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//
// ParameterEncoding.swift
//
// Copyright (c) 2014-2018 Alamofire Software Foundation (http://alamofire.org/)
//
// Permission is hereby granted, free of charge, to any person obtaining a copy
// of this software and associated documentation files (the "Software"), to deal
// in the Software without restriction, including without limitation the rights
// to use, copy, modify, merge, publish, distribute, sublicense, and/or sell
// copies of the Software, and to permit persons to whom the Software is
// furnished to do so, subject to the following conditions:
//
// The above copyright notice and this permission notice shall be included in
// all copies or substantial portions of the Software.
//
// THE SOFTWARE IS PROVIDED "AS IS", WITHOUT WARRANTY OF ANY KIND, EXPRESS OR
// IMPLIED, INCLUDING BUT NOT LIMITED TO THE WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY,
// FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE AND NONINFRINGEMENT. IN NO EVENT SHALL THE
// AUTHORS OR COPYRIGHT HOLDERS BE LIABLE FOR ANY CLAIM, DAMAGES OR OTHER
// LIABILITY, WHETHER IN AN ACTION OF CONTRACT, TORT OR OTHERWISE, ARISING FROM,
// OUT OF OR IN CONNECTION WITH THE SOFTWARE OR THE USE OR OTHER DEALINGS IN
// THE SOFTWARE.
//
import Foundation
/// HTTP method definitions.
///
/// See https://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc7231#section-4.3
public enum HTTPMethod: String {
case options = "OPTIONS"
case get = "GET"
case head = "HEAD"
case post = "POST"
case put = "PUT"
case patch = "PATCH"
case delete = "DELETE"
case trace = "TRACE"
case connect = "CONNECT"
}
// MARK: -
/// A dictionary of parameters to apply to a `URLRequest`.
public typealias Parameters = [String: Any]
/// A type used to define how a set of parameters are applied to a `URLRequest`.
public protocol ParameterEncoding {
/// Creates a URL request by encoding parameters and applying them onto an existing request.
///
/// - parameter urlRequest: The request to have parameters applied.
/// - parameter parameters: The parameters to apply.
///
/// - throws: An `AFError.parameterEncodingFailed` error if encoding fails.
///
/// - returns: The encoded request.
func encode(_ urlRequest: URLRequestConvertible, with parameters: Parameters?) throws -> URLRequest
}
// MARK: -
/// Creates a url-encoded query string to be set as or appended to any existing URL query string or set as the HTTP
/// body of the URL request. Whether the query string is set or appended to any existing URL query string or set as
/// the HTTP body depends on the destination of the encoding.
///
/// The `Content-Type` HTTP header field of an encoded request with HTTP body is set to
/// `application/x-www-form-urlencoded; charset=utf-8`.
///
/// There is no published specification for how to encode collection types. By default the convention of appending
/// `[]` to the key for array values (`foo[]=1&foo[]=2`), and appending the key surrounded by square brackets for
/// nested dictionary values (`foo[bar]=baz`) is used. Optionally, `ArrayEncoding` can be used to omit the
/// square brackets appended to array keys.
///
/// `BoolEncoding` can be used to configure how boolean values are encoded. The default behavior is to encode
/// `true` as 1 and `false` as 0.
public struct URLEncoding: ParameterEncoding {
// MARK: Helper Types
/// Defines whether the url-encoded query string is applied to the existing query string or HTTP body of the
/// resulting URL request.
///
/// - methodDependent: Applies encoded query string result to existing query string for `GET`, `HEAD` and `DELETE`
/// requests and sets as the HTTP body for requests with any other HTTP method.
/// - queryString: Sets or appends encoded query string result to existing query string.
/// - httpBody: Sets encoded query string result as the HTTP body of the URL request.
public enum Destination {
case methodDependent, queryString, httpBody
}
/// Configures how `Array` parameters are encoded.
///
/// - brackets: An empty set of square brackets is appended to the key for every value.
/// This is the default behavior.
/// - noBrackets: No brackets are appended. The key is encoded as is.
public enum ArrayEncoding {
case brackets, noBrackets
func encode(key: String) -> String {
switch self {
case .brackets:
return "\(key)[]"
case .noBrackets:
return key
}
}
}
/// Configures how `Bool` parameters are encoded.
