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Support for installing and building the "wheel" binary package format.
from __future__ import absolute_import
import compileall
import csv
import errno
import functools
import hashlib
import logging
import os
import os.path
import re
import shutil
import stat
import sys
import tempfile
import warnings
from base64 import urlsafe_b64encode
from email.parser import Parser
from pip._vendor.six import StringIO
import pip
from pip.compat import expanduser
from import path_to_url, unpack_url
from pip.exceptions import (
InstallationError, InvalidWheelFilename, UnsupportedWheel)
from pip.locations import distutils_scheme, PIP_DELETE_MARKER_FILENAME
from pip import pep425tags
from pip.utils import (
call_subprocess, ensure_dir, captured_stdout, rmtree, read_chunks,
from pip.utils.ui import open_spinner
from pip.utils.logging import indent_log
from pip.utils.setuptools_build import SETUPTOOLS_SHIM
from pip._vendor.distlib.scripts import ScriptMaker
from pip._vendor import pkg_resources
from pip._vendor.packaging.utils import canonicalize_name
from pip._vendor.six.moves import configparser
wheel_ext = '.whl'
logger = logging.getLogger(__name__)
class WheelCache(object):
"""A cache of wheels for future installs."""
def __init__(self, cache_dir, format_control):
"""Create a wheel cache.
:param cache_dir: The root of the cache.
:param format_control: A pip.index.FormatControl object to limit
binaries being read from the cache.
self._cache_dir = expanduser(cache_dir) if cache_dir else None
self._format_control = format_control
def cached_wheel(self, link, package_name):
return cached_wheel(
self._cache_dir, link, self._format_control, package_name)
def _cache_for_link(cache_dir, link):
Return a directory to store cached wheels in for link.
Because there are M wheels for any one sdist, we provide a directory
to cache them in, and then consult that directory when looking up
cache hits.
We only insert things into the cache if they have plausible version
numbers, so that we don't contaminate the cache with things that were not
unique. E.g. ./package might have dozens of installs done for it and build
a version of 0.0...and if we built and cached a wheel, we'd end up using
the same wheel even if the source has been edited.
:param cache_dir: The cache_dir being used by pip.
:param link: The link of the sdist for which this will cache wheels.
# We want to generate an url to use as our cache key, we don't want to just
# re-use the URL because it might have other items in the fragment and we
# don't care about those.
key_parts = [link.url_without_fragment]
if link.hash_name is not None and link.hash is not None:
key_parts.append("=".join([link.hash_name, link.hash]))
key_url = "#".join(key_parts)
# Encode our key url with sha224, we'll use this because it has similar
# security properties to sha256, but with a shorter total output (and thus
# less secure). However the differences don't make a lot of difference for
# our use case here.
hashed = hashlib.sha224(key_url.encode()).hexdigest()
# We want to nest the directories some to prevent having a ton of top level
# directories where we might run out of sub directories on some FS.
parts = [hashed[:2], hashed[2:4], hashed[4:6], hashed[6:]]
# Inside of the base location for cached wheels, expand our parts and join
# them all together.
return os.path.join(cache_dir, "wheels", *parts)
def cached_wheel(cache_dir, link, format_control, package_name):
if not cache_dir:
return link
if not link:
return link
if link.is_wheel:
return link
if not link.is_artifact:
return link
if not package_name:
return link
canonical_name = canonicalize_name(package_name)
formats = pip.index.fmt_ctl_formats(format_control, canonical_name)
if "binary" not in formats:
return link
root = _cache_for_link(cache_dir, link)
wheel_names = os.listdir(root)
except OSError as e:
if e.errno in (errno.ENOENT, errno.ENOTDIR):
return link
candidates = []
for wheel_name in wheel_names:
wheel = Wheel(wheel_name)
except InvalidWheelFilename:
if not wheel.supported():
# Built for a different python/arch/etc
candidates.append((wheel.support_index_min(), wheel_name))
if not candidates:
return link
path = os.path.join(root, candidates[0][1])
return pip.index.Link(path_to_url(path))
def rehash(path, algo='sha256', blocksize=1 << 20):
"""Return (hash, length) for path using"""
h =
length = 0
with open(path, 'rb') as f:
for block in read_chunks(f, size=blocksize):
length += len(block)
digest = 'sha256=' + urlsafe_b64encode(
return (digest, length)
def open_for_csv(name, mode):
if sys.version_info[0] < 3:
nl = {}
bin = 'b'
nl = {'newline': ''}
bin = ''
return open(name, mode + bin, **nl)
def fix_script(path):
"""Replace #!python with #!/path/to/python
Return True if file was changed."""
