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readme.md

Ironman

Ironman is a fork from Scatter, and it is ported to support enumivo mainnet.

Install the Ironman Chrome Extentsion files

Go to Chrome Store

demo website:http://enuvote.com/ironmandemo.html

---------------- BELOW IS INTRO OF SCATTER -----------------

Scatter

Scatter is a browser extension that allows you to sign transactions for multiple blockchains and provide personal information to web applications without ever exposing your keys or filling out forms.

Table of Contents

Installation

Getting the Chrome Extension files

Note: If you are developing locally make sure you have enabled the history_api plugin in your nodeos config or you will not be able to import accounts!

From Chrome Store

From The Repository

  • Clone repository
  • In some cases on a Windows system you will need to run npm install --global --production windows-build-tools
  • npm install to get dependencies
  • copy the .env.example file to .env
  • npm start to compile a build folder.

Installing a dev build into Chrome

  • Open up Chrome and type chrome://extensions/ into the url bar
  • Click the Load unpacked extension... button and point it at the folder you just created/built (the folder should have a manifest.json inside of it). 1 2

Interacting with Scatter

Catching browsers with Scatter installed

document.addEventListener('scatterLoaded', scatterExtension => {
    // Scatter will now be available from the window scope.
    // At this stage the connection to Scatter from the application is 
    // already encrypted. 
    const scatter = window.scatter;
    
    // It is good practice to take this off the window once you have 
    // a reference to it.
    window.scatter = null;
     
    // If you want to require a specific version of Scatter
    scatter.requireVersion(3.0);
    
    //...
})

Identities

Requesting an Identity

In order to do anything with a user's Scatter you will need to request an Identity. Once an Identity is provided it will not need to be re-approved every time unless the user removes the permission.

// You can require certain fields
scatter.getIdentity().then(identity => {
    //...
}).catch(error => {
    //...
});

The identity can also be accessed on scatter.identity so that you don't have to keep a reference to it.

Note: Every time an identity is returned you should check it against your cache of their identity. Properties are subject to change without notification to applications. Users have complete control over their own data. Do not rely on stale data for sensitive things like shipping physical items.

The getIdentity() method can also take required fields. See the section about required fields below to find out how to build the object.

Authenticating an Identity

Identities can be authenticated using asymmetric encryption. If the authenticate method does not throw an error then the identity has been authenticated.

// Authenticate takes no parameters. 
// It will fail if there is no identity bound to Scatter.
scatter.authenticate()
    .then(sig => {
        // This will return your `location.host` 
        // signed with their Identity's private key.
        // It has already been validated, but you can validate it yourself as well using eosjs-ecc.
        
        ecc.verify(sig, location.host, scatter.identity.publicKey);
    })
    .catch(err => console.log('auth err', err))

Forgetting an Identity ( Sign out )

To sign out a user you will be removing the permission in place for your domain to use an identity. All sub-permissions such as contract and action whitelistings will be left in place and be available the next time the user authenticates with your website.

scatter.forgetIdentity().then(() => {
    //...
});

Users can also do this without you providing a way for them to do so from their own permissions panel.

Networks

Networks are used to connect to blockchain nodes and reference blockchain accounts. They must be formatted like so:

const network = {
    protocol:'http', // Defaults to https
    blockchain:'eos',
    host:'127.0.0.1', // ( or null if endorsed chainId )
    port:8888, // ( or null if defaulting to 80 )
    chainId:1 || 'abcd',
}

A note about chainId - If the user has a chainId in their network inside of Scatter providing the host/port will not be enough. You should always aim for chainId inclusion.

Scatter has a few endorsed networks that is uses for retrieving information such as an EOS Mainnet ( chainId aca376f206b8fc25a6ed44dbdc66547c36c6c33e3a119ffbeaef943642f0e906 ) and ETH Mainnet ( chainId 1 ). If you are using those you can simply leave the host and port null and it will default to the chainId internally when fetching accounts from the identity.

Suggesting a network to the user

You can suggest that the user add a network to their Scatter if you are not using a generic network.

scatter.suggestNetwork(network);

This will provide a prompt for them which will display the network they will be adding, and give them a chance to accept or deny the addition.

