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//
// MultipartFormData.swift
//
// Copyright (c) 2014-2018 Alamofire Software Foundation (http://alamofire.org/)
//
// Permission is hereby granted, free of charge, to any person obtaining a copy
// of this software and associated documentation files (the "Software"), to deal
// in the Software without restriction, including without limitation the rights
// to use, copy, modify, merge, publish, distribute, sublicense, and/or sell
// copies of the Software, and to permit persons to whom the Software is
// furnished to do so, subject to the following conditions:
//
// The above copyright notice and this permission notice shall be included in
// all copies or substantial portions of the Software.
//
// THE SOFTWARE IS PROVIDED "AS IS", WITHOUT WARRANTY OF ANY KIND, EXPRESS OR
// IMPLIED, INCLUDING BUT NOT LIMITED TO THE WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY,
// FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE AND NONINFRINGEMENT. IN NO EVENT SHALL THE
// AUTHORS OR COPYRIGHT HOLDERS BE LIABLE FOR ANY CLAIM, DAMAGES OR OTHER
// LIABILITY, WHETHER IN AN ACTION OF CONTRACT, TORT OR OTHERWISE, ARISING FROM,
// OUT OF OR IN CONNECTION WITH THE SOFTWARE OR THE USE OR OTHER DEALINGS IN
// THE SOFTWARE.
//
import Foundation
#if os(iOS) || os(watchOS) || os(tvOS)
import MobileCoreServices
#elseif os(macOS)
import CoreServices
#endif
/// Constructs `multipart/form-data` for uploads within an HTTP or HTTPS body. There are currently two ways to encode
/// multipart form data. The first way is to encode the data directly in memory. This is very efficient, but can lead
/// to memory issues if the dataset is too large. The second way is designed for larger datasets and will write all the
/// data to a single file on disk with all the proper boundary segmentation. The second approach MUST be used for
/// larger datasets such as video content, otherwise your app may run out of memory when trying to encode the dataset.
///
/// For more information on `multipart/form-data` in general, please refer to the RFC-2388 and RFC-2045 specs as well
/// and the w3 form documentation.
///
/// - https://www.ietf.org/rfc/rfc2388.txt
/// - https://www.ietf.org/rfc/rfc2045.txt
/// - https://www.w3.org/TR/html401/interact/forms.html#h-17.13
open class MultipartFormData {
// MARK: - Helper Types
struct EncodingCharacters {
static let crlf = "\r\n"
}
struct BoundaryGenerator {
enum BoundaryType {
case initial, encapsulated, final
}
static func randomBoundary() -> String {
return String(format: "alamofire.boundary.%08x%08x", arc4random(), arc4random())
}
static func boundaryData(forBoundaryType boundaryType: BoundaryType, boundary: String) -> Data {
let boundaryText: String
switch boundaryType {
case .initial:
boundaryText = "--\(boundary)\(EncodingCharacters.crlf)"
case .encapsulated:
boundaryText = "\(EncodingCharacters.crlf)--\(boundary)\(EncodingCharacters.crlf)"
case .final:
boundaryText = "\(EncodingCharacters.crlf)--\(boundary)--\(EncodingCharacters.crlf)"
}
return Data(boundaryText.utf8)
}
}
class BodyPart {
let headers: HTTPHeaders
let bodyStream: InputStream
let bodyContentLength: UInt64
var hasInitialBoundary = false
var hasFinalBoundary = false
init(headers: HTTPHeaders, bodyStream: InputStream, bodyContentLength: UInt64) {
self.headers = headers
self.bodyStream = bodyStream
self.bodyContentLength = bodyContentLength
}
}
// MARK: - Properties
/// The `Content-Type` header value containing the boundary used to generate the `multipart/form-data`.
open lazy var contentType: String = "multipart/form-data; boundary=\(self.boundary)"
/// The content length of all body parts used to generate the `multipart/form-data` not including the boundaries.
public var contentLength: UInt64 { return bodyParts.reduce(0) { $0 + $1.bodyContentLength } }
/// The boundary used to separate the body parts in the encoded form data.
public let boundary: String
private let fileManager: FileManager
private var bodyParts: [BodyPart]
private var bodyPartError: AFError?
private let streamBufferSize: Int
// MARK: - Lifecycle
/// Creates a multipart form data object.
