AnyBody Body Model

MateiSarivan edited this page Apr 5, 2017 · 9 revisions

Model philosophy

  • Most research groups start with a problem and build a model to solve that particular problem
  • We want to build general models, which can give information about a number of yet unknown problems

The goal is to develop general detailed models which:

  • can predict muscle, ligament and reaction forces for a given movement.
  • will facilitate sharing of the model.
  • will give the opportunity to scrutinize and improve the model by other groups

Repository Model Structure

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Body Model Structure

A modular block building technique, which makes it easy to change and connect different body parts, has been developed.

The philosophy is that when building for example a leg model, the model should be self-contained.

The Body parts does not contain any motion drivers for the body parts. These are added in the application.

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In the image, the Body parts have no drivers applied.

The ShoulderArm Model

This model contains data from two different persons. Most of the data that has been used in this model comes from the Dutch Shoulder Group and can be found on the following webpage. The model is built using data from subject 2 from the VU study and subject 2 from the MAYO study. The files, which contains the name "forearm", are built on data from the MAYO study.

A shoulder rhythm is available in the repository it can be swicthed on and off, for full details on its implementation please see this report Shoulder Rhythm Report.

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Important files

The model contains the following files:

  • "Seg.any" Inertia properties of all segments and definitions of surfaces used for wrapping
  • "ClavicleMuscleGeometry.any" nodes for muscle attacments VU sub2
  • "HumerusMuscleGeometry".any" nodes for muscle attacments VU sub2
  • "RadiusMuscleGeometry.any" nodes for muscle attacments MAYO sub2
  • "ScapulaMuscleGeometry.any" nodes for muscle attacments VU sub2
  • "UlnaMuscleGeometry.any"nodes for muscle attacments VU sub2
  • "jnt.any" joint definitions for the shoulder and arm
  • "jnt.nomuscles.any" special joint file for the shoulder and arm to be used when no muscles is used, all joints has reaction forces applied
  • "ArtificialRakeForDeltoidMuscle.any" this the file which contains an artificial segment used for controlling the wrapping of the deltoid muscle
  • "AddOnOutsideBlockForKinematics.any" adding stuff for the scapulo-thoracic gliding plane to the thorax segment
  • "AddOnOutsideBlockForMuscles.any" adding wrapping geometries to segments which are not part of the block
  • "Glove.any" model of a glove which simulates the strength capabilities of the hand
  • "GloveMuscle.any" muscles for the glove here the strength of the glove can be adjusted
  • "muscle.any" muscle definitons for the shoulder and upper arm
  • "muscle-parameters-shoulder.any" muscle strength parameters for the arm
  • "muscle-parameters-shoulder-const.any" muscle strength parameters for the arm
  • "muscle-parameters-shoulder-const_simple.any" muscle strength parameters for the arm
  • "WristMuscle.any" this files adds artificial muscles to the wrist

Used references

The raw data from here has been converted using a small Matlab program, which automatically transforms the global coordinates into local coordinates on the segments.

  • F.C.T. van der Helm and R. Veenbaas, Modeling the mechanical efect of muscles with large attachment sites: aplication to the shoulder mechanism. Journal of Biomechanics, vol. 24, no. 12, pp. 1151-1163, 1991
  • H.E.J. Veeger, F.C.T. van der Helm, L.H.V. van der Woude, G.M. Pronk and R.H. Rozendal, Inertia and muscle contraction parameters for musculoskeletal modelling of the shoulder mechanism. Journal of Biomechanics, vol. 24, no. 7, pp. 615-629, 1991
  • F.C.T. van der Helm, A finite element musculoskeletal model of the shoulder mechanism. Journal of Biomechanics, vol. 27, no. 5, pp. 551-569, 1994
  • R. Happee and F.C.T. Van der Helm, The control of shoulder muscles during goal directed movements, an inverse dynamic analysisJ. Biomechanics, vol. 28, no. 10, pp. 1179-1191, 1995
  • Van der Helm FC, Veeger HE, Pronk GM, Van der Woude LH, Rozendal RH. Geometry parameters for musculoskeletal modeling of the shoulder system Journal of biomechanics Vol. 25 no. 2, pp. 129-144, 1992 Note: this reference is used for the geometry used for the definition of many of the geometries which are used for muscle wrapping
  • DirkJan (H.E.J.) Veeger, Bing Yu, Kai Nan An, Orientation of axes in the elbow and forearm for biomechanical modeling Proceedings of the first conference of the ISG,1997
  • The segment coordinatesystem are according to the ISB proposal, please see http://internationalshouldergroup.org/files/standards97.pdf
  • H.E.J. Veeger, Bing Yu, Kai-Nan An and R.H. Rozendal, Parameters for modeling the upper extremity, Journal of Biomechanics, Vol. 30, No. 6, pp. 647-652, 1997
  • H.E.J. Veeger, F.C.T. van der Helm, L.H.V. van der Woude, G.M. Pronk and R.H. Rozendal,Inertia and muscle contraction parameters for musculoskeletal modelling of the shoulder mechanism. Journal of Biomechanics, vol. 24, no. 7, pp. 615-629, 1991