Signature Providers

Using Scatter with eosjs

// Set up any extra options you want to use eosjs with. 
const eosOptions = {};
 
// Get a reference to an 'Eosjs' instance with a Scatter signature provider.
const eos = scatter.eos( network, Eos, eosOptions, 'https' );

Using Scatter with web3

// You can pass in either an HTTP or WebSocket provider prefix to the network
const protocol = 'http' || 'ws';

// Get a reference to a 'Web3' instance with a Scatter signature provider.
const web3 = scatter.eth(network, Web3, protocol);

Requesting a Signature

Using Scatter to provide signatures is no different than using eosjs or web3. It just handles all the signature provision for you.

// eosjs
eos.contract('hello').then(contract => {
    contract.hi(...args)
});
 
// Web3
// Basic transaction
web3.eth.sendTransaction({
    from: account.publicKey,
    to: '0x11f4d0.....',
    value: '1'
})
 
// Or on a contract method
const abi = require('some_abi.json');
contract.methods.hello(...args).send({from:account.publicKey, abi})

Multi-part signatures involving the application AND an Identity

Note: Ethereum does not support multiple signatures within one request

You may also double-sign signatures using a private key from the application as well as one supplied by the user.

// DO NOT DO THIS! If you do this you will give the client your keys.
const signProvider = (buf, sign) => {
    // You should validate the `buf` before signing it.
    // If you do not you could be signing anything from a malicious Scatter mimic
    
    // Use the provided eosjs signer ( less secure, could be a mimic ) 
    return sign(buf, 'SOME_PRIVATE_KEY');
    
    // or use eosjs-ecc instead ( more secure as you own the reference )
    return ecc.sign(buf, 'SOME_PRIVATE_KEY')
};
 
eos.contract('hello', { signProvider }).then(contract => {
    contract.hi(...args);
});
 
 
// Instead of the above defer your signing to a backend
const signProvider = async (buf, sign) => await YourApiService.sign(buf);

Requiring Identity Fields

You can optionally pass a RequiredFields object into either the getIdentity() method or to individual transactions as options.

Do not rely on previously acquired Identity properties, since users might have multiple locations such as Work and Home, and they might have changed other properties since the last time you cached them.

Requireable Identity Fields
  • accounts []
    • accepts an array of networks
  • personal []
    • firstname
    • lastname
    • email
    • birthdate
  • location []
    • phone
    • address
    • city
    • state
    • country
    • zipcode
Fields that always return from getIdentity()
  • name - The user's unique name.
  • publicKey - The public key associated with the Identity.
  • hash - A hash of the Identity's public key.

The Required Fields Object

const requiredFields = {
    personal:['firstname', 'email'],
    location:['country'],
    accounts:[
        {blockchain:'eos', host:'127.0.0.1', port:8888},
        {blockchain:'eth', chainId:1}
    ]
};

This object can be passed into either the getIdentity() method or individual transactions.

// Get Identity
scatter.getIdentity(requiredFields)...
 
// eosjs
const contract = await eos.contract('hello', {requiredFields});
 
// Web3
// On a regular transaction
web3.eth.sendTransaction({
    from: publicKey,
    to: '0x11f4d......',
    value: '1',
    requiredFields,
    fieldsCallback
})

const fieldsCallback = fields => console.log('Returned Fields', fields);
const options = {from:publicKey, abi, requiredFields, fieldsCallback};
contract.methods.hello(...args).send(options)

It's best practice to not request location fields until they are needed, as user's can have multiple locations inside of an Identity ( work/home ), and can select which one to user per signature request.

This allows you to request all information needed for a physical sale with one click.

For instance in this case we could be a shopping website that needs shipping details along with the transfer of digital currency.

EOS Stipulations

When using requiredFields on EOS transactions you need to put the requirements into the uppermost method and not the action as requirements should fulfill any and all actions within; including multiple atomic transactions and not just per action.

//CORRECT
eos.contract('hello', {requiredFields}).then(contract => contract.hi(...args))
 
//INCORRECT
eos.contract('hello').then(contract => contract.hi(...args, {requiredFields}))

Ethereum Stipulations

When you request signatures for contract methods you must supply the abi of the contract. This allows Scatter to display the decoded fields to the user so they can see exactly what they are signing.

Ethereum support is currently lacking as it is a new development. Some things are missing, such as the ability for users to change gas price and limit.