# XXX RECORD hashes will need to be updated
if os.path.isfile(path):
with open(path, 'rb') as script:
firstline = script.readline()
if not firstline.startswith(b'#!python'):
return False
exename = sys.executable.encode(sys.getfilesystemencoding())
firstline = b'#!' + exename + os.linesep.encode("ascii")
rest =
with open(path, 'wb') as script:
return True
dist_info_re = re.compile(r"""^(?P<namever>(?P<name>.+?)(-(?P<ver>\d.+?))?)
\.dist-info$""", re.VERBOSE)
def root_is_purelib(name, wheeldir):
Return True if the extracted wheel in wheeldir should go into purelib.
name_folded = name.replace("-", "_")
for item in os.listdir(wheeldir):
match = dist_info_re.match(item)
if match and'name') == name_folded:
with open(os.path.join(wheeldir, item, 'WHEEL')) as wheel:
for line in wheel:
line = line.lower().rstrip()
if line == "root-is-purelib: true":
return True
return False
def get_entrypoints(filename):
if not os.path.exists(filename):
return {}, {}
# This is done because you can pass a string to entry_points wrappers which
# means that they may or may not be valid INI files. The attempt here is to
# strip leading and trailing whitespace in order to make them valid INI
# files.
with open(filename) as fp:
data = StringIO()
for line in fp:
cp = configparser.RawConfigParser()
cp.optionxform = lambda option: option
console = {}
gui = {}
if cp.has_section('console_scripts'):
console = dict(cp.items('console_scripts'))
if cp.has_section('gui_scripts'):
gui = dict(cp.items('gui_scripts'))
return console, gui
def move_wheel_files(name, req, wheeldir, user=False, home=None, root=None,
pycompile=True, scheme=None, isolated=False, prefix=None):
"""Install a wheel"""
if not scheme:
scheme = distutils_scheme(
name, user=user, home=home, root=root, isolated=isolated,
if root_is_purelib(name, wheeldir):
lib_dir = scheme['purelib']
lib_dir = scheme['platlib']
info_dir = []
data_dirs = []
source = wheeldir.rstrip(os.path.sep) + os.path.sep
# Record details of the files moved
# installed = files copied from the wheel to the destination
# changed = files changed while installing (scripts #! line typically)
# generated = files newly generated during the install (script wrappers)
installed = {}
changed = set()
generated = []
# Compile all of the pyc files that we're going to be installing
if pycompile:
with captured_stdout() as stdout:
with warnings.catch_warnings():
compileall.compile_dir(source, force=True, quiet=True)
def normpath(src, p):
return os.path.relpath(src, p).replace(os.path.sep, '/')
def record_installed(srcfile, destfile, modified=False):
"""Map archive RECORD paths to installation RECORD paths."""
oldpath = normpath(srcfile, wheeldir)
newpath = normpath(destfile, lib_dir)
installed[oldpath] = newpath
if modified:
def clobber(source, dest, is_base, fixer=None, filter=None):
ensure_dir(dest) # common for the 'include' path
for dir, subdirs, files in os.walk(source):
basedir = dir[len(source):].lstrip(os.path.sep)
destdir = os.path.join(dest, basedir)
if is_base and basedir.split(os.path.sep, 1)[0].endswith('.data'):
for s in subdirs:
destsubdir = os.path.join(dest, basedir, s)
if is_base and basedir == '' and destsubdir.endswith('.data'):
elif (is_base and
s.endswith('.dist-info') and
assert not info_dir, ('Multiple .dist-info directories: ' +
destsubdir + ', ' +
', '.join(info_dir))
for f in files:
# Skip unwanted files
if filter and filter(f):
srcfile = os.path.join(dir, f)
destfile = os.path.join(dest, basedir, f)
# directory creation is lazy and after the file filtering above
# to ensure we don't install empty dirs; empty dirs can't be
# uninstalled.
# We use copyfile (not move, copy, or copy2) to be extra sure
# that we are not moving directories over (copyfile fails for
# directories) as well as to ensure that we are not copying
# over any metadata because we want more control over what
# metadata we actually copy over.
shutil.copyfile(srcfile, destfile)
# Copy over the metadata for the file, currently this only
# includes the atime and mtime.
st = os.stat(srcfile)
if hasattr(os, "utime"):
os.utime(destfile, (st.st_atime, st.st_mtime))