///
/// - numeric: Encode `true` as `1` and `false` as `0`. This is the default behavior.
/// - literal: Encode `true` and `false` as string literals.
public enum BoolEncoding {
case numeric, literal
func encode(value: Bool) -> String {
switch self {
case .numeric:
return value ? "1" : "0"
case .literal:
return value ? "true" : "false"
}
}
}
// MARK: Properties
/// Returns a default `URLEncoding` instance.
public static var `default`: URLEncoding { return URLEncoding() }
/// Returns a `URLEncoding` instance with a `.methodDependent` destination.
public static var methodDependent: URLEncoding { return URLEncoding() }
/// Returns a `URLEncoding` instance with a `.queryString` destination.
public static var queryString: URLEncoding { return URLEncoding(destination: .queryString) }
/// Returns a `URLEncoding` instance with an `.httpBody` destination.
public static var httpBody: URLEncoding { return URLEncoding(destination: .httpBody) }
/// The destination defining where the encoded query string is to be applied to the URL request.
public let destination: Destination
/// The encoding to use for `Array` parameters.
public let arrayEncoding: ArrayEncoding
/// The encoding to use for `Bool` parameters.
public let boolEncoding: BoolEncoding
// MARK: Initialization
/// Creates a `URLEncoding` instance using the specified destination.
///
/// - parameter destination: The destination defining where the encoded query string is to be applied.
/// - parameter arrayEncoding: The encoding to use for `Array` parameters.
/// - parameter boolEncoding: The encoding to use for `Bool` parameters.
///
/// - returns: The new `URLEncoding` instance.
public init(destination: Destination = .methodDependent, arrayEncoding: ArrayEncoding = .brackets, boolEncoding: BoolEncoding = .numeric) {
self.destination = destination
self.arrayEncoding = arrayEncoding
self.boolEncoding = boolEncoding
}
// MARK: Encoding
/// Creates a URL request by encoding parameters and applying them onto an existing request.
///
/// - parameter urlRequest: The request to have parameters applied.
/// - parameter parameters: The parameters to apply.
///
/// - throws: An `Error` if the encoding process encounters an error.
///
/// - returns: The encoded request.
public func encode(_ urlRequest: URLRequestConvertible, with parameters: Parameters?) throws -> URLRequest {
var urlRequest = try urlRequest.asURLRequest()
guard let parameters = parameters else { return urlRequest }
if let method = HTTPMethod(rawValue: urlRequest.httpMethod ?? "GET"), encodesParametersInURL(with: method) {
guard let url = urlRequest.url else {
throw AFError.parameterEncodingFailed(reason: .missingURL)
}
if var urlComponents = URLComponents(url: url, resolvingAgainstBaseURL: false), !parameters.isEmpty {
let percentEncodedQuery = (urlComponents.percentEncodedQuery.map { $0 + "&" } ?? "") + query(parameters)
urlComponents.percentEncodedQuery = percentEncodedQuery
urlRequest.url = urlComponents.url
}
} else {
if urlRequest.value(forHTTPHeaderField: "Content-Type") == nil {
urlRequest.setValue("application/x-www-form-urlencoded; charset=utf-8", forHTTPHeaderField: "Content-Type")
}
urlRequest.httpBody = query(parameters).data(using: .utf8, allowLossyConversion: false)
}
return urlRequest
}
/// Creates percent-escaped, URL encoded query string components from the given key-value pair using recursion.
///
/// - parameter key: The key of the query component.
/// - parameter value: The value of the query component.
///
/// - returns: The percent-escaped, URL encoded query string components.
public func queryComponents(fromKey key: String, value: Any) -> [(String, String)] {
var components: [(String, String)] = []
if let dictionary = value as? [String: Any] {
for (nestedKey, value) in dictionary {
components += queryComponents(fromKey: "\(key)[\(nestedKey)]", value: value)
}
} else if let array = value as? [Any] {
for value in array {
components += queryComponents(fromKey: arrayEncoding.encode(key: key), value: value)
}
} else if let value = value as? NSNumber {
if value.isBool {
components.append((escape(key), escape(boolEncoding.encode(value: value.boolValue))))
} else {
components.append((escape(key), escape("\(value)")))
}
} else if let bool = value as? Bool {
components.append((escape(key), escape(boolEncoding.encode(value: bool))))
} else {
components.append((escape(key), escape("\(value)")))
}
return components
}
/// Returns a percent-escaped string following RFC 3986 for a query string key or value.
