required in the clients.

The SIP User Agents must work symmetrically (that is to send and receive
data on the same port for each stream), which is documented in RFC 4961.

To display the history of the media streams CDRTool 6.5 or higher is
required.

Some features that were present in the previous version have been removed:

- Support for specifying media relays per domain has been discontinued
- Support for DNS records has been discontinued
- Support for asymmetric clients has been discontinued
- Support for other operating systems than Linux has been discontinued
  (only for the media relay, as the dispatcher has no such limitation)

For information of how to install MediaProxy, please consult the INSTALL
file.


Operation
---------

Before the relay is run, please make sure that /proc/sys/net/ipv4/ip_forward
is set to "1". Also for newer kernels ACCT on connection tracking needs to 
be enabled. Therefore /proc/sys/net/netfilter/nf_conntrack_acct must be set to
"1".

Both the dispatcher and the relay should be executed with root privileges.
With no arguments, both applications will automatically fork into the
background and log to syslog. They can remain in the foreground and log to
console when given the --no-fork argument.

The relay can be shut down in two ways. When receiving either an INT or TERM
signal, the relay will terminate all of its sessions immediately and inform
the dispatcher that those sessions have expired. When given the HUP signal,
it will not accept any new sessions from the dispatcher and wait for all of
the running sessions to expire, thus terminating gracefully.

At the very least a set of TLS credentials is required. Sample certificates
for this are included in the tls/ subdirectory.
DO NOT USE THESE IN A PRODUCTION ENVIRONMENT, but only for testing purposes.

For more information about TLS certificates and how to generate your own,
check the tls/README file.


Accounting
----------

MediaProxy is capable to do additional per call accounting with information
related to the media streams used by the call. MediaProxy has a modular
interface to the accounting system, allowing for new modules to be easily
implemented. Currently it supports database and radius backends. Multiple
backends can be configured and used simultaneously.


Radius accounting
-----------------

The radius backend logs very basic information about the media streams. The
limited nature of the logged information is mainly given by the limitations
imposed by the radius protocol to the data size.

The information sent in the radius packet is shown below:

  Acct-Status-Type = "Update"
  User-Name = "mediaproxy@default"
  Acct-Session-Id = call_id
  Sip-From-Tag = from_tag
  Sip-To-Tag = to_tag
  Acct-Session-Time = call duration
  Acct-Input-Octets = bytes received from caller
  Acct-Output-Octets = bytes received from callee
  NAS-IP-Address = media-relay address
  Sip-User-Agents = caller + callee user agents
  Sip-Applications = "Audio", "Video", ...
  Media-Codecs = codecs used by streams (comma separated)
  Media-Info = "timeout" or ""
  Acct-Delay-Time = post dial delay (seconds from INVITE to 1st media packet)


Database accounting
-------------------

The database backend logs all the information related to the media streams that
were created/closed during the whole session. This information is stored as a
JSON encoded string in a BLOB column in the database, along with the call_id,
from_tag and to_tag columns that can be used to retrieve the media information
for a given call. The database table and column names are fully configurable
in the database section of the configuration file.

The table used to store these records, is automatically created by the media
dispatcher on startup, if it's not present. For this to happen, the user that
is configured in the dburi option in the database section, must have the CREATE
and ALTER rights on the database specified in the same dburi. If this is not
possible, then the media dispatcher will log an error indicating why it could
not create the table and also output the table definition that can be used by
some human operator to manually create the table. However, the recommended
way is to grant the CREATE and ALTER privileges to the user in the dburi over
the database specified in the same dburi.

The database module uses SQLObject to access the database, which means it can
work with a lot of databases, by simply changing the scheme in the dburi.
Currently the following databases are supported: mysql, postgres, sqlite,
firebird, maxdb, mssql and sybase.


Closing expired calls
---------------------

Starting with version 2.1.0, MediaProxy supports closing calls for which all
the media streams did timeout, but for which no BYE was received to close the
call in the standard way.

This feature will only work, when the OpenSIPS mediaproxy module uses the
engage_media_proxy() command to start MediaProxy for a given call. In this
case the mediaproxy module uses the dialog module to keep track of the call
and can pass the dialog id to the media dispatcher. When a media session is
expired because all streams did timeout, but no closing request was received
from the proxy, the media dispatcher will use the dialog id that was received
from the mediaproxy module, to issue a dlg_end_dlg request into the OpenSIPS'
MI interface, instructing OpenSIPS to generate the BYEs for the call, closing
it in a clean way and generating the accounting records.

To use this, the mi_datagram module must be loaded and configured to use a
UNIX filesystem socket which must also be configured into the OpenSIPS section
of the MediaProxy configuration as socket_path.

This feature is not available when using the use_media_proxy/end_media_session
functions in the proxy configuration, because in that case there is no dialog
that is tracked by the proxy which could be terminated using dlg_end_dlg.


Management interface
--------------------

The management interface will accept commands terminated by \r\n. It will
return the results of the command, one per line, terminated by an empty
line (also \r\n terminated).

Currently two commands are supported:

sessions : This will have the dispatcher query all of its connected relays
           for active sessions. For every sessions it finds it will return
           one line with a JSON encoded dictionary containing session
           information.

summary  : This will have the dispatcher present a summary of each of its
           connected relays. The results are returned as a JSON encoded
           dictionary, one line per relay.


Free support
------------

MediaProxy is developed and supported by AG Projects. AG Projects offers
best-effort free support for MediaProxy. "best-effort" means that we try to
solve the bugs you report or help fix your problems as soon as we can,
subject to available resources.

You may report bugs or feature request to:

users@lists.opensips.org

A mailing list archive is available at:
http://lists.opensips.org/cgi-bin/mailman/listinfo/users


Commercial support
------------------

Commercial support options are available by purchasing:

1. Multimedia Service Platform: http://ag-projects.com/Products or
2. MediaProxy and support: https://secure.dns-hosting.info/buyer_guide.phtml