///
/// - returns: The multipart form data object.
public init(fileManager: FileManager = .default, boundary: String? = nil) {
self.fileManager = fileManager
self.boundary = boundary ?? BoundaryGenerator.randomBoundary()
self.bodyParts = []
///
/// The optimal read/write buffer size in bytes for input and output streams is 1024 (1KB). For more
/// information, please refer to the following article:
/// - https://developer.apple.com/library/mac/documentation/Cocoa/Conceptual/Streams/Articles/ReadingInputStreams.html
///
self.streamBufferSize = 1024
}
// MARK: - Body Parts
/// Creates a body part from the data and appends it to the multipart form data object.
///
/// The body part data will be encoded using the following format:
///
/// - `Content-Disposition: form-data; name=#{name}` (HTTP Header)
/// - Encoded data
/// - Multipart form boundary
///
/// - parameter data: The data to encode into the multipart form data.
/// - parameter name: The name to associate with the data in the `Content-Disposition` HTTP header.
public func append(_ data: Data, withName name: String) {
let headers = contentHeaders(withName: name)
let stream = InputStream(data: data)
let length = UInt64(data.count)
append(stream, withLength: length, headers: headers)
}
/// Creates a body part from the data and appends it to the multipart form data object.
///
/// The body part data will be encoded using the following format:
///
/// - `Content-Disposition: form-data; name=#{name}` (HTTP Header)
/// - `Content-Type: #{generated mimeType}` (HTTP Header)
/// - Encoded data
/// - Multipart form boundary
///
/// - parameter data: The data to encode into the multipart form data.
/// - parameter name: The name to associate with the data in the `Content-Disposition` HTTP header.
/// - parameter mimeType: The MIME type to associate with the data content type in the `Content-Type` HTTP header.
public func append(_ data: Data, withName name: String, mimeType: String) {
let headers = contentHeaders(withName: name, mimeType: mimeType)
let stream = InputStream(data: data)
let length = UInt64(data.count)
append(stream, withLength: length, headers: headers)
}
/// Creates a body part from the data and appends it to the multipart form data object.
///
/// The body part data will be encoded using the following format:
///
/// - `Content-Disposition: form-data; name=#{name}; filename=#{filename}` (HTTP Header)
/// - `Content-Type: #{mimeType}` (HTTP Header)
/// - Encoded file data
/// - Multipart form boundary
///
/// - parameter data: The data to encode into the multipart form data.
/// - parameter name: The name to associate with the data in the `Content-Disposition` HTTP header.
/// - parameter fileName: The filename to associate with the data in the `Content-Disposition` HTTP header.
/// - parameter mimeType: The MIME type to associate with the data in the `Content-Type` HTTP header.
public func append(_ data: Data, withName name: String, fileName: String, mimeType: String) {
let headers = contentHeaders(withName: name, fileName: fileName, mimeType: mimeType)
let stream = InputStream(data: data)
let length = UInt64(data.count)
append(stream, withLength: length, headers: headers)
}
/// Creates a body part from the file and appends it to the multipart form data object.
///
/// The body part data will be encoded using the following format:
///
/// - `Content-Disposition: form-data; name=#{name}; filename=#{generated filename}` (HTTP Header)
/// - `Content-Type: #{generated mimeType}` (HTTP Header)
/// - Encoded file data
/// - Multipart form boundary
///
/// The filename in the `Content-Disposition` HTTP header is generated from the last path component of the
/// `fileURL`. The `Content-Type` HTTP header MIME type is generated by mapping the `fileURL` extension to the
/// system associated MIME type.
///
/// - parameter fileURL: The URL of the file whose content will be encoded into the multipart form data.
/// - parameter name: The name to associate with the file content in the `Content-Disposition` HTTP header.
public func append(_ fileURL: URL, withName name: String) {
let fileName = fileURL.lastPathComponent
let pathExtension = fileURL.pathExtension
if !fileName.isEmpty && !pathExtension.isEmpty {
let mime = mimeType(forPathExtension: pathExtension)
append(fileURL, withName: name, fileName: fileName, mimeType: mime)
} else {
setBodyPartError(withReason: .bodyPartFilenameInvalid(in: fileURL))
}
}
/// Creates a body part from the file and appends it to the multipart form data object.
