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The Stopwatch Component

The Stopwatch component provides a way to profile code, measuring both timing and memory usage.

ATTENTION Memory usage measurement is a really complex topic in PHP: please, be careful and use this component only for basic purposes. For more advanced measurements, use a more accurate tool like xDebug or Blackfire.

This component is a fork of the Symfony's Stopwatch component, so you can check its Documentation for further information.

Improvements introduced in this version are waiting for merge in the main Symfony's Stopwatch component.

Features:

  • Timing measurement
  • Memory measurement (consumed, allocated, peak consumed by emalloc(), peak allocated)
  • Divide profiles in sections
  • Divide sections in events
  • Group events in categories
  • Start and stop
  • Lap functionality
  • Precision measurement

Requirements

  • PHP: >= 7.2

Installation

.. code-block:: terminal

$ composer require serendipity_hq/stopwatch

Alternatively, you can clone the <https://github.com/aerendir/stopwatch>_ repository.

This library follows the http://semver.org/ versioning conventions.

How to use Stopwatch

Stopwatch component allows to profile each part of your code as you like, being really precise.

The Stopwatch component provides an easy and consistent way to measure execution time and memory usage info of certain parts of code so that you don't constantly have to parse microtime by yourself.

Instead, use the simple SerendipityHQ\Component\Stopwatch\Stopwatch class:

use Symfony\Component\Stopwatch\Stopwatch;

// Initialize the class
$stopwatch = new Stopwatch();

Unlike the Symfony's Stopwatch Component that accepts a true parameter ($morePrecision), SerendipityHQ's Stopwatch Component always measures time with microsecond precision, so you don't need to pass any parameter to the constructor.

// This is the Symfony's Stopwatch way
$stopwatch = new Stopwatch(true);

// This is the SerendipityHQ's Stopwatch way: always microseconds precision
$stopwatch = new Stopwatch();

Now you can start measurements:

// ...

// Starts event named 'event_name'
$stopwatch->start('event_name');

// ... some code goes here

// Stop the event and get it
$event = $stopwatch->stop('event_name');

$event is a Event object from which you can get the profiling information.

Basic concepts

Measurements

Stopwatch component has three main concepts when it comes to measurements:

  1. Periods: The time passed between the start ($stopwatch->start('event_name)) and the stop ($stopwatch->stop('event_name);
  2. Events: Something that is happening in your code and that you like to measure. It contains the Periods;
  3. Sections: A group of events logically connected.
  4. origins: Available for Events and Sections, are the start time and memory measurements taken on creation of an Event or of a Section and the time and memory measurements of the last time $stopwatch->stop('event_name') was called.

Each one of those is represented by a class, but you have to only interact with the main Stopwatch class.

The Stopwatch class exposes those methods for measurements:

// To manage Events
$stopwatch->start('event_name', 'event_category'); // Starts an event starting a new Period
$stopwatch->stop('event_name');                    // Stops the current Period
$stopwatch->lap('event_name');                     // Stops the current Period and starts a new one.
                                                   // Equals to $stopwatch->stop('event_name')->start('event_name')

// To manage Sections
$stopwatch->openSection();
$stopwatch->stopSection('section_name');

// Other methods
$stopwatch->reset();

Events and Periods

An Event is something that is happening in you application: routing, image processing, a cycle, ecc.

An Event, using Periods and origins, measures the time that passes.

Origins are the start time and memory measurements and the time and memory measurements of the last time $stopwatch->stop('event_name') was called.

So an Event is basically a collection of Periods.

You can optionally give a category to an Event: this way you can logically group Events in the same category:

// Starts event named 'event_name'
$stopwatch->start('event_name', 'event_category');

Categories are used, for example, by the Symfony WebProfileBundle to show a timeline with color-coded events.

Image

In the image, "default", "section", "event_listener", ecc. are all categories of Events.

You can get the Event object calling:

$stopwatch->start('event_name')
$stopwatch->stop('event_name')
$stopwatch->lap('event_name')
$stopwatch->getEvent('event_name')

The latter should be used when you need to retrieve the duration of an event while it is still running.

The Event object stores basically two kind of information: memory consumption and timing.

You can get all this useful information from the event object:

$event->getCategory();          // Returns the category the event was started in
$event->getOrigin();            // Returns the event start time in milliseconds
$event->ensureStopped();        // Stops all periods not already stopped
$event->getStartTime();         // Returns the start time of the very first period
$event->getEndTime();           // Returns the end time of the very last period
$event->getDuration();          // Returns the event duration, including all periods
$event->getMemory();            // Of all periods, gets the max memory amount assigned
                                // to PHP (measured with memory_get_usage(true))
$event->getMemoryCurrent();     // Of all periods, gets the max amount of memory used
                                // by the script (measured with memory_get_usage())
$event->getMemoryPeak();        // Of all periods, gets the max peak amount of memory
                                // assigned to PHP (measured with memory_get_peak_usage(true))
$event->getMemoryPeakEmalloc(); // Of all periods, gets the max amount of memory assigned
                                // to PHP and used by emalloc() (measured with memory_get_peak_usage())

Additionally to this, the Event object stores also Periods.

As you know from the real world, all stopwatches come with two buttons: one to start and stop the stopwatch, and another to measure the lap time.