Muscles spanning the wrist has been added the data for these muscles originates from these articles

  • Jacobson, M. D., R. Raab, B. M. Fazeli, R. A. Abrams, M. J. Botte, and R. L. Lieber. Architectural design of the human intrinsic hand muscles. J. Hand Surg. [Am.] 17:804809, 1992.
  • Lieber, R. L., M. D. Jacobson, B. M. Fazeli, R. A. Abrams, and M. J. Botte. Architecture of selected muscles of the arm and forearm: Anatomy and implications for tendon transfer. J. Hand Surg. [Am.] 17:787-798, 1992.
  • Lieber, R. L., B. M. Fazeli, and M. J. Botte. Architecture of selected wrist flexor and extensor muscles. J. Hand Surg. [Am.] 15:244-250, 1990.
  • Muray, W.M.,T.S. Buchanan, and S.L. Delp. Scaling of peak moment arms with the elbow and forearm position J. Biomech. Vol. 28, pp. 513-525, 1995

The model consist of the following joints:

  • SC SternoClavicular: spherical joint
  • AC AcromioClavicular: spherical joint
  • GH Glenohumeral joint: spherical (normal reactions of the spherical joint is not used unstead they are created so that they fall within the glenoid cavity the file, please see the file GHReactions.any for details)
  • AI One dimensional constraint between the scapula and the thorax at the bonylandmark AI om scapula
  • AA One dimensional constraint between the scapula and the thorax at the bonylandmark AA om scapula
  • ConoideumLigament : the lenght of this segment is driven to a constant lenght
  • FE Flexion extension of the elbow: revolute joint
  • PS pronation supination joint or the forearm: combination of joints in distal and proximal end of the radius bone that leaves one dof free which is pronation/supination of the forearm
  • Wrist joint: created as two revolute joints where the axis of rotations are not coincident

The Lumbar spine Model

The Lumbar spine contains 5 vertebrae with 3 DoF spherical joints in between, 188 muscle fascicles and intra-abdominal pressure.

The functional spinal units (FSU) are driven using a prescribed kinematic rhythm and by default facet joints are not employed due to the fact that most of the application do not focus on the lumbar spine section. However, several examples demonstrate possible mechanisms of facet joint incorporation and detailed modeling of the lumbar spine. The spinal muscles do not include the force-length-velocity relations (i.e. we use the so-called simple muscle model). The only input parameter in the muscle model is the cross-sectional area multiplied by a factor. Daggfeldt and Thorstensson (J.Biomech. 2003, 36: 815-825) didn't include the force-length-velocity relations either. Inclusion of the lumbar spine ligaments is optional and can be done as cumulative stiffness of FSU or as separate elastic elements. Similarly the intervertebral disc (IVD) stiffness can be used as a single cumulative value for a FSU or as linear and nonlinear functions for the disc only. This however is mostly used for the spine specific applications, where the level of detail is important. In other cases it has been shown that the torque production from ligaments might not be very important (Cholewicki and McGill, J.Biomech. 1992, 25: 17-28). The data of vertebrae dimensions and whole body parameters is taken from: Nissan and Gilad (J.Biomech. 19: 753-758, 1986) and mechanical properties of ligaments were taken from: Pintar et al. (J.Biomech. 25(11): 1351-1356, 1992).

