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A RADIUS authentication server audit tool
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src Initial import Oct 15, 2018 Initial import Oct 15, 2018
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radius-audit - A RADIUS authentication server audit tool

radius-audit allows to conduct configuration audits of RADIUS (RFC 2865) servers setup as authentication servers in a 802.1X environment.

More specifically, radius-audit can help auditing the TLS (RFC 5246) configuration of a RADIUS server, as well as discovering authorized EAP (RFC 3748) authentication methods. It can be used by network or system administrators to check the configuration of a RADIUS server, or by pentesters conducting a security audit.


This tool is based on Scapy. A recent version of Scapy is recommended. It can be installed as described in the official documentation.

The requirements.txt file contains the list of packages required in order to run radius-audit. Apart from Scapy, the current version of the tool only requires pyroute2. pyroute2 is used to setup network interfaces, and to benefit from the nl80211 drivers of the Linux kernel.

Note that radius-audit is compatible with both Python 2 and Python 3.


Available arguments are given in the help message (-h argument). The different types of scans that radius-audit can perform are described in the following sections.

Wired 802.1X or Wi-Fi

The iface argument is mandatory, and is used to provide the network interface that will be used to send and receive the Ethernet frames on a wired network, or to send the 802.11 frames when auditing a wireless network.

TLS configuration audit

TLS scan example

The following example shows how to start a TLS scan.

ra -iface eth0 --tls-scan

In case of error, an EAP Failure response is sent, without any hint regarding the cause of the error. For this reason, in order to make sure that a specific SSL / TLS version is not supported, one has to loop through all the available ciphersuites.

Several other options are available. For example, it is possible to start the scan from a specific TLS version (up to TLS 1.2, starting from SSLv2) using the -min-tls-version command line argument. The first SSL / TLS version for which measurements will be performed can be one of the following: sslv2, sslv3, tls10, tls11, tls12. The following example shows how to launch a scan starting from TLS 1.1:

ra -iface eth0 --tls-scan -min-tls-version tls11

TLS - Specific TLS versions and ciphersuites

The user can provide specific SSL/TLS versions and ciphersuites using the -tls-versions and -tls-ciphers options:

ra -iface eth0 -tls-versions tls10,tls11,tls12 -tls-ciphers 0x0033,0x0035,0x0039,0xc013,0xc014,0x002f,0xc030
Accepted        TLS 1.0         TLS_ECDHE_RSA_WITH_AES_256_CBC_SHA
Accepted        TLS 1.0         TLS_ECDHE_RSA_WITH_AES_128_CBC_SHA
Accepted        TLS 1.0         TLS_RSA_WITH_AES_256_CBC_SHA
Accepted        TLS 1.0         TLS_RSA_WITH_AES_128_CBC_SHA
Rejected        TLS 1.0         TLS_DHE_RSA_WITH_AES_128_CBC_SHA
Rejected        TLS 1.0         TLS_DHE_RSA_WITH_AES_256_CBC_SHA
Rejected        TLS 1.0         TLS_ECDHE_RSA_WITH_AES_256_GCM_SHA384
Accepted        TLS 1.1         TLS_ECDHE_RSA_WITH_AES_256_CBC_SHA
Accepted        TLS 1.1         TLS_ECDHE_RSA_WITH_AES_128_CBC_SHA
Accepted        TLS 1.1         TLS_RSA_WITH_AES_256_CBC_SHA
Accepted        TLS 1.1         TLS_RSA_WITH_AES_128_CBC_SHA
Rejected        TLS 1.1         TLS_DHE_RSA_WITH_AES_128_CBC_SHA
Rejected        TLS 1.1         TLS_DHE_RSA_WITH_AES_256_CBC_SHA
Rejected        TLS 1.1         TLS_ECDHE_RSA_WITH_AES_256_GCM_SHA384
Accepted        TLS 1.2         TLS_ECDHE_RSA_WITH_AES_256_GCM_SHA384
Accepted        TLS 1.2         TLS_ECDHE_RSA_WITH_AES_256_CBC_SHA
Accepted        TLS 1.2         TLS_ECDHE_RSA_WITH_AES_128_CBC_SHA
Accepted        TLS 1.2         TLS_RSA_WITH_AES_256_CBC_SHA
Accepted        TLS 1.2         TLS_RSA_WITH_AES_128_CBC_SHA
Rejected        TLS 1.2         TLS_DHE_RSA_WITH_AES_128_CBC_SHA
Rejected        TLS 1.2         TLS_DHE_RSA_WITH_AES_256_CBC_SHA

TLS - Test with a specific "TLS-based" EAP authentication method

By default, radius-audit will use the EAP-TLS method to perform the scan. However, it is possible to use another "TLS-based EAP" method by adding the -with-eap-method command line argument. In the following example, the EAP-TTLS authentication method will be used.

ra -iface eth0 -tls-versions tls12 -tls-ciphers 0x002f -with-eap-method ttls
Accepted        TLS 1.2         TLS_RSA_WITH_AES_128_CBC_SHA

radius-audit is able to perform scans for the following "TLS-based" EAP methods:

