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cor-asv-ann-models

Pretrained models for the ANN-based post-correction module.

Models

OCR post-correction

All models use cor-asv-ann-train --width 512 --depth 2 and were initialised with weights from a language model via --init-model, then pretrained on 200k lines of clean text (input=output) from DTA, and then retrained via --load-model on GT4HistOCR and OCR-D GT, processed by various OCR models (input=OCR with confidence, output=GT). The latter is allowed to change all weights (not just fine-tuning) and does not reset the encoder layer weights (--reset-encoder).

Other

  • gt4histocr.s-ſ: on GT4HistOCR ground truth degraded by replacing ſ into s in the input (encouraging the network to learn its reconstruction)

Evaluation

Above models were run against OCR results from various models on combinations of the above datasets.

Datasets

  • GT4HistOCR/dta19 signifies the dta19 subcorpus of GT4HistOCR
  • GT4HistOCR/!dta19 signifies the Kallimachos and Incunabula subcorpus (i.e. everything but the dta19 subset) of GT4HistOCR
  • OCR-D<19 signifies the 15-18th century bags of the OCR-D ground truth repository (i.e. ocrd_data_structur_text_*_1[4567]*)

In each case, evaluation was done on a (2-10%) validation subset not seen during training (totalling #lines lines).

OCR models

The names are the same as for post-correction training (see above):

  • Fraktur4 is the Tesseract 4 model script/Fraktur
  • Latin4 is the Tesseract 4 model script/Latin
  • deu4 is the Tesseract 4 model deu
  • frk4 is the Tesseract 4 model frk
  • deu+frk4 is Tesseract deu+frk
  • deu-frak3 is the Tesseract 3 model deu-frak
  • ocrofraktur is the Ocropus Fraktur model
  • ocrofraktur-jze is the Ocropus Fraktur model by jze
  • incunabula is the Ocropus model by that name included in GT4HistOCR
  • latinhist is the Ocropus model by that name included in GT4HistOCR
  • GT4HistOCR is the Tesseract model trained on GT4HistOCR (for which unfortunately no post-correction model could be trained during the project runtime, because it came too late).

Rejection

Rejection threshold (RT) has been set to various levels, but while 0.0 will disable rejection completely (i.e. the input hypothesis, if at all identifiable, will keep its predicted score), 1.0 will not disable correction completely (because the input hypothesis might not be found if alignment is too bad).

We usually set it to 0.9 for out-domain and 0.2 for in-domain tasks, but vary where other settings yield better results.

Domain

Inductive-deductive post-correction expects to see data during inference that is similar to both the dataset and the OCR model during training. When this (narrow) circumstance is met, we have the in-domain case, the other is referred to as out-domain.

Character Error Rate (CER)

Quality is measured by aligning output and GT lines, calculating the (unweighted) Levenshtein distance along the best path, and dividing it by the length of that path (not of the GT sequence). Rates are aggregated across lines and files in micro-average fashion.

Character here does not mean Unicode codepoint, but glyph (i.e. combining characters are applied before any edit operations; this amounts to the metric=Levenshtein parameter of cor-asv-ann-eval and ocrd-cor-asv-ann-evaluate).