The spine model contains a preliminary model of the Intra Abdominal pressure (IAP). In short the IAP is modeled as constant volume, which, when squeezed from the side by the transversus muscles extends the spine by pushing on the rib thorax and the pelvic floor. From the mathematical point-of-view, this lets the abdominal muscles function as spine extensors, and they become part of the whole recruitment problem. The limit of the IAP was set to 26600 Pa, which was based on measurements on well-trained subjects (Essendrop, M., 2003. Significance of intra-abdominal pressure in work related trunk-loading. Ph.D. Thesis, National Institute of Occupational Health, Denmark.) and using geometric/anatomic estimates of pressure surface area and area centroids, which in turn determines the effective moment arm of the pressure.

image

You can read more about this lumbar spine model and some prelimary validation in the following article:

  • de Zee, M., L. Hansen, C. Wong, J. Rasmussen, and E.B. Simonsen. A generic detailed rigid-body lumbar spine model. J.Biomech. 40: 1219-1227, 2007.

Data of vertebrae dimensions and whole body parameters is taken from:

  • Nissan and Gilad (J.Biomech. 19: 753-758, 1986)

Some important facts about this model

  • The model does not include facet joints.
  • The muscles do not include the force-length-velocity relations (i.e. we use the socalled simple muscle model). The only input parameter in the muscle model is the cross-sectional area multiplied by a factor. Daggfeldt and Thorstensson (J.Biomech. 2003, 36: 815-825) didn't include the force-length-velocity relations either.
  • Ligaments are not included in this model, because we do not have the necessary mechanical properties. This is however not a problem, because it has been shown that the torque production from ligaments might not be very important (Cholewicki and McGill, J.Biomech. 1992, 25: 17-28).

The model contains a preliminary model of the Intra Abdominal pressure (IAP). In short the IAP is modelled as constant volume, which, when squeezed from the side by the transversus muscles extends the spine by pushing on the rib thorax and the pelvic floor. From the mathematical point-ofview,this lets the abdominal muscles function as spine extensors, and they become part of the whole recruitment problem. The limit of the IAP was set to 26600 Pa, which was based on measurements on well-trained subjects (Essendrop, M., 2003. Significance of intra-abdominal pressure in work related trunk-loading. Ph.D. Thesis, National Institute of Occupational Health, Denmark.) and using geometric/anatomic estimates of pressure surface area and area centroids, which in turn determines the effective moment arm of the pressure.

For more details please see this presentation Abdominal pressure Presentation.

The following files are important:

  • "Buckle.any" this is the main file for simulating the abdominal pressure
  • "SegmentsLumbar.any" this the segments for the lumbar part of the spine
  • "SegmentsThorax.any" this is the segment for thoracic part of the spine
  • "JointsLumbar.any" this file contains the joint definitions
  • "MuscleSpineLeft.any" this is the file which collects the muscles for the left side of the spine
  • "MuscleSpineRight.any" this is the file which collects the muscles for the right side of the spine
  • "MuscleParametersSpineSimpleLeft.any" the muscle strength parameters for the left side of the spine
  • "MuscleParametersSpineSimpleRight.any" the muscle strength parameters for the right side of the spine

##More details on the lumbar spine model can be found online:

  • Webcast Implementation of facet joints in a lumbar spine model (Mark de Zee, 25. September, 2008) This work presents a new methodology for implementation of facet joints in the lumbar spine model developed by De Zee et al. (2007: J Biomech. 40, 1219-1227). It enables the facet joint forces to become part of a redundant system of equilibrium equations for the entire system including the muscles. This redundant system is subsequently solved uniquely thereby making it possible to analyze the effect of whole body movements and loads on facet joint loading for the whole lumbar spine together with its muscles
  • Webcast A detailed rigid-body cervical spine model based on inverse dynamics (Dr. Mark de Zee, 18. September, 2007). This webcast presents a detailed model of the cervical spine, which recently has been presented at the ISB congress in Taipei. We will go through the model and its assumptions including the muscles and a preliminary validation. Moreover an application will be presented where we try to predict neuromuscular adaptation of experimentally induced neck pain using the cervical spine model. (The webcast is available for playback.)
  • Webcast A generic detailed rigid-body lumbar spine model (Dr. Mark de Zee, 4. December, 2006) This webcast presents a detailed model of the lumbar spine, which recently has been published in the Journal of Biomechanics. We will go through the model and its assumptions including the muscles, intra-abdominal pressure and validation. With the presented model it will be possible to investigate a range of research questions, because the model is relatively easy to share and modify, available in the repository. (The webcast is available for playback.)
  • PowerPoint presentation Spine Rhythm Presentation (PDF with videos click to activate them)