Phase 1 authentication - Supported EAP methods enumeration

radius-audit allows to enumerate "phase 1" EAP authentication methods that are available. The following example shows how to perform such a scan using the --discover-phase-1 command line argument:

ra -iface eth0 --discover-phase-1
Accepted        4               MD5-Challenge
Rejected        5               One-Time Password (OTP)
Rejected        6               Generic Token Card (GTC)
Rejected        9               RSA Public Key Authentication
Rejected        10              DSS Unilateral
Rejected        11              KEA
Rejected        12              KEA-VALIDATE
Accepted        13              EAP-TLS
Rejected        14              Defender Token (AXENT)
Rejected        15              RSA Security SecurID EAP
Rejected        16              Arcot Systems EAP
Rejected        17              EAP-Cisco Wireless
Rejected        18              GSM Subscriber Identity Modules (EAP-SIM)
Rejected        19              SRP-SHA1
Accepted        21              EAP-TTLS
Rejected        22              Remote Access Service
Rejected        23              EAP-AKA Authentication
Rejected        24              EAP-3Com Wireless
Accepted        25              PEAP
Rejected        26              MS-EAP-Authentication
Rejected        27              Mutual Authentication w/Key Exchange (MAKE)
Rejected        28              CRYPTOCard
Rejected        29              EAP-MSCHAP-V2
Rejected        30              DynamID
Rejected        31              Rob EAP
Rejected        32              Protected One-Time Password
Rejected        33              MS-Authentication-TLV
Rejected        34              SentriNET
Rejected        35              EAP-Actiontec Wireless
Rejected        36              Cogent Systems Biometrics Authentication EAP
Rejected        37              AirFortress EAP
Rejected        38              EAP-HTTP Digest
Rejected        39              SecureSuite EAP
Rejected        40              DeviceConnect EAP
Rejected        41              EAP-SPEKE
Rejected        42              EAP-MOBAC
Accepted        43              EAP-FAST
Rejected        44              ZoneLabs EAP (ZLXEAP)
Rejected        45              EAP-Link
Rejected        46              EAP-PAX
Rejected        47              EAP-PSK
Rejected        48              EAP-SAKE
Rejected        49              EAP-IKEv2
Rejected        50              EAP-AKA
Rejected        51              EAP-GPSK
Rejected        52              EAP-pwd
Rejected        53              EAP-EKE Version 1
Rejected        54              EAP Method Type for PT-EAP
Rejected        55              TEAP
Rejected        255             Experimental

This example shows that the targeted RADIUS server seem to support several "TLS-based" EAP authentication methods: EAP-TLS, EAP-TTLS, PEAP, and EAP-FAST.

At the beginning of the authentication process, when an EAP request for a given authentication method is received, radius-audit assumes that this method is supported by the authentication server. radius-audit then tries to restart the authentication process with another method using the desired authentication type in a Legacy Nak response. This allows to speed up the enumeration process when a given authentication method is supported.

A few examples

Use a wireless interface

radius-audit can be used on a Wi-Fi network. In order to do so, the SSID must be given by the user via the-ssid command line argument.

ra -iface wlan1 -ssid demo-wpa2-eap --tls-scan

If an attempt is made to perform a scan on a Wi-Fi network which does not support 802.1X authentication (PSK), a warning message is issued:

ra -iface wlan1 -ssid demo-wpa2-psk --discover-phase-1
WARNING: (demo-wpa2-psk) AKM is not IEEE 802.1X / PMKSA caching.

Specify an identity

The -identity command line argument allows to perform the scan with a user-defined identity. When it is not provided, anonymous is used as a default value. The identity is sent in response to the EAP Identity request that begins the EAP authentication process.

ra -iface eth0 -identity johndoe --tls-scan

Output format

The --json-output command line argument can be used to print the results in JSON format:

ra -iface eth0 --tls-scan -min-tls-version tls11 --json-output
{"tls_version": "TLS 1.1", "tls_cipher_suite": "TLS_RSA_WITH_3DES_EDE_CBC_SHA", "outcome": true, "session_id": true}
{"tls_version": "TLS 1.1", "tls_cipher_suite": "TLS_NULL_WITH_NULL_NULL", "outcome": false}
{"tls_version": "TLS 1.1", "tls_cipher_suite": "TLS_RSA_WITH_NULL_MD5", "outcome": false}
{"tls_version": "TLS 1.1", "tls_cipher_suite": "TLS_RSA_WITH_NULL_SHA", "outcome": false}
[ ... ]
{"tls_version": "TLS 1.1", "tls_cipher_suite": "TLS_RSA_PSK_WITH_CHACHA20_POLY1305_SHA256", "outcome": false}
{"tls_version": "TLS 1.2", "tls_cipher_suite": "TLS_RSA_WITH_3DES_EDE_CBC_SHA", "outcome": true, "session_id": true}
{"tls_version": "TLS 1.2", "tls_cipher_suite": "TLS_NULL_WITH_NULL_NULL", "outcome": false}
{"tls_version": "TLS 1.2", "tls_cipher_suite": "TLS_RSA_WITH_NULL_MD5", "outcome": false}
{"tls_version": "TLS 1.2", "tls_cipher_suite": "TLS_RSA_WITH_NULL_SHA", "outcome": false}
ra -iface eth0 --discover-phase-1 --json-output
{"auth_method": 4, "auth_method_desc": "MD5-Challenge", "outcome": true}
{"auth_method": 5, "auth_method_desc": "One-Time Password (OTP)", "outcome": false}

How to speed up the scanning process ?

An administrator may be able to tune the timers available on the authenticator (switch, Wi-Fi access point) or on the server. For example, the quietPeriod timer value on the authenticators may be decreased in order to speed up the process (for more information, one can read the IEEE Std 802.1X-2004 standard). On Cisco switches, the following command, applied to an interface, allows to decrease the quietPeriod to 1 second.

sw(config-if)# dot1x timeout quiet-period 1


Thanks to Arnaud Ebalard, Nicolas Iooss, Guillaume Valadon and Philippe Valembois for their valuable input.


This project is licensed under the terms of the MIT license.

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