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Filesystem Dispatch Rules

Aspen dispatches web requests to the filesystem based on paths. For simple cases this is straightforward: /foo.html in the browser will find foo.html in the publishing root on your filesystem, and serve the file statically. There are a couple wrinkles, however. What about dynamic resources? And what about variable path parts?

Note

This is a tutorial. Please refer to our test table for the complete dispatch rules.

Dynamic Resources

Sometimes you want the URL path /foo.html to find a static HTML file. More frequently, you want it to serve a dynamic resource. Aspen uses the simplates file format to model dynamic resources, and Aspen knows a file is a simplate because of a .spt extension: /foo.html will find foo.html.spt if it exists. If you ask for /foo.html.spt directly, however, you'll get a 404.

But what happens if you have both of the following on your filesystem?

  • foo.html
  • foo.html.spt

When you ask for /foo.html, which one will you get? Which file will Aspen use to represent the resource? The answer is foo.html. The principle is "most specific wins". The dynamic resource could actually serve other content types (despite the .html in the filename), whereas the static resource will only result in an HTML representation.

Now how about this one: what happens if you ask for /foo.html with these two on your filesystem?

  • foo.html.spt
  • foo.spt

You guessed it: foo.html.spt. Even though both are dynamic resources, and both could technically result in any content type representation, the former is likely to result in just HTML. Aspen therefore considers it to be more specific, and to match it before the more general foo.spt.

Now let's say you only have:

  • foo.spt

That simplate will answer for /foo.html. But! It will also answer for /foo.json, /foo.csv, /foo.xml, etc. One simplate can serve multiple content type representations of the same resource. The simplate docs explain how, but before we get there, let's talk about path variables.

Path Variables

It's common in web applications to use parts of the URL path to pass variables to a dynamic resource. For example, the 2016 in /blog/2016/some-post.html will want to end up as a year variable in your code, and some-post perhaps as slug. Since Aspen uses the filesystem for dispatch, you define these variables on the filesystem. You use the % (percent) character for this.

For the blog URL example, we might have the following simplate on our filesystem:

  • blog/%year/%slug.html.spt

Aspen matches from % to the end of the path part or a file extension, whichever comes first. Now, inside your simplate, you will have access to year and slug variables containing the values from the URL path.

Typecasting

URL path parts are strings, but sometimes you want to convert to a different data type. Aspen provides for this by looking for special file extensions following the % variable: .int and .float are supported by default.

If our simplate for the blog example was at:

  • blog/%year.int/%slug.html.spt

Then the year variable inside our simplate would be an integer instead of a string.

Ready for Simplates?

Aspen serves static files directly, and dynamic files using simplates (.spt), with path variables based on special % names on the filesystem. With those basics in place, it's clearly time to write a simplate!