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First startup

The following section explains how to get the server and the automatatutor website running for the first time.


The website is written in Scala using the Lift webframework. We use sbt for the actual build and to manage the dependencies. Since Lift is distributed as a library for Scala, you just need the following things installed:

  • Scala 2.9.2
  • SBT 0.13.5

The versions given are known to be working. Later versions should work, but no guarantee is given for this.

Initial configuration

Before you compile and start the website for the first time, you will need to configure the initial user and the connection to the grading engine. This section shows you how.

Whenever we talk of properties in this file, we mean lift-properties, which are stored in src/main/resources/props/default.props in a simple format of the form name=value.

This handling of properties is a feature of Lift. More information about properties and how they are used in the code can be found here

Admin user

In order to promote users to instructors and admins, an admin account is needed. One admin account is created on the first startup in order to create other admins. In the standard configuration, its email and password are set to and admin respectively. Also, since every user needs a name, the admin's name is set to "Donald Knuth" initially. These values may be changed before you start up the server in the next section, but will have no effect once the server is running.

To change these values, simply edit the properties admin.firstname, admin.lastname, and admin.password. If some of these values are not set, they default to the "Admin", "Admin", and admin, respectively.

Connection to grading engine

Since we communicate with the backend, i.e., the grading engine, via HTTP, we need to tell the frontend where to find the backend. The configuration of this connection is stored as properties as well. The property of interest to you is grader.url. Set this to the .asmx page that contains the backend- webservice.

The property grader.methodnamespace can remain set to as long as you do not change the namespace in the backend. This is needed for building the post-request to the backend correctly.

After you have set this property correctly, you can continue to build the frontend


Automatatutor at some points sends out mail to users, for example to verify email addresses or to send information about solutions that were handed in. In order to do so, it needs to connect to a mailserver. This mailserver must be configured using the properties mail.transport.protocol,, mail.smtp.port, mail.smtp.starttls.enable,mail.smtp.auth, mail.user, andmail.password`.

Database connection

Automatatutor crucially requires a relational database to run. The connection to this database must be configured using the properties db.driver,db.url, db.user, and db.password.


We assume that you are in the folder AutomataApp_v2. Start sbt as follows

$ sbt

On the first start, this will take a while as sbt downloads all dependencies of the project, including the complete lift framework on startup. When sbt is done, it should greet you with a prompt. Type

> compile

to compile the frontend into java class files. Once this is done, type

> container:start

to package the newly compiled class files into a .war-file, together with all their dependencies and deploy these to a jetty -server, which sbt starts on its own. Once sbt returns, you should have the frontend up and running at http://localhost:8080. You can stop the frontend by typing

> container:stop

How to Contribute

This section explains the ideas that went into the design of the frontend, including the actual code. As the frontend is written in Scala and Lift, it is assumed that you have at least a passing familiarity with functional programming and may even have looked into Scala a little bit. I try to make this as accessible as possible by explaining some peculiarities of Scala and Lift as we go along. I will mark these paragraphs and sections with Scala and Lift, respectively, so if you already know one or both of these, you may want to skip these parts

If you want to learn more about Scala or Lift, I personally found Scala by Example and Exploring Lift to be very useful.

A reference for Scala and Lift in the versions we use can be found here for scala and here for lift

Lift's Request Handling

There are three main components involved in rendering a site request: The sitemap, a website template and a so-called snippet. When a browser issues a request for, say, the site at /courses/index, the following happens:

  1. Lift checks the sitemap if there is a site at /courses/index and if it may be served. The sitemap is a global configuration that is set in src/main/scala/bootstrap/liftweb/Boot.scala like this:

    Menu.i("Courses") / "courses" / "index" >> loggedInPredicate

    loggedInPredicate is defined a couple of lines further up as

    val loggedInPredicate = If(() => User.loggedIn_?, () => RedirectResponse("/index"))

    The first line tells Lift that there is a site titled "Courses" at courses/index, which has an additional LocParam called loggedInPredicate. The combination of site and its title is called a Loc. The LocParam tells Lift that this page may only be accessed if there is a user logged in. If no user is logged in, then instead of rendering a site, lift should redirect the user to /index We just assume that a user is logged in, so lift is satisfied and proceeds to the second step.

  2. Lift looks for a view template called /courses/index.html in src/main/webapp/. This is a simple website with some extra tags that control how Lift processes it before it serves it. In this case, we have

    <div id="main" class="lift:surround?with=default;at=content">,


    <lift:Courses.renderenrollmentform form="POST">

    The first tag tells lift that before serving the website, it should first load /templates-hidden/default.html and substitute the content tag it finds in there with the content of /courses/index. The other two tags tell lift to find a Snippet called Courses and use the methods showall and renderenrollmentform respectively to figure out what to put there.

  3. Lift finds the snippet code.snippet.Courses and calls its method showall to produce some XML that replaces the tag <lift:Courses.showall>. This method gets passed the children of the <lift:Courses.showall> tag, which in this case is the empty NodeSeq.