Finding Accounts by Blockchain

const eosAccount = identity.accounts.find(account => account.blockchain === 'eos');
const ethAccount = identity.accounts.find(account => account.blockchain === 'eth');

Arbitrary signatures

You can request an arbitrary signature from Scatter on any type of data you wish. Signatures on the Identity will always use eosjs-ecc as they are EOS keys.

scatter.getArbitrarySignature(
    publicKey, 
    data, 
    whatfor = 'Login Authentication', 
    isHash = false
)

If you need to sign a sha256 hash be sure to set isHash to true as this uses a different signing method. Otherwise always leave it to false.

User's will always see the exact data they are signing the same way they see transactions.

Translations and localization

Please refer to the Localization README.md for more information about how to get involved with translations.

Translators

Security

There are various measures put into place that contribute to the overall safety of the Scatter extension. Let's take a moment to go over each of them separately in order to paint the whole picture.

A bit about Extensions

Before we get into it though there's a bit of information that you need to know about extensions themselves. There are three entry points ( javascript files ) which extensions use.

  • Popup script - The javascript file that runs inside of the popup that appears when you click on the extension's icon. Think of this as the extension's internal app.js file, similar to the one that would run on a website.

  • Content script - A javascript file that gets run in the context/scope of the website you're browsing but that has no access to any javascript variables/methods on the website and vice versa.

  • Background script - A javascript file that runs only once per browser session. It is accessible only from the popup script and the content script.

  • Injected script - This is not actually a part of the extension's hierarchy itself. It is a javascript file that can be injected into the website using the content script and then made available to the website's javascript, meaning that it can expose manually specified methods to be called from the website.

Extension Communications

In Scatter we use a proprietary message wrapper that facilitates all communication between the website and the extension and also between the different parts of the extension ( content / background / popup scripts ).

The wrapper has two different types of message streams:

First Contact

When Scatter makes contact with a website the first thing it does is inject a script into the website. The injected script does only two things.

  • First it sets up an Encrypted Stream. Until that stream is synced and encrypted the website can make no contact with Scatter what-so-ever. The encryption algorithm used is Stanford Javascript Crypto Library AES-128-GCM which is created using a randomly generated key upon every reload. This helps defend against Man in the middle ( MITM ) attacks. The stream is not accessible from the website, and any attempt to send unencrypted or badly encrypted data to the content script with malicious intent is immediately rejected.

  • The last thing the injected script does before it becomes irrelevant is create a new Scatterdapp script within the context/scope of the website. This is the script that the website itself can use to request things from Scatter. The content script then sends a scatterLoaded event to the website notifying it of it's ready state.

The Scatterdapp script and eosjs

eosjs is EOS's javascript RPC API wrapper. It is what javascript applications use to interact with the blockchain.

Scatterdapp is the website usable script that applications can use to request certain things from Scatter. This script only allows a handful of methods which can interact with the Scatter extension:

  • getIdentity - Used to request an Identity from the user's Scatter.
  • forgetIdentity - Used to forget an Identity and sign out the user.
  • authenticate - Used to prove ownership of the identity.
  • suggestNetwork - This is a helper method used to request the addition of the EOS network the website is using.
  • eos - Used to fetch a dummy version of eosjs which uses Scatter as the signProvider.
  • requireVersion - Used to require a minimum specific version of scatter.

Normally when you use eosjs you have to give it a private key to work with.

const eos = Eos({httpEndpoint:ENDPOINT, keyProvider:PRIVATE_KEY});
eos.transfer('users_account', 'some_other_account', 100000, '');

The eosjs instance that is returned from scatter.eos() is an empty dummy object with no options on it that catches all requests sent into it. Every time it is used it re-creates a fresh instance of eosjs with a pre-configured network ( the same one provided by the Identity request ) and a pre-configured signProvider which pushes all signature requests up to Scatter to be approved/denied by the user.

Because the eosjs instance that is returned to the website is a proxy that recreates itself each time overwriting the network endpoint and signProvider it can never be used maliciously for an attacker's benefit.

The domain requesting the signature is also bound within this proxy and can not be faked as it is being taken from location.host, and any attempt to modify this value will result in the browser changing it's actual location. ( For instance if you type in location.host = 'google.com' into chrome's inspector console it will physically redirect you to google )

The only way for a website to push requests into Scatter and use it's private keys to sign signatures is like this.

