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README

== Welcome to Rails

Rails is a web-application framework that includes everything needed to create 
database-backed web applications according to the Model-View-Control pattern. 

This pattern splits the view (also called the presentation) into "dumb" templates
that are primarily responsible for inserting pre-built data in between HTML tags.
The model contains the "smart" domain objects (such as Account, Product, Person,
Post) that holds all the business logic and knows how to persist themselves to
a database. The controller handles the incoming requests (such as Save New Account,
Update Product, Show Post) by manipulating the model and directing data to the view.

In Rails, the model is handled by what's called an object-relational mapping
layer entitled Active Record. This layer allows you to present the data from
database rows as objects and embellish these data objects with business logic
methods. You can read more about Active Record in
link:files/vendor/rails/activerecord/README.html.

The controller and view are handled by the Action Pack, which handles both
layers by its two parts: Action View and Action Controller. These two layers
are bundled in a single package due to their heavy interdependence. This is
unlike the relationship between the Active Record and Action Pack that is much
more separate. Each of these packages can be used independently outside of
Rails.  You can read more about Action Pack in
link:files/vendor/rails/actionpack/README.html.


== Getting Started

1. At the command prompt, start a new Rails application using the <tt>rails</tt> command
   and your application name. Ex: rails myapp
2. Change directory into myapp and start the web server: <tt>script/server</tt> (run with --help for options)
3. Go to http://localhost:3000/ and get "Welcome aboard: You're riding the Rails!"
4. Follow the guidelines to start developing your application


== Web Servers

By default, Rails will try to use Mongrel if it's are installed when started with script/server, otherwise Rails will use WEBrick, the webserver that ships with Ruby. But you can also use Rails
with a variety of other web servers.

Mongrel is a Ruby-based webserver with a C component (which requires compilation) that is
suitable for development and deployment of Rails applications. If you have Ruby Gems installed,
getting up and running with mongrel is as easy as: <tt>gem install mongrel</tt>.
More info at: http://mongrel.rubyforge.org

Say other Ruby web servers like Thin and Ebb or regular web servers like Apache or LiteSpeed or
Lighttpd or IIS. The Ruby web servers are run through Rack and the latter can either be setup to use
FCGI or proxy to a pack of Mongrels/Thin/Ebb servers.

== Apache .htaccess example for FCGI/CGI

# General Apache options
AddHandler fastcgi-script .fcgi
AddHandler cgi-script .cgi
Options +FollowSymLinks +ExecCGI

# If you don't want Rails to look in certain directories,
# use the following rewrite rules so that Apache won't rewrite certain requests
# 
# Example:
#   RewriteCond %{REQUEST_URI} ^/notrails.*
#   RewriteRule .* - [L]

# Redirect all requests not available on the filesystem to Rails
# By default the cgi dispatcher is used which is very slow
# 
# For better performance replace the dispatcher with the fastcgi one
#
# Example:
#   RewriteRule ^(.*)$ dispatch.fcgi [QSA,L]
RewriteEngine On

# If your Rails application is accessed via an Alias directive,
# then you MUST also set the RewriteBase in this htaccess file.
#
# Example:
#   Alias /myrailsapp /path/to/myrailsapp/public
#   RewriteBase /myrailsapp

RewriteRule ^$ index.html [QSA]
RewriteRule ^([^.]+)$ $1.html [QSA]
RewriteCond %{REQUEST_FILENAME} !-f
RewriteRule ^(.*)$ dispatch.cgi [QSA,L]

# In case Rails experiences terminal errors
# Instead of displaying this message you can supply a file here which will be rendered instead
# 
# Example:
#   ErrorDocument 500 /500.html

ErrorDocument 500 "<h2>Application error</h2>Rails application failed to start properly"


== Debugging Rails

Sometimes your application goes wrong.  Fortunately there are a lot of tools that
will help you debug it and get it back on the rails.

First area to check is the application log files.  Have "tail -f" commands running
on the server.log and development.log. Rails will automatically display debugging
and runtime information to these files. Debugging info will also be shown in the
browser on requests from 127.0.0.1.