# If our file is executable, then make our destination file
# executable.
if os.access(srcfile, os.X_OK):
st = os.stat(srcfile)
permissions = (
st.st_mode | stat.S_IXUSR | stat.S_IXGRP | stat.S_IXOTH
os.chmod(destfile, permissions)
changed = False
if fixer:
changed = fixer(destfile)
record_installed(srcfile, destfile, changed)
clobber(source, lib_dir, True)
assert info_dir, "%s .dist-info directory not found" % req
# Get the defined entry points
ep_file = os.path.join(info_dir[0], 'entry_points.txt')
console, gui = get_entrypoints(ep_file)
def is_entrypoint_wrapper(name):
# EP, EP.exe and are scripts generated for
# entry point EP by setuptools
if name.lower().endswith('.exe'):
matchname = name[:-4]
elif name.lower().endswith(''):
matchname = name[:-10]
elif name.lower().endswith(".pya"):
matchname = name[:-4]
matchname = name
# Ignore setuptools-generated scripts
return (matchname in console or matchname in gui)
for datadir in data_dirs:
fixer = None
filter = None
for subdir in os.listdir(os.path.join(wheeldir, datadir)):
fixer = None
if subdir == 'scripts':
fixer = fix_script
filter = is_entrypoint_wrapper
source = os.path.join(wheeldir, datadir, subdir)
dest = scheme[subdir]
clobber(source, dest, False, fixer=fixer, filter=filter)
maker = ScriptMaker(None, scheme['scripts'])
# Ensure old scripts are overwritten.
# See
maker.clobber = True
# Ensure we don't generate any variants for scripts because this is almost
# never what somebody wants.
# See
maker.variants = set(('', ))
# This is required because otherwise distlib creates scripts that are not
# executable.
# See
maker.set_mode = True
# Simplify the script and fix the fact that the default script swallows
# every single stack trace.
# See
# See
def _get_script_text(entry):
if entry.suffix is None:
raise InstallationError(
"Invalid script entry point: %s for req: %s - A callable "
"suffix is required. Cf"
"latest/distributing.html#console-scripts for more "
"information." % (entry, req)
return maker.script_template % {
"module": entry.prefix,
"import_name": entry.suffix.split(".")[0],
"func": entry.suffix,
maker._get_script_text = _get_script_text
maker.script_template = """# -*- coding: utf-8 -*-
import re
import sys
from %(module)s import %(import_name)s
if __name__ == '__main__':
sys.argv[0] = re.sub(r'(-script\.pyw?|\.exe)?$', '', sys.argv[0])