///
/// The body part data will be encoded using the following format:
///
/// - Content-Disposition: form-data; name=#{name}; filename=#{filename} (HTTP Header)
/// - Content-Type: #{mimeType} (HTTP Header)
/// - Encoded file data
/// - Multipart form boundary
///
/// - parameter fileURL: The URL of the file whose content will be encoded into the multipart form data.
/// - parameter name: The name to associate with the file content in the `Content-Disposition` HTTP header.
/// - parameter fileName: The filename to associate with the file content in the `Content-Disposition` HTTP header.
/// - parameter mimeType: The MIME type to associate with the file content in the `Content-Type` HTTP header.
public func append(_ fileURL: URL, withName name: String, fileName: String, mimeType: String) {
let headers = contentHeaders(withName: name, fileName: fileName, mimeType: mimeType)
//============================================================
// Check 1 - is file URL?
//============================================================
guard fileURL.isFileURL else {
setBodyPartError(withReason: .bodyPartURLInvalid(url: fileURL))
return
}
//============================================================
// Check 2 - is file URL reachable?
//============================================================
do {
let isReachable = try fileURL.checkPromisedItemIsReachable()
guard isReachable else {
setBodyPartError(withReason: .bodyPartFileNotReachable(at: fileURL))
return
}
} catch {
setBodyPartError(withReason: .bodyPartFileNotReachableWithError(atURL: fileURL, error: error))
return
}
//============================================================
// Check 3 - is file URL a directory?
//============================================================
var isDirectory: ObjCBool = false
let path = fileURL.path
guard fileManager.fileExists(atPath: path, isDirectory: &isDirectory) && !isDirectory.boolValue else {
setBodyPartError(withReason: .bodyPartFileIsDirectory(at: fileURL))
return
}
//============================================================
// Check 4 - can the file size be extracted?
//============================================================
let bodyContentLength: UInt64
do {
guard let fileSize = try fileManager.attributesOfItem(atPath: path)[.size] as? NSNumber else {
setBodyPartError(withReason: .bodyPartFileSizeNotAvailable(at: fileURL))
return
}
bodyContentLength = fileSize.uint64Value
}
catch {
setBodyPartError(withReason: .bodyPartFileSizeQueryFailedWithError(forURL: fileURL, error: error))
return
}
//============================================================
// Check 5 - can a stream be created from file URL?
//============================================================
guard let stream = InputStream(url: fileURL) else {
setBodyPartError(withReason: .bodyPartInputStreamCreationFailed(for: fileURL))
return
}
append(stream, withLength: bodyContentLength, headers: headers)
}
/// Creates a body part from the stream and appends it to the multipart form data object.
///
/// The body part data will be encoded using the following format:
///
/// - `Content-Disposition: form-data; name=#{name}; filename=#{filename}` (HTTP Header)
/// - `Content-Type: #{mimeType}` (HTTP Header)
/// - Encoded stream data
/// - Multipart form boundary
///
/// - parameter stream: The input stream to encode in the multipart form data.
/// - parameter length: The content length of the stream.
/// - parameter name: The name to associate with the stream content in the `Content-Disposition` HTTP header.
/// - parameter fileName: The filename to associate with the stream content in the `Content-Disposition` HTTP header.
/// - parameter mimeType: The MIME type to associate with the stream content in the `Content-Type` HTTP header.
public func append(
_ stream: InputStream,
withLength length: UInt64,
name: String,
fileName: String,
mimeType: String)
{
let headers = contentHeaders(withName: name, fileName: fileName, mimeType: mimeType)
append(stream, withLength: length, headers: headers)
}
/// Creates a body part with the headers, stream and length and appends it to the multipart form data object.
///
/// The body part data will be encoded using the following format:
///
/// - HTTP headers
/// - Encoded stream data
/// - Multipart form boundary
///
/// - parameter stream: The input stream to encode in the multipart form data.
