Skip to content


Folders and files

Last commit message
Last commit date

Latest commit



8 Commits

Repository files navigation


Install and Deploy the Demo

The source code can be downloaded, dependencies installed, and the CloudFormation stack deployed using the following:

git clone
cd qldb-kms-demo
npm ci
sls deploy --stage {stage-name}

Create Table and Index

When you deploy the stack, the QLDB ledger will be created, but you still need to go in and create a table and index. This can be done directly in the console or via the QLDB shell with the following commands:


Configure Artillery Scripts

The source code repository includes a load testing tool called Artillery that will be used for populating data. When you deploy the stack, you should see the POST and GET endpoints in a format such as below:

GET -{id}

Take a note of these values and update the target values in the create-record.yml and get-record.yml files in the scripts directory.

    target: ""
      - duration: 300
        arrivalRate: 5
    processor: "./createRecord.js"

The script above will create 5 virtual users every second for 300 seconds.

Now we are ready to test a number of scenarios

Scenario 1: Create and Query Data

In the root directory create 1500 new records in 5 minutes by running the following command:

artillery run scripts/create-record.yml

Next, we show that we can retrieve these records by running the following command:

artillery run scripts/get-record.yml

This should successfully retrieve all 1500 records in around 2.5 minutes.

Scenario 2: Rotate Key

This scenario tests what happens when we rotate the key associated with a QLDB ledger.

When we created the ledger, we specified an alias. This means we can simply update the alias to point at a different CMK. To do this, we need to know the key ID of the new CMK. Deploying the stack created a number of keys that we can use for testing.

The first step is to find the key ID of the rotate key. This value was output in the stack, and can be found in the Outputs section of the CloudFormation stack in the AWS console, or by querying CloudFormation using the AWS CLI as below:

aws cloudformation describe-stacks --region eu-west-2 --stack-name qldb-kms-{stage-name}

Next, run the artillery command to retrieve all 1500 records. This should take around 2.5 minutes. When this has started, run the following command to update the alias:

aws kms update-alias \
    --alias-name alias/qldb-kms-{stage-name} \
    --target-key-id {key-id} \
    --region eu-west-2

You should notice that all records were successfully retrieved, proving that the ledger remains fully accessible without any performance impact while the key change is being processed.

Instead of updating an alias, you can also directly update the KMS key used by the ledger. To do this, lookup the key id of the delete key created by the stack, kick off the artillery script to retrieve all records, and then run the following command:

aws qldb update-ledger \
   --name qldb-kms-ledger-poc \
   --region eu-west-2 \
   --kms-key 48ad14da-5bf9-497a-a4d9-d379bfb0d41e

You will see the output of the command being similar to below:

    "Name": "qldb-kms-ledger-poc",
    "Arn": "arn:aws:qldb:eu-west-2:{account}:ledger/qldb-kms-ledger-poc",
    "State": "ACTIVE",
    "CreationDateTime": "2021-08-30T16:48:55.600000+01:00",
    "DeletionProtection": false,
    "EncryptionDescription": {
        "KmsKeyArn": "arn:aws:kms:eu-west-2:{account}:key/48ad14da-5bf9-497a-a4d9-d379bfb0d41e",
        "EncryptionStatus": "UPDATING"

In this case, the EncryptionStatus is clearly shown as UPDATING, which is carried out asynchronously, without impacting on the performance or availability.

Scenario 3: Disable (and re-enable) Key

The next scenario involves disabling the KMS key being used, and seeing the impact this has. Again, kick off the artillery script to retrieve all records, and then run the following command:

aws kms disable-key \
  --region eu-west-2 \
  --key-id 48ad14da-5bf9-497a-a4d9-d379bfb0d41e

The records continue to be successfully retrieved for a short period of time, before they begin to fail. An error message is returned that "Amazon QLDB does not have grant access on the AWS KMS customer managed key of the ledger. Restore the grant on the key for the ledger." You can query the status of the ledger using the following command:

aws qldb describe-ledger \
  --region eu-west-2 \
  --name qldb-kms-ledger-{stage-name}

This returns a response similar to the one below:

    "Name": "qldb-kms-ledger-poc",
    "Arn": "arn:aws:qldb:eu-west-2:{account}:ledger/qldb-kms-ledger-poc",
    "State": "ACTIVE",
    "CreationDateTime": "2021-08-30T16:48:55.600000+01:00",
    "PermissionsMode": "STANDARD",
    "DeletionProtection": false,
    "EncryptionDescription": {
        "KmsKeyArn": "arn:aws:kms:eu-west-2:{account}:key/48ad14da-5bf9-497a-a4d9-d379bfb0d41e",
        "EncryptionStatus": "KMS_KEY_INACCESSIBLE",
        "InaccessibleKmsKeyDateTime": "2021-08-30T20:01:17.521000+01:00"

The ledger now has an encryption status of KMS_KEY_INACCESSIBLE, meaning it is impaired and won't accept any read or write requests. For example, you won't even be able to connect to the ledger using the QLDB shell utility.

To revert this, you can simply re-enable the key using the following command:

aws kms enable-key \
  --region eu-west-2 \
  --key-id 48ad14da-5bf9-497a-a4d9-d379bfb0d41e

This will take a number of minutes to resolve, but at some point, the encryption status will revert back to ENABLED and the ledger is accessible.

Scenario 4: Invalid Permissions

The final scenario involves using a key for which the roles used by the AWS Lambda functions do not have permission either in their own IAM policy or the key policy.

Update the ledger to use the key id associated with the no access key id in the Outputs of the CloudFormation stack. Next, run a cURL command to the HTTP GET endpoint to retrieve the record with the id of 1:

curl ''

This will return the following error message:

  "detail":"The user does not have permissions to use the customer managed KMS key of the ledger (KMS Request ID: 61d6b556-4c6b-4f13-b4c4-fae49a2f11c3) : The ciphertext refers to a customer master key that does not exist, does not exist in this region, or you are not allowed to access."

Tidy Up Resources

All the resources generated can be safely removed by running the following command:

sls remove --stage {stage-name}


No description, website, or topics provided.







No releases published


No packages published