///
/// RFC 3986 states that the following characters are "reserved" characters.
///
/// - General Delimiters: ":", "#", "[", "]", "@", "?", "/"
/// - Sub-Delimiters: "!", "$", "&", "'", "(", ")", "*", "+", ",", ";", "="
///
/// In RFC 3986 - Section 3.4, it states that the "?" and "/" characters should not be escaped to allow
/// query strings to include a URL. Therefore, all "reserved" characters with the exception of "?" and "/"
/// should be percent-escaped in the query string.
///
/// - parameter string: The string to be percent-escaped.
///
/// - returns: The percent-escaped string.
public func escape(_ string: String) -> String {
let generalDelimitersToEncode = ":#[]@" // does not include "?" or "/" due to RFC 3986 - Section 3.4
let subDelimitersToEncode = "!$&'()*+,;="
var allowedCharacterSet = CharacterSet.urlQueryAllowed
allowedCharacterSet.remove(charactersIn: "\(generalDelimitersToEncode)\(subDelimitersToEncode)")
var escaped = ""
//==========================================================================================================
//
// Batching is required for escaping due to an internal bug in iOS 8.1 and 8.2. Encoding more than a few
// hundred Chinese characters causes various malloc error crashes. To avoid this issue until iOS 8 is no
// longer supported, batching MUST be used for encoding. This introduces roughly a 20% overhead. For more
// info, please refer to:
//
// - https://github.com/Alamofire/Alamofire/issues/206
//
//==========================================================================================================
if #available(iOS 8.3, *) {
escaped = string.addingPercentEncoding(withAllowedCharacters: allowedCharacterSet) ?? string
} else {
let batchSize = 50
var index = string.startIndex
while index != string.endIndex {
let startIndex = index
let endIndex = string.index(index, offsetBy: batchSize, limitedBy: string.endIndex) ?? string.endIndex
let range = startIndex..<endIndex
let substring = string[range]
escaped += substring.addingPercentEncoding(withAllowedCharacters: allowedCharacterSet) ?? String(substring)
index = endIndex
}
}
return escaped
}
private func query(_ parameters: [String: Any]) -> String {
var components: [(String, String)] = []
for key in parameters.keys.sorted(by: <) {
let value = parameters[key]!
components += queryComponents(fromKey: key, value: value)
}
return components.map { "\($0)=\($1)" }.joined(separator: "&")
}
private func encodesParametersInURL(with method: HTTPMethod) -> Bool {
switch destination {
case .queryString:
return true
case .httpBody:
return false
default:
break
}
switch method {
case .get, .head, .delete:
return true
default:
return false
}
}
}
// MARK: -
/// Uses `JSONSerialization` to create a JSON representation of the parameters object, which is set as the body of the
/// request. The `Content-Type` HTTP header field of an encoded request is set to `application/json`.
public struct JSONEncoding: ParameterEncoding {
// MARK: Properties
/// Returns a `JSONEncoding` instance with default writing options.
public static var `default`: JSONEncoding { return JSONEncoding() }
/// Returns a `JSONEncoding` instance with `.prettyPrinted` writing options.
public static var prettyPrinted: JSONEncoding { return JSONEncoding(options: .prettyPrinted) }
/// The options for writing the parameters as JSON data.
public let options: JSONSerialization.WritingOptions
// MARK: Initialization
/// Creates a `JSONEncoding` instance using the specified options.
///
/// - parameter options: The options for writing the parameters as JSON data.
///
/// - returns: The new `JSONEncoding` instance.
public init(options: JSONSerialization.WritingOptions = []) {
self.options = options
}
// MARK: Encoding
/// Creates a URL request by encoding parameters and applying them onto an existing request.
///
/// - parameter urlRequest: The request to have parameters applied.
/// - parameter parameters: The parameters to apply.
///
/// - throws: An `Error` if the encoding process encounters an error.