You can read more about this lumbar spine model and some preliminary validation in the following article:

  • de Zee, M., L. Hansen, C. Wong, J. Rasmussen, and E.B. Simonsen. A generic detailed rigid-body lumbar spine model. J.Biomech. 40: 1219-1227, 2007.

References:

  • Andersson,E., Oddsson,L., Grundstrom,H.,Thorstensson,A., The role of the psoas and iliacus muscles for stability and movement of the lumbar spine, pelvis and hip, Scand. J. Med. Sci. Sports,5 (1995) 10-16.
  • Bogduk,N., Clinical anatomy of the lumbar spine and sacrum, Churchill Livingstone, Edinburgh, 1997.
  • Bogduk,N., Macintosh,J.E., Pearcy,M.J., A universal model of the lumbar back muscles in the upright position, Spine, 17 (1992) 897-913.
  • Bogduk,N., Pearcy,M.J., Hadfield,G., Anatomy and biomechanics of psoas major, Clin. Biomech., 7 (1992) 109-119.
  • Daggfeldt,K., Thorstensson,A., The role of intraabdominal pressure in spinal unloading, J. Biomech., 30 (1997) 1149-1155.
  • Daggfeldt,K., Thorstensson,A., The mechanics of back-extensor torque production about the lumbar spine, J. Biomech., 36 (2003) 815-825.
  • Heylings,D.J.A., Supraspinous and interspinous ligaments of the human lumbar spine, J. Anat., 125 (1978) 127-131.
  • Hodges,P.W., Cresswell,A.G., Daggfeldt,K., Thorstensson,A., In vivo measurement of the effect of intra-abdominal pressure on the human spine, J. Biomech., 34 (2001) 347-353.
  • Macintosh,J.E., Bogduk,N., The biomechanics of the lumbar multifidus, Clin. Biomech., 1 (1986) 205-213.
  • Macintosh,J.E., Bogduk,N., 1987 Volvo award in basic science. The morphology of the lumbar erector spinae, Spine, 12 (1987) 658-668.
  • Macintosh,J.E., Bogduk,N., The attachments of the lumbar erector spinae, Spine, 16 (1991) 783-792.
  • Macintosh,J.E., Bogduk,N., Munro,R.R., The morphology of the human lumbar multifidus, Clin. Biomech., 1 (1986) 196-204.
  • McGill,S.M., Norman,R.W., Effects of an anatomically detailed erector spinae model on L4/L5 disc compression and shear, J. Biomech., 20 (1987) 591-600.
  • Pearcy,M.J., Bogduk,N., Instantaneous axes of rotation of the lumbar intervertebral joints, Spine, 13 (1988) 1033-1041.
  • Penning,L., Psoas muscle and lumbar spine stability: a concept uniting existing controversies. Critical review and hypothesis, Eur. Spine J., 9 (2000) 577-585.
  • Prestar,F.J., Putz,R., Das Ligamentum longitudinale posterius - morphologie und Funktion, Morphol. Med., 2 (1982) 181-189.
  • Prilutsky,B.I., Zatsiorsky,V.M., Optimizationbased models of muscle coordination, Exerc. Sport Sci. Rev., 30 (2002) 32-38.
  • Stokes,I.A., Gardner-Morse,M., Lumbar spine maximum efforts and muscle recruitment patterns predicted by a model with multijoint muscles and joints with stiffness, J. Biomech., 28 (1995) 173-186.
  • Stokes,I.A., Gardner-Morse,M., Quantitative anatomy of the lumbar musculature, J. Biomech., 32 (1999) 311-316.
  • Pintar et al., “Biomechanical properties of human lumbar spine ligaments”, J Biomech, Vol. 25(11), 1992, pp.1351-1356.