    The whole work of querying the database and communicating happens in these snippets. As usual with web frameworks, as much content as possible should be put in the template and as little as possible should be generated dynamically.

    Scala. Scala offers native support for XML, including the parsing of XML literals, XPath support and checking the well-formedness of XML at compile-time. A Node represents a single XML-node with its children, a NodeSeq is a sequence of XML nodes. More information on this can be found here and here

Code Design

When rendering a page in a snippet, we often query the database for problems, users and many other things. A very simple, early, design featured only snippets (in code.snippet) and data access objects (DAOs, called mappers in Lift, in com.automatatutor.model). The snippet would query the DAO for the objects it needed for displaying and then transform these objects into XML.

This combined two responsibilities in the snippet: Loading the objects needed from the database and rendering them as needed. In order to promote separation of concerns, I decided to move these functionalities to two different classes: A snippet and a renderer. A snippet now only queries the DAOs as needed and hands all objects to a renderer, which produces a NodeSeq from the given objects.

Since this is a quite large refactoring, as of revision 935, the functionality is still spread out between snippets and renderers. Also, even though the renderers should eventually have their own package, they are currently placed in code.snippet as well.

Problem Snippets

One major design goal was to make sure that new types of problems can be included as easily as possible. For this, we introduced the notion of a ProblemType (to be found in model/Problem.scala). An example of a problem type would be "English to DFA", i.e., the type of all problems in which the student has to construct a DFA from a description in English.

ProblemType has a method onStartup that asserts that all known problem types are present in the database. This method is not called by Lift automatically on startup, but we manually call it in Boot (to be found in bootstrap/Boot.scala). After startup, we do not change the known problem types anymore. This entails that we cannot add a new problem type at runtime, but have to restart/redeploy the frontend every time we add a new problem type.

ProblemType has a method getProblemSnippet, which returns a ProblemSnippet. This is a trait (defined in snippet/ProblemSnippet) that defines the main operations that can be performed with problems: They can be created, edited, solved and deleted. You might have noticed that three of these operations take a Problem. This class encapsulates the properties that all problems have in common, most importantly a short and a long description as well as a ProblemType.

Whenever the frontend wants to perform an operation on a problem, it loads the Problem, gets its ProblemSnippet via its ProblemType and then calls the relevant action on the ProblemSnippet. The ProblemSnippet is then responsible for carrying out these actions.

Hands-On: How to add a new type of problem

Adding a new type of problem is quite simple in general, as far as the frontend is concerned:

  1. Define an object with the trait ProblemSnippet that implements all of its methods. Please refer to the scaladoc-documentation of these methods for more information on the implementation.
  2. Think of a short title for your new problem type and add an entry that maps this title to your newly created object to knownProblemTypes in ProblemType in model/Problem.scala.
  3. Restart the frontend. This will cause ProblemType.onStartup to be called again, which writes your new problem type to the database and makes it known to the rest of the frontend.

The challenge in adding a new problem type lies in the correct implementation of ProblemSnippet. This new implementation has to take care of both rendering the website for the user to create, edit and solve problems, as well as handling the user's responses, i.e., interpreting the user's input, storing it in the database and grading students' attempts.

For an example how to implement ProblemSnippet correctly, RegExConstructionSnippet (to be found in snippet/RegExProblemSnippet.scala) may be a good starting point, since the frontend consists mainly of a single text field in which the user enters a regular expression.

Coding Guidelines

These rules are the basic guidelines that emerged during the first writing of the code. Since some of these only became clear after a substantial part of the code was already written, not all of the code adheres to these guidelines. They are to be thought of as guidelines for new code. Also, they should not be taken as gospel. If there are good reasons to deviate from these rules, please feel free to do so.

  1. For each class in the model there should be a corresponding renderer that is parametrized with an instance of this class and creates HTML from the model instance. This renderer can then be used in the snippets once the relevant model instances have been loaded.

  2. Do not query the database directly anywhere but in the model class. For example, if you want to find a user with a given name, do not write

    User.findAll(By(user.firstname, firstname), By(user.lastname, lastname))

    in the snippet, but rather implement a method

    User.findByName(firstname : String, lastname : String) : Seq[User]

    in com.automatatutor.model.User that does this. This helps keep the snippets as clean and small as possible.

  3. If possible, do not use any magical numbers in the code. The only exception to this is com.automatatutor.lib.Config, where all configuration is to be stored. In particular, this also implies non-usage of net.liftweb.util.Props everywhere but in com.automatatutor.lib.Config.

  4. New code should be formatted using scalariform. A profile for this can be found at

TODO: Write down more guidelines

Rationale for using scala 2.10 instead of current 2.11

At the time of writing (Dec 11, 2014), Lift libraries do exist for Scala 2.11, but they have not been formally released. They only exist in the form of milestones and/or release candidates. Thus, we opted for the official release which only works with scala 2.10 instead of 2.11.