/// - parameter length: The content length of the stream.
/// - parameter headers: The HTTP headers for the body part.
public func append(_ stream: InputStream, withLength length: UInt64, headers: HTTPHeaders) {
let bodyPart = BodyPart(headers: headers, bodyStream: stream, bodyContentLength: length)
bodyParts.append(bodyPart)
}
// MARK: - Data Encoding
/// Encodes all the appended body parts into a single `Data` value.
///
/// It is important to note that this method will load all the appended body parts into memory all at the same
/// time. This method should only be used when the encoded data will have a small memory footprint. For large data
/// cases, please use the `writeEncodedData(to:))` method.
///
/// - throws: An `AFError` if encoding encounters an error.
///
/// - returns: The encoded `Data` if encoding is successful.
public func encode() throws -> Data {
if let bodyPartError = bodyPartError {
throw bodyPartError
}
var encoded = Data()
bodyParts.first?.hasInitialBoundary = true
bodyParts.last?.hasFinalBoundary = true
for bodyPart in bodyParts {
let encodedData = try encode(bodyPart)
encoded.append(encodedData)
}
return encoded
}
/// Writes the appended body parts into the given file URL.
///
/// This process is facilitated by reading and writing with input and output streams, respectively. Thus,
/// this approach is very memory efficient and should be used for large body part data.
///
/// - parameter fileURL: The file URL to write the multipart form data into.
///
/// - throws: An `AFError` if encoding encounters an error.
public func writeEncodedData(to fileURL: URL) throws {
if let bodyPartError = bodyPartError {
throw bodyPartError
}
if fileManager.fileExists(atPath: fileURL.path) {
throw AFError.multipartEncodingFailed(reason: .outputStreamFileAlreadyExists(at: fileURL))
} else if !fileURL.isFileURL {
throw AFError.multipartEncodingFailed(reason: .outputStreamURLInvalid(url: fileURL))
}
guard let outputStream = OutputStream(url: fileURL, append: false) else {
throw AFError.multipartEncodingFailed(reason: .outputStreamCreationFailed(for: fileURL))
}
outputStream.open()
defer { outputStream.close() }
self.bodyParts.first?.hasInitialBoundary = true
self.bodyParts.last?.hasFinalBoundary = true
for bodyPart in self.bodyParts {
try write(bodyPart, to: outputStream)
}
}
// MARK: - Private - Body Part Encoding
private func encode(_ bodyPart: BodyPart) throws -> Data {
var encoded = Data()
let initialData = bodyPart.hasInitialBoundary ? initialBoundaryData() : encapsulatedBoundaryData()
encoded.append(initialData)
let headerData = encodeHeaders(for: bodyPart)
encoded.append(headerData)
let bodyStreamData = try encodeBodyStream(for: bodyPart)
encoded.append(bodyStreamData)
if bodyPart.hasFinalBoundary {
encoded.append(finalBoundaryData())
}
return encoded
}
private func encodeHeaders(for bodyPart: BodyPart) -> Data {
let headerText = bodyPart.headers.map { "\($0.name): \($0.value)\(EncodingCharacters.crlf)" }
.joined()
+ EncodingCharacters.crlf
return Data(headerText.utf8)
}
private func encodeBodyStream(for bodyPart: BodyPart) throws -> Data {
let inputStream = bodyPart.bodyStream
inputStream.open()
defer { inputStream.close() }
var encoded = Data()
while inputStream.hasBytesAvailable {
var buffer = [UInt8](repeating: 0, count: streamBufferSize)
let bytesRead = inputStream.read(&buffer, maxLength: streamBufferSize)
if let error = inputStream.streamError {
throw AFError.multipartEncodingFailed(reason: .inputStreamReadFailed(error: error))
}
if bytesRead > 0 {
encoded.append(buffer, count: bytesRead)
} else {
break
}
}
return encoded
}
// MARK: - Private - Writing Body Part to Output Stream
private func write(_ bodyPart: BodyPart, to outputStream: OutputStream) throws {