Results

COR model OCR model dataset #lines CER OCR CER COR RT comment
dta19.Fraktur4 Fraktur4 GT4HistOCR/dta19 19302 7.5 4.7 0.5 in-domain
dta19.Fraktur4 Fraktur4 GT4HistOCR/dta19 4907 6.2 3.7 0.2 in-domain
dta19.Fraktur4 Fraktur4 GT4HistOCR/dta19 4907 6.2 3.4 0.5 in-domain
dta19.Fraktur4 deu-frak3 GT4HistOCR/dta19 4907 9.0 8.9 0.9 out-domain
dta19.Fraktur4 deu-frak3 GT4HistOCR/dta19 4907 9.0 8.4 0.5 out-domain
dta19.Fraktur4 frk4 GT4HistOCR/dta19 4907 6.5 5.6 0.9 out-domain
dta19.Fraktur4 frk4 GT4HistOCR/dta19 4907 6.5 4.3 0.5 out-domain
dta19.Fraktur4 deu+frk4 GT4HistOCR/dta19 4907 6.1 5.2 0.9 out-domain
dta19.Fraktur4 deu+frk4 GT4HistOCR/dta19 4907 6.1 4.3 0.5 out-domain
dta19.Fraktur4 ocrofraktur GT4HistOCR/dta19 4907 10.4 9.2 0.5 out-domain
dta19.Fraktur4 ocrofraktur-jze GT4HistOCR/dta19 4907 7.4 6.6 0.5 out-domain
dta19.Fraktur4 GT4HistOCR GT4HistOCR/dta19 4907 0.5 0.7 0.9 out-domain
dta19.Fraktur4 GT4HistOCR GT4HistOCR/dta19 4907 0.5 1.0 0.5 out-domain
dta19.Fraktur4 Fraktur4 GT4HistOCR/!dta19 + OCR-D<19 6071 15.7 15.8 0.9 out-domain
pre19.Fraktur4 Fraktur4 GT4HistOCR/!dta19 + OCR-D<19 6071 15.7 15.1 0.2 in-domain
pre19.Fraktur4 Fraktur4 GT4HistOCR/!dta19 5844 15.4 14.9 0.2 in-domain
pre19.Fraktur4 Fraktur4 OCR-D<19 227 22.9 21.1 0.2 in-domain
pre19.Fraktur4 Fraktur4 GT4HistOCR/dta19 4907 6.2 6.5 0.9 out-domain
pre19.Fraktur4 deu-frak3 GT4HistOCR/!dta19 + OCR-D<19 6071 27.2 27.3 0.9 out-domain
pre19.deu-frak3 deu-frak3 GT4HistOCR/!dta19 + OCR-D<19 6071 27.2 22.2 0.2 in-domain
pre19.deu-frak3 deu-frak3 GT4HistOCR/dta19 4907 9.0 9.2 0.9 out-domain
pre19.deu-frak3 Fraktur4 GT4HistOCR/!dta19 + OCR-D<19 6071 15.7 16.1 0.9 out-domain
pre19.incunabula incunabula GT4HistOCR/!dta19 + OCR-D<19 6071 3.8 7.7 0.2 in-domain
pre19.incunabula incunabula GT4HistOCR/!dta19 + OCR-D<19 6071 3.8 4.1 0.9 in-domain
pre19.incunabula incunabula GT4HistOCR/!dta19 5844 1.8 2.0 0.9 in-domain
pre19.latinhist latinhist GT4HistOCR/!dta19 + OCR-D<19 6071 34.2 26.8 0.2 in-domain
gt4histocr.s-ſ GT with s/ſ/s/g GT4HistOCR 56591 2.7 0.3 0.9 in-domain
gt4histocr.s-ſ deu-frak3 GT4HistOCR 10978 19.1 16.7 0.9 out-domain

Discussion

As can be seen, performance on out-domain data is very poor (despite already adapting the rejection threshold). Rejection is limited here, because the model can fail to find the rejection hypothesis when alignment is too bad already, and of course the model is blind towards its own errors.

Moreover, in-domain results show that the text cannot be reconstructed more than a certain extent (i.e. if OCR results are bad, then post-correction results will be as well, and vice versa; improvement is usually "absolute", not "relative"). Also, the pre19 models are not nearly as good as the dta19 models (for their respective task).

It remains to be investigated further, but it seems plausible that the key reasons for this are quality/quantity of training data. During the runtime of the project (2018-2019), there was:

  • too little textual ground truth (and not representative), especially in the pre19 category,
  • no good baseline OCR model freely available (as is now, cf. Tesseract models and Calamari models),
  • no OCR that could (correctly) share alternative hypotheses (besides deu-frak3).

The latter point could also be overcome by adding multi-OCR alignment. Fully utilising OCR hypotheses (from multiple engines or a single one) would also open the prospect of learning large generic models.

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Models for the ANN-based post-correction component.

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