You can also log your own messages directly into the log file from your code using
the Ruby logger class from inside your controllers. Example:

  class WeblogController < ActionController::Base
    def destroy
      @weblog = Weblog.find(params[:id])
      @weblog.destroy
      logger.info("#{Time.now} Destroyed Weblog ID ##{@weblog.id}!")
    end
  end

The result will be a message in your log file along the lines of:

  Mon Oct 08 14:22:29 +1000 2007 Destroyed Weblog ID #1

More information on how to use the logger is at http://www.ruby-doc.org/core/

Also, Ruby documentation can be found at http://www.ruby-lang.org/ including:

* The Learning Ruby (Pickaxe) Book: http://www.ruby-doc.org/docs/ProgrammingRuby/
* Learn to Program: http://pine.fm/LearnToProgram/  (a beginners guide)

These two online (and free) books will bring you up to speed on the Ruby language
and also on programming in general.


== Debugger

Debugger support is available through the debugger command when you start your Mongrel or
Webrick server with --debugger. This means that you can break out of execution at any point
in the code, investigate and change the model, AND then resume execution! 
You need to install ruby-debug to run the server in debugging mode. With gems, use 'gem install ruby-debug'
Example:

  class WeblogController < ActionController::Base
    def index
      @posts = Post.find(:all)
      debugger
    end
  end

So the controller will accept the action, run the first line, then present you
with a IRB prompt in the server window. Here you can do things like:

  >> @posts.inspect
  => "[#<Post:0x14a6be8 @attributes={\"title\"=>nil, \"body\"=>nil, \"id\"=>\"1\"}>,
       #<Post:0x14a6620 @attributes={\"title\"=>\"Rails you know!\", \"body\"=>\"Only ten..\", \"id\"=>\"2\"}>]"
  >> @posts.first.title = "hello from a debugger"
  => "hello from a debugger"

...and even better is that you can examine how your runtime objects actually work:

  >> f = @posts.first
  => #<Post:0x13630c4 @attributes={"title"=>nil, "body"=>nil, "id"=>"1"}>
  >> f.
  Display all 152 possibilities? (y or n)

Finally, when you're ready to resume execution, you enter "cont"


== Console

You can interact with the domain model by starting the console through <tt>script/console</tt>.
Here you'll have all parts of the application configured, just like it is when the
application is running. You can inspect domain models, change values, and save to the
database. Starting the script without arguments will launch it in the development environment.
Passing an argument will specify a different environment, like <tt>script/console production</tt>.

To reload your controllers and models after launching the console run <tt>reload!</tt>

== dbconsole

You can go to the command line of your database directly through <tt>script/dbconsole</tt>.
You would be connected to the database with the credentials defined in database.yml.
Starting the script without arguments will connect you to the development database. Passing an
argument will connect you to a different database, like <tt>script/dbconsole production</tt>.
Currently works for mysql, postgresql and sqlite.

== Description of Contents

app
  Holds all the code that's specific to this particular application.

app/controllers
  Holds controllers that should be named like weblogs_controller.rb for
  automated URL mapping. All controllers should descend from ApplicationController
  which itself descends from ActionController::Base.

app/models
  Holds models that should be named like post.rb.
  Most models will descend from ActiveRecord::Base.

app/views
  Holds the template files for the view that should be named like
  weblogs/index.html.erb for the WeblogsController#index action. All views use eRuby
  syntax.

app/views/layouts
  Holds the template files for layouts to be used with views. This models the common
  header/footer method of wrapping views. In your views, define a layout using the
  <tt>layout :default</tt> and create a file named default.html.erb. Inside default.html.erb,
  call <% yield %> to render the view using this layout.

app/helpers
  Holds view helpers that should be named like weblogs_helper.rb. These are generated
  for you automatically when using script/generate for controllers. Helpers can be used to
  wrap functionality for your views into methods.

config
  Configuration files for the Rails environment, the routing map, the database, and other dependencies.

db
  Contains the database schema in schema.rb.  db/migrate contains all
  the sequence of Migrations for your schema.