This is exactly what the Stopwatch::lap() method does::

    // ...
    
    // starts event named 'process_elements'
    $stopwatch->start('process_elements');
    
    // Maybe here some other code
    
    // Start cycling the elements
    foreach ($lements as $element) {
        // Process the $element
        
        // At the end use lap() to stop the timer and start a new Period
        $stopwatch->lap('process_elements');
        
    }
    
    // ... Some other code goes here
    
    // Finally stop the Event and get it to get information about timing and memory
    $event = $stopwatch->stop('process_elements');

Lap information is stored as "periods" within the event.

To get detailed information about timing and memory for each lap, call:

// Get all Periods measured in the Event
$periods = $event->getPeriods();

Sections

Sections are a way to logically split the timeline into groups.

You can see how Symfony uses sections to nicely visualize the framework lifecycle in the Symfony Profiler tool:

Image

In the image, "kernel_request" is a Section.

Exapanding on the previous example, try implment somthing to use the Sections:

    // ...

    // Open a section
    $stopwatch->openSection();
    
    // Start the event assigning the category "numbers"
    $stopwatch->start('fibonacci_event', 'numbers');
    
    // Execute the code
    dump('fibonacci_event result', '-------------', '');
    $prev = 0;
    $next = 1;
    while($prev < 10000000000000) {
        $num = $prev + $next;

        dump($num);

        $prev = $next;
        $next = $num;

        // Get a lap (returns the current event to be used if you like!)
        $stopwatch->lap('fibonacci_event');
    }

    // Stop the event
    $stopwatch->stop('fibonacci_event');

    // Start a new event assigning the category "geometry"
    $stopwatch->start('square_numbers_event', 'geometry');
    
    // Execute the code
    dump('square_numbers_event result', '-------------', '');
    $root = 0;
    while ($root < 50) {
        dump($root * $root); // or pow($root, 2);

        $root++;

        // Get a lap (returns the current event to be used if you like!)
        $stopwatch->lap('square_numbers_event');
    }

    // Stop the event
    $stopwatch->stop('square_numbers_event');
    
    // Stop the section assigning it a name (yes, when closing, not when opening!)
    $stopwatch->stopSection('fibonacci_and_squares');

    // Open a new section
    $stopwatch->openSection();

    // Start a new event assigning the category "geometry"
    $stopwatch->start('triangle_numbers_event', 'geometry');

    // Execute some code
    dump('triangle_numbers_event result', '-------------', '');
    for($i = 1; $i <= 10; $i++) {
        $triangle = [];

        for($j = 1; $j <= $i; $j++) {
            $triangle[] = $j;
        }

        dump(implode(' ', $triangle));

        // Get a lap (returns the current event to be used if you like!)
        $stopwatch->lap('triangle_numbers_event');
    }
    
    // Stop the event
    $stopwatch->stop('triangle_numbers_event');

    // Start a new event assigning the category "numbers"
    $stopwatch->start('magic_square', 'numbers');

    // Execute some code
    dump('magic_square result', '-------------', '');
    $order = 5;

    for ($row = 0; $row < $order; $row++) {
        $rows = [];
        for ($col = 0; $col < $order; $col++) {
            $rowMatrix = ((($order + 1) / 2 + $row + $col) % $order);
            $colMatrix = ((($order + 1) / 2 + $row + $order - $col - 1) % $order) + 1;

            $rows[] = $rowMatrix * $order + $colMatrix;
        }

        dump(implode(' ', $rows));

        // Get a lap (returns the current event to be used if you like!)
        $stopwatch->lap('magic_square');
    }

    // Stop the event
    $stopwatch->stop('magic_square');

    // Stop the section assigning it a name (yes, when closing, not when opening!)
    $stopwatch->stopSection('triangle_numbersand_magic_square');


    dd($stopwatch);

You can reopen a closed section by calling $stopwatch::openSection('section_name').

So, for example, if we would like to add to the section fibonacci_and_squares another Event, we do:

$stopwatch->openSection('fibonacci_and_squares');

// Start another event, execute other code...

// Stop the event and then stop the section again

Memory

As told, measuring memory in PHP is task not so simple and also not so precise.

Using the Stopwatch component itself, you consume memory (a really small amount, but anyway an amount!), so when measuring the memory consumption you get cumulative results.

This means, for example, that if you run two scripts on your server and measure memory only from one, the memory measurements you get are anyway influenced by the other not measured script.

Take this into account when reading the results of the Stopwatch.

If you want to get more accurate measurements, you should consider using a more advanced tool for profiling like Blackfire that can be used also in production.

There are other caveats, too, but this is the most important one.

In long running processes, where you need to profile a lot of code in a long period of time, the ´Stopwatchcomponent may become very "fat" as it stores a lot ofEvents, Periods and maybe of Section`s.

In such situation maybe useful to optimize the amount of memory used by PHP ánd so, by Stopwatch too).

So, if you like, you can call $stopwatch->reset() method to erease from the Stopwatch object all the information collected, freeing up memory.

Obviously, once called, the information collected until that moment will not be available anymore, so it is a good idea to "save" them somewhere (in the database, in the logs or anywhere else).

Resources

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