Cervical Spine Model

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Data based on a neck model described by Marike van der Horst.

Related

  • Webcast A detailed rigid-body cervical spine model based on inverse dynamics (Dr. Mark de Zee, 18. September, 2007). This webcast presents a detailed model of the cervical spine, which recently has been presented at the ISB congress in Taipei. We will go through the model and its assumptions including the muscles and a preliminary validation. Moreover an application will be presented where we try to predict neuromuscular adaptation of experimentally induced neck pain using the cervical spine model. (The webcast is available for playback.)

The TLEM Leg Model

Implementation of a new lower extremity model labeled the Twente Lower Extremity Model (TLEM) consisting of 159 muscles and 6 joint degrees of freedom is almost completed. It has been validated against ‘state of the art’ literature with respect to its biomechanical performance and first applications in gait and cycling deliver very convincing results.

The model is based on published morphological consistent anatomical dataset on muscle and joint parameters by Martijn Klein-Horsman from the University of Twente, The Netherlands. The implementation of the model was started by Karin Gorter, a Master Student, also from the University of Twente, during a three month stay at Aalborg University and is has now been finished by the AnyBody Technology.

The current version has been updated several times and is still being maintained in collaboration with The AnyBody Research Group at Aalborg University (DK) www.anybody.aau.dk and University of Twente (NL) under the TLEMsafe project www.tlemsafe.eu. Currently, new cadaver datasets are recorded within the TLEMsafe project.

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The "Leg" Model

  • The “leg” model was the first leg model to enter the AnyBody model repository. It includes the pelvis, thigh, shank and a one segment foot. The hip joint is modeled as a spherical joint, while the knee and ankle are modeled as hinges. The “leg” model is equipped with only 35 muscles elements, which makes it a far simpler model than the LegTLEM.
  • Thanks to Mark Thompson, Lund University Hospital, for his help on developing the lower extremity model. A couple of muscles with broad insertions (like the m. gluteus maximus) are divided into multiple individual muscle units torepresent the real geometry and the mechanical actions of the muscle.
  • The parameters of these muscles are mainly based on the data published by Delp and Maganaris

References:

  • S. Delp, Parameters for the lower limb.
  • Maganaris, C. N. In vivo measurement-based estimations of the moment arm in the human tibialis anterior muscle-tendon unit. Journal of Biomechanics, Vol. 33, pp. 375-379, 2000
  • Dostal, W. F. and J. G. Andrews. A three-dimensional biomechanical model of hip musculature. Journal of Biomechanics, Vol. 14, pp. 803-812, 1981.
  • Herzog, W. and L. J. Read. Lines of action and moment arms of the major force-carrying structures crossing the human knee joint. Journal of Anatomy. Vol. 182:, pp. 213-230, 1993.
  • Hintermann, B., B. M. Nigg, and C. Sommer. Foot movement and tendon excursion: an in vitro study. Foot & Ankle International, Vol. 15, pp. 386-395, 1994

The mandible Model

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References

  • Mark de Zee, Michel Dalstra, Paolo M Cattaneo, John Rasmussen, Peter Svensson, Birte Melsen (2007).Validation of a musculo-skeletal model of the mandible and its application to mandibular distraction osteogenesis. Journal of Biomechanics, 40, 1192–1201.
  • Webcast A Patient Specific Mandible Model (Dr. Mark de Zee, 8. February, 2006) Dr. Mark de Zee presents the progress of his research project at Aarhus University, Aarhus, Denmark. The webcast describes the continuation of the work presented in the webcast Sep. 9, 2005.

The Glasgow-Maastricht Foot Model (FootGM)

AnyBody Technology developed in corporation with Glasgow Caledonian University and University of Maastricht inside the AFootprint EU project a detailed multi-segmental foot model, which is fully dynamic and contains 26 segments representing all the foot bones, muscles, ligaments and joints connecting them. The model can be used with the anatomy and recorded motion from different subjects. It has been validated versus various other experimental and computational studies. The foot model includes 26 rigid segments representing all the bones of the human foot (except the sesamoid bones), namely: Talus, Calcaneus, Cuboid, Navicular, Medial cuneiform, Intermediate cuneiform, Lateral cuneiform, First metatarsal, Second metatarsal, Third metatarsal, Fourth metatarsal, Fifth metatarsal, First proximal phalange, First distal phalange, Second proximal phalange, Second medial phalange, Second distal phalange, Third proximal phalange, Third medial phalange, Third distal phalange, Fourth proximal phalange, Fourth medial phalange, Fourth distal phalange, Fifth proximal phalange, Fifth medial phalange, Fifth distal phalange.