///
/// - returns: The encoded request.
public func encode(_ urlRequest: URLRequestConvertible, with parameters: Parameters?) throws -> URLRequest {
var urlRequest = try urlRequest.asURLRequest()
guard let parameters = parameters else { return urlRequest }
do {
let data = try JSONSerialization.data(withJSONObject: parameters, options: options)
if urlRequest.value(forHTTPHeaderField: "Content-Type") == nil {
urlRequest.setValue("application/json", forHTTPHeaderField: "Content-Type")
}
urlRequest.httpBody = data
} catch {
throw AFError.parameterEncodingFailed(reason: .jsonEncodingFailed(error: error))
}
return urlRequest
}
/// Creates a URL request by encoding the JSON object and setting the resulting data on the HTTP body.
///
/// - parameter urlRequest: The request to apply the JSON object to.
/// - parameter jsonObject: The JSON object to apply to the request.
///
/// - throws: An `Error` if the encoding process encounters an error.
///
/// - returns: The encoded request.
public func encode(_ urlRequest: URLRequestConvertible, withJSONObject jsonObject: Any? = nil) throws -> URLRequest {
var urlRequest = try urlRequest.asURLRequest()
guard let jsonObject = jsonObject else { return urlRequest }
do {
let data = try JSONSerialization.data(withJSONObject: jsonObject, options: options)
if urlRequest.value(forHTTPHeaderField: "Content-Type") == nil {
urlRequest.setValue("application/json", forHTTPHeaderField: "Content-Type")
}
urlRequest.httpBody = data
} catch {
throw AFError.parameterEncodingFailed(reason: .jsonEncodingFailed(error: error))
}
return urlRequest
}
}
// MARK: -
/// Uses `PropertyListSerialization` to create a plist representation of the parameters object, according to the
/// associated format and write options values, which is set as the body of the request. The `Content-Type` HTTP header
/// field of an encoded request is set to `application/x-plist`.
public struct PropertyListEncoding: ParameterEncoding {
// MARK: Properties
/// Returns a default `PropertyListEncoding` instance.
public static var `default`: PropertyListEncoding { return PropertyListEncoding() }
/// Returns a `PropertyListEncoding` instance with xml formatting and default writing options.
public static var xml: PropertyListEncoding { return PropertyListEncoding(format: .xml) }
/// Returns a `PropertyListEncoding` instance with binary formatting and default writing options.
public static var binary: PropertyListEncoding { return PropertyListEncoding(format: .binary) }
/// The property list serialization format.
public let format: PropertyListSerialization.PropertyListFormat
/// The options for writing the parameters as plist data.
public let options: PropertyListSerialization.WriteOptions
// MARK: Initialization
/// Creates a `PropertyListEncoding` instance using the specified format and options.
///
/// - parameter format: The property list serialization format.
/// - parameter options: The options for writing the parameters as plist data.
///
/// - returns: The new `PropertyListEncoding` instance.
public init(
format: PropertyListSerialization.PropertyListFormat = .xml,
options: PropertyListSerialization.WriteOptions = 0)
{
self.format = format
self.options = options
}
// MARK: Encoding
/// Creates a URL request by encoding parameters and applying them onto an existing request.
///
/// - parameter urlRequest: The request to have parameters applied.
/// - parameter parameters: The parameters to apply.
///
/// - throws: An `Error` if the encoding process encounters an error.
///
/// - returns: The encoded request.
public func encode(_ urlRequest: URLRequestConvertible, with parameters: Parameters?) throws -> URLRequest {
var urlRequest = try urlRequest.asURLRequest()
guard let parameters = parameters else { return urlRequest }
do {
let data = try PropertyListSerialization.data(
fromPropertyList: parameters,
format: format,
options: options
)
if urlRequest.value(forHTTPHeaderField: "Content-Type") == nil {
urlRequest.setValue("application/x-plist", forHTTPHeaderField: "Content-Type")
}
urlRequest.httpBody = data
} catch {
throw AFError.parameterEncodingFailed(reason: .propertyListEncodingFailed(error: error))
}
return urlRequest
}
}
// MARK: -
extension NSNumber {
fileprivate var isBool: Bool { return CFBooleanGetTypeID() == CFGetTypeID(self) }
}