doc
  This directory is where your application documentation will be stored when generated
  using <tt>rake doc:app</tt>

lib
  Application specific libraries. Basically, any kind of custom code that doesn't
  belong under controllers, models, or helpers. This directory is in the load path.

public
  The directory available for the web server. Contains subdirectories for images, stylesheets,
  and javascripts. Also contains the dispatchers and the default HTML files. This should be
  set as the DOCUMENT_ROOT of your web server.

script
  Helper scripts for automation and generation.

test
  Unit and functional tests along with fixtures. When using the script/generate scripts, template
  test files will be generated for you and placed in this directory.

vendor
  External libraries that the application depends on. Also includes the plugins subdirectory.
  If the app has frozen rails, those gems also go here, under vendor/rails/.
  This directory is in the load path.

Restful actiond and views
index show new create edit update destroy

============================================================
HTTP verb 	URL				controller	action		used for
GET		   	/geocoder/new	Geocoders	new			return an HTML form for creating the new geocoder
POST		/geocoder		Geocoders	create		create the new geocoder
GET			/geocoder		Geocoders	show		display the one and only geocoder resource
GET			/geocoder/edit	Geocoders	edit		return an HTML form for editing the geocoder
PUT			/geocoder		Geocoders	update		update the one and only geocoder resource
DELETE		/geocoder		Geocoders	destroy		delete the geocoder resource
============================================================

Установка системы:
1. Настройка соединения с базой данных (файл database.yaml)
2. db:migrate
3. a2m:install


You can reload routes if you feel you must:

  ActionController::Routing::Routes.reload

This will clear all named routes and reload routes.rb if the file has been modified from last load. To absolutely force reloading, use reload!.

Rails Date Formats – strftime

StrFTime Format Codes for Ruby on Rails
Year
%Y     year with century 2007
%y     year without century 07
%C     century number (year divided by 100) 20

Month
%B     full month name January
%b     abbreviated month name Jan
%h     same as %b Jan
%m     month as number (01-12)

Week
%U     week number of the year, Sunday as first day of week (00-53)
%W     week number of the year, Monday as first day of week (00-53)

Day
%A     full weekday name Wednesday
%a     abbreviated weekday name Wed
%d     day of the month (01-31)
%e     day of the month, single digits preceded by space ( 1-31)
%j     day of the year (001-366)
%w     weekday as a number, with 0 representing Sunday (0-6)
%u     weekday as a number, with 1 representing Monday (1-7)

Time
%H    hour (24-hour clock) (00-23)
%k     hour (24-hour clock); single digits preceded by space ( 0-23)
%I     hour (12-hour clock) (01-12)
%l     hour (12-hour clock); single digits preceded by space ( 1-12)
%M     minute (00-59)
%S     seconds (00-59)
%p     either AM or PM AM
%Z     timezone name or abbreviation EDT
%z     timezone offset from UTC -0400

Summaries
%D     date, same as %m/%d/%y 05/16/07
%v     date, same as %e-%b-%Y 16-May-2007
%F     date, same as %Y-%m-%d 2007-05-16
%R     time, 24 hour notation, same as %H:%M 18:06
%T     time, 24 hour notation, same as %H:%M:%S 18:06:15
%r     time, am/pm notation, same as %I:%M:%S %p 06:06:15 PM

Formatting
%n     newline character
%t     tab character
%%     percent character

Less common formats
%s    number of seconds since the Epoch, UTC
%c     national date and time representation
%+    national date and time representation
%x     national date representation
%X     national time representation
%G     year with century, starting on first Monday where week has 4 or more days.
%g    year without century, starting on first Monday where week has 4 or more days.
%V     week number of the year, starting on first Monday where week has 4 or more days.

Идиома для плагинов (или расширение функциональности классов)

module PluginName
  def self.included(base)
    base.extend(ClassMethods)
    base.class_eval do
      include InstanceMethods

      #Сюда также вставляются AR ассоциации bt,hm,hmabtm и т.д.
    end
  end

  module ClassMethods
  end

  module InstanceMethods
  end
end

ActiveRecord::Base.send :include, Yaffle 


Инициализация класса по имени
"Имя класск".constantize