##It includes the following joints and kinematic constraints:

Talocrural and Subtalar joint [20], Talonavicular joint, Calcaneocuboid joint, Medialcuneonavicular joint, Intermediate and lateral cuneonavicular joints, First tarsometatarsal joint, Second, third and fourth tarsometatarsal joints, Fifth tarsometatarsal joint, Metatarsophalangeal joints, Interphalangeal joints, Toe flexion rhythm, Intertarsal contact, Metatarsal head contact, Metatarsal transverse arch, Tarsal transverse arch, Longitudinal medial arch, Longitudinal lateral arch.

##The GM-Foot model includes following additional ligaments:

Collateral (tibiotalar anterior, tibiotalar posterior, tibiocalcaneal and tibionavicular, and the lateral group constituted of the talofibular anterior, talofibular posterior and talocalcaneal), Deep metatarsal transverse, Plantar fascia, Long plantar, Calcaneo cuboid plantar, Calcaneo navicular plantar, Tarsal ligaments ( Talonavicular dorsal, Bifurcate, Calcaneocuboid dorsal, Cuneonavicular dorsal 1, 2 and 3, Cuneonavicular plantar 1, 2 and 3, Intercuneiform dorsal 1 and 2, Cuneocuboid dorsal, Intercuneiform plantar 1 and 2, Cuneocuboid plantar, Cuboideonavicular dorsal, Cuboideonavicular plantar, Tarsometatarsal dorsal 1 to 8, Tarsometatarsal plantar 1 to 7, Intermetatarsal dorsal 1, 2 and 3, Intermetatarsal plantar 1, 2 and 3) and Phalangeal ligaments.

##The muscles of the foot can be divided in two groups: the intrinsic muscles and the extrinsic muscles. All the extrinsic muscles come from the TLEM leg model of the AMMR. The intrinsic foot musculature is constituted of the following muscles:

Abductor hallucis (ABDH), flexor hallucis brevis medialis (FHBM) and lateralis (FHBL), adductor hallucis transverse (ADHT) and oblique (ADHO), abductor digiti minimi (ABDM), flexor digiti minimi brevis (FDMB), dorsal interosseous (DI), plantar interosseous (PI), flexor digitorum brevis (FDB), lumbricals (LB), quadratus plantar medialis (QPM) and lateralis (QPL), extensor hallucis brevis (EHB), extensor digitorum brevis (EDB)

More information can be found online

Webcast

The new Glasgow-Maastricht AnyBody foot model (Sylvain Carbes, 20. September, 2012) Presentation (2Mb), Playback (36Mb) This webcast presents a detailed AnyBody musculoskeletal foot model which includes all bones and joints of a real foot. Developed in collaboration with Glasgow Caledonian University and University Hospital Maastricht and referred to as the "Glasgow-Maastricht foot model" this model can be driven by motion capture data and uses combined force plate/pressure plate for accurate loading of the different joints. Built-in scaling allows the user to reproduce principal foot deformities such as flat foot and hallux valgus. The high detail level of the model and a built-in scaling protocol allows the user to investigate a wide range of parameters like joints motion and load, muscles activation, both in healthy and pathologic feet.