# Special case pip and setuptools to generate versioned wrappers
# The issue is that some projects (specifically, pip and setuptools) use
# code in to create "versioned" entry points - pip2.7 on Python
# 2.7, pip3.3 on Python 3.3, etc. But these entry points are baked into
# the wheel metadata at build time, and so if the wheel is installed with
# a *different* version of Python the entry points will be wrong. The
# correct fix for this is to enhance the metadata to be able to describe
# such versioned entry points, but that won't happen till Metadata 2.0 is
# available.
# In the meantime, projects using versioned entry points will either have
# incorrect versioned entry points, or they will not be able to distribute
# "universal" wheels (i.e., they will need a wheel per Python version).
# Because setuptools and pip are bundled with _ensurepip and virtualenv,
# we need to use universal wheels. So, as a stopgap until Metadata 2.0, we
# override the versioned entry points in the wheel and generate the
# correct ones. This code is purely a short-term measure until Metadata 2.0
# is available.
# To add the level of hack in this section of code, in order to support
# ensurepip this code will look for an ``ENSUREPIP_OPTIONS`` environment
# variable which will control which version scripts get installed.
# - Only pipX.Y and easy_install-X.Y will be generated and installed
# - pipX.Y, pipX, easy_install-X.Y will be generated and installed. Note
# that this option is technically if ENSUREPIP_OPTIONS is set and is
# not altinstall
# - The default behavior is to install pip, pipX, pipX.Y, easy_install
# and easy_install-X.Y.
pip_script = console.pop('pip', None)
if pip_script:
if "ENSUREPIP_OPTIONS" not in os.environ:
spec = 'pip = ' + pip_script
if os.environ.get("ENSUREPIP_OPTIONS", "") != "altinstall":
spec = 'pip%s = %s' % (sys.version[:1], pip_script)
spec = 'pip%s = %s' % (sys.version[:3], pip_script)
# Delete any other versioned pip entry points
pip_ep = [k for k in console if re.match(r'pip(\d(\.\d)?)?$', k)]
for k in pip_ep:
del console[k]
easy_install_script = console.pop('easy_install', None)
if easy_install_script:
if "ENSUREPIP_OPTIONS" not in os.environ:
spec = 'easy_install = ' + easy_install_script
spec = 'easy_install-%s = %s' % (sys.version[:3], easy_install_script)
# Delete any other versioned easy_install entry points
easy_install_ep = [
k for k in console if re.match(r'easy_install(-\d\.\d)?$', k)
for k in easy_install_ep:
del console[k]
# Generate the console and GUI entry points specified in the wheel
if len(console) > 0:
maker.make_multiple(['%s = %s' % kv for kv in console.items()])
if len(gui) > 0:
['%s = %s' % kv for kv in gui.items()],
{'gui': True}
# Record pip as the installer
installer = os.path.join(info_dir[0], 'INSTALLER')
temp_installer = os.path.join(info_dir[0], 'INSTALLER.pip')
with open(temp_installer, 'wb') as installer_file:
shutil.move(temp_installer, installer)
# Record details of all files installed
record = os.path.join(info_dir[0], 'RECORD')
temp_record = os.path.join(info_dir[0], 'RECORD.pip')
with open_for_csv(record, 'r') as record_in:
with open_for_csv(temp_record, 'w+') as record_out:
reader = csv.reader(record_in)
writer = csv.writer(record_out)
for row in reader:
row[0] = installed.pop(row[0], row[0])
if row[0] in changed:
row[1], row[2] = rehash(row[0])
for f in generated:
h, l = rehash(f)
writer.writerow((normpath(f, lib_dir), h, l))
for f in installed:
writer.writerow((installed[f], '', ''))
shutil.move(temp_record, record)
def _unique(fn):
def unique(*args, **kw):
seen = set()
for item in fn(*args, **kw):
if item not in seen:
yield item
return unique
# TODO: this goes somewhere besides the wheel module
def uninstallation_paths(dist):
Yield all the uninstallation paths for dist based on RECORD-without-.pyc
Yield paths to all the files in RECORD. For each .py file in RECORD, add
the .pyc in the same directory.
UninstallPathSet.add() takes care of the __pycache__ .pyc.
from pip.utils import FakeFile # circular import
r = csv.reader(FakeFile(dist.get_metadata_lines('RECORD')))
for row in r:
path = os.path.join(dist.location, row[0])
yield path
if path.endswith('.py'):
dn, fn = os.path.split(path)
base = fn[:-3]
path = os.path.join(dn, base + '.pyc')
yield path
def wheel_version(source_dir):
Return the Wheel-Version of an extracted wheel, if possible.
Otherwise, return False if we couldn't parse / extract it.
dist = [d for d in pkg_resources.find_on_path(None, source_dir)][0]
wheel_data = dist.get_metadata('WHEEL')
wheel_data = Parser().parsestr(wheel_data)
version = wheel_data['Wheel-Version'].strip()
version = tuple(map(int, version.split('.')))
return version
return False
def check_compatibility(version, name):
Raises errors or warns if called with an incompatible Wheel-Version.
Pip should refuse to install a Wheel-Version that's a major series
ahead of what it's compatible with (e.g 2.0 > 1.1); and warn when
installing a version only minor version ahead (e.g 1.2 > 1.1).
version: a 2-tuple representing a Wheel-Version (Major, Minor)
name: name of wheel or package to raise exception about
:raises UnsupportedWheel: when an incompatible Wheel-Version is given
if not version:
raise UnsupportedWheel(
"%s is in an unsupported or invalid wheel" % name
if version[0] > VERSION_COMPATIBLE[0]:
raise UnsupportedWheel(
"%s's Wheel-Version (%s) is not compatible with this version "
"of pip" % (name, '.'.join(map(str, version)))
elif version > VERSION_COMPATIBLE:
'Installing from a newer Wheel-Version (%s)',
'.'.join(map(str, version)),
class Wheel(object):
"""A wheel file"""
# TODO: maybe move the install code into this class
wheel_file_re = re.compile(
def __init__(self, filename):
:raises InvalidWheelFilename: when the filename is invalid for a wheel
wheel_info = self.wheel_file_re.match(filename)
if not wheel_info:
raise InvalidWheelFilename(
"%s is not a valid wheel filename." % filename
self.filename = filename ='name').replace('_', '-')
# we'll assume "_" means "-" due to wheel naming scheme
# (
self.version ='ver').replace('_', '-')
self.pyversions ='pyver').split('.')
self.abis ='abi').split('.')
self.plats ='plat').split('.')