try writeInitialBoundaryData(for: bodyPart, to: outputStream)
try writeHeaderData(for: bodyPart, to: outputStream)
try writeBodyStream(for: bodyPart, to: outputStream)
try writeFinalBoundaryData(for: bodyPart, to: outputStream)
}
private func writeInitialBoundaryData(for bodyPart: BodyPart, to outputStream: OutputStream) throws {
let initialData = bodyPart.hasInitialBoundary ? initialBoundaryData() : encapsulatedBoundaryData()
return try write(initialData, to: outputStream)
}
private func writeHeaderData(for bodyPart: BodyPart, to outputStream: OutputStream) throws {
let headerData = encodeHeaders(for: bodyPart)
return try write(headerData, to: outputStream)
}
private func writeBodyStream(for bodyPart: BodyPart, to outputStream: OutputStream) throws {
let inputStream = bodyPart.bodyStream
inputStream.open()
defer { inputStream.close() }
while inputStream.hasBytesAvailable {
var buffer = [UInt8](repeating: 0, count: streamBufferSize)
let bytesRead = inputStream.read(&buffer, maxLength: streamBufferSize)
if let streamError = inputStream.streamError {
throw AFError.multipartEncodingFailed(reason: .inputStreamReadFailed(error: streamError))
}
if bytesRead > 0 {
if buffer.count != bytesRead {
buffer = Array(buffer[0..<bytesRead])
}
try write(&buffer, to: outputStream)
} else {
break
}
}
}
private func writeFinalBoundaryData(for bodyPart: BodyPart, to outputStream: OutputStream) throws {
if bodyPart.hasFinalBoundary {
return try write(finalBoundaryData(), to: outputStream)
}
}
// MARK: - Private - Writing Buffered Data to Output Stream
private func write(_ data: Data, to outputStream: OutputStream) throws {
var buffer = [UInt8](repeating: 0, count: data.count)
data.copyBytes(to: &buffer, count: data.count)
return try write(&buffer, to: outputStream)
}
private func write(_ buffer: inout [UInt8], to outputStream: OutputStream) throws {
var bytesToWrite = buffer.count
while bytesToWrite > 0, outputStream.hasSpaceAvailable {
let bytesWritten = outputStream.write(buffer, maxLength: bytesToWrite)
if let error = outputStream.streamError {
throw AFError.multipartEncodingFailed(reason: .outputStreamWriteFailed(error: error))
}
bytesToWrite -= bytesWritten
if bytesToWrite > 0 {
buffer = Array(buffer[bytesWritten..<buffer.count])
}
}
}
// MARK: - Private - Mime Type
private func mimeType(forPathExtension pathExtension: String) -> String {
if
let id = UTTypeCreatePreferredIdentifierForTag(kUTTagClassFilenameExtension, pathExtension as CFString, nil)?.takeRetainedValue(),
let contentType = UTTypeCopyPreferredTagWithClass(id, kUTTagClassMIMEType)?.takeRetainedValue()
{
return contentType as String
}
return "application/octet-stream"
}
// MARK: - Private - Content Headers
private func contentHeaders(withName name: String, fileName: String? = nil, mimeType: String? = nil) -> HTTPHeaders {
var disposition = "form-data; name=\"\(name)\""
if let fileName = fileName { disposition += "; filename=\"\(fileName)\"" }
var headers: HTTPHeaders = [.contentDisposition(disposition)]
if let mimeType = mimeType { headers.add(.contentType(mimeType)) }
return headers
}
// MARK: - Private - Boundary Encoding
private func initialBoundaryData() -> Data {
return BoundaryGenerator.boundaryData(forBoundaryType: .initial, boundary: boundary)
}
private func encapsulatedBoundaryData() -> Data {
return BoundaryGenerator.boundaryData(forBoundaryType: .encapsulated, boundary: boundary)
}
private func finalBoundaryData() -> Data {
return BoundaryGenerator.boundaryData(forBoundaryType: .final, boundary: boundary)
}
// MARK: - Private - Errors
private func setBodyPartError(withReason reason: AFError.MultipartEncodingFailureReason) {
guard bodyPartError == nil else { return }
bodyPartError = AFError.multipartEncodingFailed(reason: reason)
}
}