// An identity must be requested and bound before requesting transactions
const identity = await scatter.getIdentity();
-------------------------
// The object returned here has no network, and no signature or key provider
const eos = scatter.eos( network, Eos, {} );
-------------------------
// When the transfer method is called the network and signature provider 
// are bound outside of the website's accessible application scope.
// The message is then encrypted and sent to the extension.
eos.transfer('users_account', 'some_other_account', 100000, '');

Permission first attitude

Absolutely nothing happens in Scatter without the owner's explicit consent.

The only thing a website that has no user provided permissions can access is the version of the user's Scatter to make sure that they are compatible prior to sending any requests.

Before a website may request signatures for transactions they must notify Scatter of the network they are using and request an Identity. Only once an Identity is provided will they have the ability to push signature requests into Scatter which will prompt the user to take action.

Every field of every request is prominently displayed to the user to make sure they are fully aware of what they are signing. This includes:

  • [Every Request] The domain the request came from
  • [Every Request] The blockchain network the request pertains to
  • [Every Request] Any required Identity fields such as address, email
  • [Signature Request] The complete properties of the transaction messages in both human readable format and the original JSON.

Permissions can be revoked at any time from within the extension, and entire Identities can be temporarily disabled which also temporarily revokes all permissions for that Identity.

Extension Local Storage

Extensions' local storage is completely segregated from the website that is being visited. That does not stop Scatter from taking measures to protect the private data that is inside of it at all times regardless.

Scatter's entire keychain is encrypted at all times inside of the local storage. The only place it is ever held decrypted is within memory at the moment of use.

The keychain includes all of the Scatter:

  • Key Pairs
  • Identities
  • Permissions

Signatures and Private Keys

Key Pairs' private keys are double encrypted within the storage. Once for each private key and then once when the entire keychain is encrypted. This makes it so that when the entire keychain is decrypted and put into memory for use in the extension's popup for instance the private keys still stay encrypted. The only time they are manually decrypted is when they are being used for signing transactions.

Private keys NEVER leave Scatter. Only the transaction signatures themselves make their way back out of Scatter. The private keys are decrypted for milliseconds, used to sign the transaction, and then erased from internal memory.

Passwords and Mnemonics

Normally, an application creates a hash of a cleartext password using something like SHA-256 and then saves that hash within a database. This is an attack vector within itself because it gives an attacker a piece of information to work with as well as a fairly easy to brute force piece of information. SHA/HMAC vs KDF or SHA-256 vs Bcrypt/Scrypt

Scatter does not do this, or use SHA-256. When a user first sets their Scatter password it is turned into a scrypt hash. That hash is used to generate a Mnemonic which is displayed to the user once and never stored within Scatter. The mnemonic is then used to derive a seed. The seed is then used to encrypt the user's keychain.

When a user logs into Scatter either they can decrypt the AES-128-GCM encrypted keychain stored in the local storage, or they can not. That is their password verification, nullifying the need for the hash to be stored in local storage and removing the ability to use the hash to find the password.

It is important to state that the password itself is always the easiest attack vector. Short, guessable passwords should never be used.

Contributing

Contributions are always welcome.

For feature requests, user experience suggestions, or anything else take a look at the existing issues and if not already tracked feel free to create a new one (requires Github account, free to sign up).

If you are a developer there's a few stipulations to contributing.

  • Never use the npm run build command if you plan on submitting changes. This will cause a compilation of the zip file and will make it so your branch/pull-request cannot be merged due to binary conflicts that cannot be resolved on GitHub. When a new build is ready for the public an official Scatter maintainer will pull the latest master and rebuild the zip file.

  • Keep things verbose. This repo is not only read by developers but also non-developers that simply want to verify that their keys are safe and not being abused. Document your code and don't use abbreviations such as i, instead use index. For instance [1,2,3].map(index => ...)

  • If you're working on a card from Trello, move it to the "I got this" list. This will hopefully help avoid multiple people working on the same issues.

  • There are TODOs littered through out the code as placeholders for further development while we are in these early stages. If you see something you can instantly fix feel free to do so. If you are working on a piece of code that will need something in the future you may also add a //TODO: but be aware that it might cause your pull request to not be merged because of the lack of complete functionality in the future.

If you have any questions or would like to chat with the Scatter team or others who are involved in the project you can join us on Telegram

Responsible Disclosure and Bug Bounties

Please do not post security centric bugs inside of issues. Send them directly to scatter.eos@gmail.com and they will be handled promptly.

Bug bounties will be valued and paid out on a case-to-case basis. Though keep in mind that at the moment Scatter is not a funded project and the bounties might not be very substantial.

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