# All the tag combinations from this file
self.file_tags = set(
(x, y, z) for x in self.pyversions
for y in self.abis for z in self.plats
def support_index_min(self, tags=None):
Return the lowest index that one of the wheel's file_tag combinations
achieves in the supported_tags list e.g. if there are 8 supported tags,
and one of the file tags is first in the list, then return 0. Returns
None is the wheel is not supported.
if tags is None: # for mock
tags = pep425tags.supported_tags
indexes = [tags.index(c) for c in self.file_tags if c in tags]
return min(indexes) if indexes else None
def supported(self, tags=None):
"""Is this wheel supported on this system?"""
if tags is None: # for mock
tags = pep425tags.supported_tags
return bool(set(tags).intersection(self.file_tags))
class WheelBuilder(object):
"""Build wheels from a RequirementSet."""
def __init__(self, requirement_set, finder, build_options=None,
self.requirement_set = requirement_set
self.finder = finder
self._cache_root = requirement_set._wheel_cache._cache_dir
self._wheel_dir = requirement_set.wheel_download_dir
self.build_options = build_options or []
self.global_options = global_options or []
def _build_one(self, req, output_dir, python_tag=None):
"""Build one wheel.
:return: The filename of the built wheel, or None if the build failed.
tempd = tempfile.mkdtemp('pip-wheel-')
if self.__build_one(req, tempd, python_tag=python_tag):
wheel_name = os.listdir(tempd)[0]
wheel_path = os.path.join(output_dir, wheel_name)
shutil.move(os.path.join(tempd, wheel_name), wheel_path)'Stored in directory: %s', output_dir)
return wheel_path
# Ignore return, we can't do anything else useful.
return None
def _base_setup_args(self, req):
return [
sys.executable, "-u", '-c',
SETUPTOOLS_SHIM % req.setup_py
] + list(self.global_options)
def __build_one(self, req, tempd, python_tag=None):
base_args = self._base_setup_args(req)
spin_message = 'Running bdist_wheel for %s' % (,)
with open_spinner(spin_message) as spinner:
logger.debug('Destination directory: %s', tempd)
wheel_args = base_args + ['bdist_wheel', '-d', tempd] \
+ self.build_options
if python_tag is not None:
wheel_args += ["--python-tag", python_tag]
call_subprocess(wheel_args, cwd=req.setup_py_dir,
show_stdout=False, spinner=spinner)
return True
logger.error('Failed building wheel for %s',
return False
def _clean_one(self, req):
base_args = self._base_setup_args(req)'Running clean for %s',
clean_args = base_args + ['clean', '--all']
call_subprocess(clean_args, cwd=req.source_dir, show_stdout=False)
return True
logger.error('Failed cleaning build dir for %s',
return False
def build(self, autobuilding=False):
"""Build wheels.
:param unpack: If True, replace the sdist we built from with the
newly built wheel, in preparation for installation.
:return: True if all the wheels built correctly.
assert self._wheel_dir or (autobuilding and self._cache_root)
# unpack sdists and constructs req set
reqset = self.requirement_set.requirements.values()
buildset = []
for req in reqset:
if req.constraint:
if req.is_wheel:
if not autobuilding:
'Skipping %s, due to already being wheel.',
elif autobuilding and req.editable:
elif autobuilding and and not
elif autobuilding and not req.source_dir:
if autobuilding:
link =
base, ext = link.splitext()
if pip.index.egg_info_matches(base, None, link) is None:
# Doesn't look like a package - don't autobuild a wheel
# because we'll have no way to lookup the result sanely
if "binary" not in pip.index.fmt_ctl_formats(
"Skipping bdist_wheel for %s, due to binaries "
"being disabled for it.",
if not buildset:
return True
# Build the wheels.
'Building wheels for collected packages: %s',
', '.join([ for req in buildset]),
with indent_log():
build_success, build_failure = [], []
for req in buildset:
python_tag = None
if autobuilding:
python_tag = pep425tags.implementation_tag
output_dir = _cache_for_link(self._cache_root,
except OSError as e:
logger.warning("Building wheel for %s failed: %s",, e)
output_dir = self._wheel_dir
wheel_file = self._build_one(
req, output_dir,
if wheel_file:
if autobuilding:
# XXX: This is mildly duplicative with prepare_files,
# but not close enough to pull out to a single common
# method.
# The code below assumes temporary source dirs -
# prevent it doing bad things.
if req.source_dir and not os.path.exists(os.path.join(
raise AssertionError(
"bad source dir - missing marker")
# Delete the source we built the wheel from
# set the build directory again - name is known from
# the work prepare_files did.
req.source_dir = req.build_location(
# Update the link for this. = pip.index.Link(
# extract the wheel into the dir
unpack_url(, req.source_dir, None, False,
# notify success/failure
if build_success:
'Successfully built %s',
' '.join([ for req in build_success]),
if build_failure:
'Failed to build %s',
' '.join([ for req in build_failure]),
# Return True if all builds were successful
return len(build_failure) == 0
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