References used as input:

  • Arampatzis, S. et al., Strain and elongation of the human gastrocnemius tendon and aponeurosis during maximal plantarflexion effort. J Biomech, 38(4):833–841, Apr 2005.
  • Arndt, P. et al., Intrinsic foot kinematics measured in vivo during the stance phase of slow running. J Biomech, 40(12):2672–2678, 2007.
  • Bandholm, T et al., Foot medial longitudinal-arch deformation during quiet standing and gait in subjects with medial tibial stress syndrome. J Foot Ankle Surg, 47(2):89–95, 2008.
  • Bloome, DM et al., Variations on the insertion of the posterior tibialis tendon: a cadaveric study. Foot Ankle Int, 24(10):780–783, Oct 2003.
  • Cailliet, R. The Illustrated Guide to Functional Anatomy of the Musculoskel. Sys.. D J R Evans, 2004.
  • Cheung, JT et al., Three-dimensional finite element analysis of the foot during standing–a material sensitivity study. J Biomech, 38(5):1045–1054, May 2005.
  • Fernandes, R. et al., Tendons in the plantar aspect of the foot: Mr imaging and anatomic correlation in cadavers. Skeletal Radiol, 36(2):115–122, Feb 2007.
  • Funk, JR et al., Linear and quasi-linear viscoelastic characterization of ankle ligaments. J Biomech Eng, 122(1):15–22, Feb 2000.
  • Kanatli, U. et al., Evaluation of the transverse metatarsal arch of the foot with gait analysis. Arch Orthop Trauma Surg, 123(4):148–150, May 2003.
  • Kitaoka, HB, et al., Mat properties of the plantar aponeurosis. Foot Ankle Int, 15(10):557–560, 1994.
  • Kura, H, et al., Quant. analysis of the intrinsic muscles of the foot. Anat Rec, 249(1):143–151,1997.
  • Lundberg and O.K. Svensson. The axes of rotation of the talocalcaneal and talonavicular joints. The Foot, 3(2):65 – 70, 1993.
  • Lundgren, P, et al., Invasive in vivo measurement of rear-, mid- and forefoot motion during walking. Gait Posture, 28(1):93–100, Jul 2008.
  • MacWilliams, BA, et al., Foot kinematics and kinetics during adolescent gait. Gait Posture, 17(3):214–224, Jun 2003.
  • Mengiardi, B, et al., Spring ligament complex: Mr imaging-anatomic correlation and findings in asymptomatic subjects. Radiology, 237(1):242–249, Oct 2005.
  • Moraes do Carmo, CC, et al., Anatomical features of plantar aponeurosis: cadaveric study using ultrasonography and magnetic resonance imaging. Skeletal Radiol, 37(10):929–935, Oct 2008.
  • Netter, FH. Atlas der Anatomie des Menschen 3nd. Georg Thieme Verlag Stuttgart, 2003.
  • Pastore, D, et al., Complex distal insertions of the tibialis posterior tendon: detailed anatomic and mr imaging investigation in cadavers. Skeletal Radiol, 37(9):849–855, Sep 2008.
  • Patil, V. et al. Morphometric dimensions of the calcaneonavicular (spring) ligament. Foot Ankle Int, 28(8):927–932, Aug 2007.
  • Patil, V. et al., Anatomical variations in the insertion of the peroneus (fibularis) longus tendon. Foot Ankle Int, 28(11):1179–1182, Nov 2007.
  • Picard, M et al., orthopedic physical assessment 3rd edition (1997) wb saunders company,philadelphia 805 pp. 49.95. Journal of Hand Therapy, 11(4):286 –, 1998.
  • Siegler, S, et al., Mechanics of the ankle and subtalar joints revealed through a 3d quasi-static stress mri technique. J Biomech, 38(3):567–578, Mar 2005.
  • Sooriakumaran, P and Sivananthan, S. Why does man have a quadratus plantae? a review of its comparative anatomy. Croat Med J, 46(1):30–35, Feb 2005.
  • Stagni, R., et al., Ligament fibre recruitment at the human ankle joint complex in passive flexion. J Biomech, 37(12):1823–1829, Dec 2004.
  • Taniguchi, A. et al., Anat. of the spring ligament. J Bone Joint Surg Am, 85-A(11):2174–2178, 2003.
  • Ward, KA and R. W. Soames. Morphology of the plantar calcaneocuboid ligaments. Foot Ankle Int, 18(10):649–653, Oct 1997.
  • Winson, IC., et al., Metatarsal motion. The Foot, 5(2):91 – 94, 1995.
  • Winson, IC., et al., Passive regulation of impact forces in heel-toe running. Clin Biomech (Bristol, Avon), 13(7):521–531, Oct 1998.
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