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Azure SDK for Go

godoc Build Status

azure-sdk-for-go provides Go packages for managing and using Azure services. It officially supports the last two major releases of Go. Older versions of Go will be kept running in CI until they no longer work due to changes in any of the SDK's external dependencies. The CHANGELOG will be updated when a version of Go is removed from CI.

To be notified about updates and changes, subscribe to the Azure update feed.

Users may prefer to jump right in to our samples repo at github.com/Azure-Samples/azure-sdk-for-go-samples.

Questions and feedback? Chat with us in the #Azure SDK channel on the Gophers Slack. Sign up here first if necessary.

Package Updates

Most packages in the SDK are generated from Azure API specs using Azure/autorest.go and Azure/autorest. These generated packages depend on the HTTP client implemented at Azure/go-autorest.

The SDK codebase adheres to semantic versioning and thus avoids breaking changes other than at major (x.0.0) releases. Because Azure's APIs are updated frequently, we release a new major version at the end of each month with a full changelog. For more details and background see SDK Update Practices.

To more reliably manage dependencies like the Azure SDK in your applications we recommend golang/dep.

Packages that are still in public preview can be found under the ./services/preview directory. Please be aware that since these packages are in preview they are subject to change, including breaking changes outside of a major semver bump.

Other Azure Go Packages

Azure provides several other packages for using services from Go, listed below. If a package you need isn't available please open an issue and let us know.

Service Import Path/Repo
Storage - Blobs github.com/Azure/azure-storage-blob-go
Storage - Files github.com/Azure/azure-storage-file-go
Storage - Queues github.com/Azure/azure-storage-queue-go
Service Bus github.com/Azure/azure-service-bus-go
Event Hubs github.com/Azure/azure-event-hubs-go
Application Insights github.com/Microsoft/ApplicationInsights-go

Install and Use:

Install

$ go get -u github.com/Azure/azure-sdk-for-go/...

and you should also make sure to include the minimum version of go-autorest that is specified in Gopkg.toml file.

Or if you use dep, within your repo run:

$ dep ensure -add github.com/Azure/azure-sdk-for-go

If you need to install Go, follow the official instructions.

Use

For many more scenarios and examples see Azure-Samples/azure-sdk-for-go-samples.

Apply the following general steps to use packages in this repo. For more on authentication and the Authorizer interface see the next section.

  1. Import a package from the services directory.
  2. Create and authenticate a client with a New*Client func, e.g. c := compute.NewVirtualMachinesClient(...).
  3. Invoke API methods using the client, e.g. res, err := c.CreateOrUpdate(...).
  4. Handle responses and errors.

For example, to create a new virtual network (substitute your own values for strings in angle brackets):

package main

import (
	"context"

	"github.com/Azure/azure-sdk-for-go/services/network/mgmt/2017-09-01/network"

	"github.com/Azure/go-autorest/autorest/azure/auth"
	"github.com/Azure/go-autorest/autorest/to"
)

func main() {
	// create a VirtualNetworks client
	vnetClient := network.NewVirtualNetworksClient("<subscriptionID>")

	// create an authorizer from env vars or Azure Managed Service Idenity
	authorizer, err := auth.NewAuthorizerFromEnvironment()
	if err == nil {
		vnetClient.Authorizer = authorizer
	}

	// call the VirtualNetworks CreateOrUpdate API
	vnetClient.CreateOrUpdate(context.Background(),
		"<resourceGroupName>",
		"<vnetName>",
		network.VirtualNetwork{
			Location: to.StringPtr("<azureRegion>"),
			VirtualNetworkPropertiesFormat: &network.VirtualNetworkPropertiesFormat{
				AddressSpace: &network.AddressSpace{
					AddressPrefixes: &[]string{"10.0.0.0/8"},
				},
				Subnets: &[]network.Subnet{
					{
						Name: to.StringPtr("<subnet1Name>"),
						SubnetPropertiesFormat: &network.SubnetPropertiesFormat{
							AddressPrefix: to.StringPtr("10.0.0.0/16"),
						},
					},
					{
						Name: to.StringPtr("<subnet2Name>"),
						SubnetPropertiesFormat: &network.SubnetPropertiesFormat{
							AddressPrefix: to.StringPtr("10.1.0.0/16"),
						},
					},
				},
			},
		})
}

Authentication

Typical SDK operations must be authenticated and authorized. The Authorizer interface allows use of any auth style in requests, such as inserting an OAuth2 Authorization header and bearer token received from Azure AD.

The SDK itself provides a simple way to get an authorizer which first checks for OAuth client credentials in environment variables and then falls back to Azure's Managed Service Identity when available, e.g. when on an Azure VM. The following snippet from the previous section demonstrates this helper.

import "github.com/Azure/go-autorest/autorest/azure/auth"

// create a VirtualNetworks client
vnetClient := network.NewVirtualNetworksClient("<subscriptionID>")

// create an authorizer from env vars or Azure Managed Service Idenity
authorizer, err := auth.NewAuthorizerFromEnvironment()
if err == nil {
    vnetClient.Authorizer = authorizer
}

// call the VirtualNetworks CreateOrUpdate API
vnetClient.CreateOrUpdate(context.Background(),
// ...

The following environment variables help determine authentication configuration:

  • AZURE_ENVIRONMENT: Specifies the Azure Environment to use. If not set, it defaults to AzurePublicCloud. Not applicable to authentication with Managed Service Identity (MSI).
  • AZURE_AD_RESOURCE: Specifies the AAD resource ID to use. If not set, it defaults to ResourceManagerEndpoint for operations with Azure Resource Manager. You can also choose an alternate resource programmatically with auth.NewAuthorizerFromEnvironmentWithResource(resource string).

More Authentication Details

The previous is the first and most recommended of several authentication options offered by the SDK because it allows seamless use of both service principals and Azure Managed Service Identity. Other options are listed below.

Note: If you need to create a new service principal, run az ad sp create-for-rbac -n "<app_name>" in the azure-cli. See these docs for more info. Copy the new principal's ID, secret, and tenant ID for use in your app, or consider the --sdk-auth parameter for serialized output.

  • The auth.NewAuthorizerFromEnvironment() described above creates an authorizer from the first available of the following configuration:

    1. **Client Credentials**: Azure AD Application ID and Secret.
    
        - `AZURE_TENANT_ID`: Specifies the Tenant to which to authenticate.
        - `AZURE_CLIENT_ID`: Specifies the app client ID to use.
        - `AZURE_CLIENT_SECRET`: Specifies the app secret to use.
    
    2. **Client Certificate**: Azure AD Application ID and X.509 Certificate.
    
        - `AZURE_TENANT_ID`: Specifies the Tenant to which to authenticate.
        - `AZURE_CLIENT_ID`: Specifies the app client ID to use.
        - `AZURE_CERTIFICATE_PATH`: Specifies the certificate Path to use.
        - `AZURE_CERTIFICATE_PASSWORD`: Specifies the certificate password to use.
    
    3. **Resource Owner Password**: Azure AD User and Password. This grant type is *not
       recommended*, use device login instead if you need interactive login.
    
        - `AZURE_TENANT_ID`: Specifies the Tenant to which to authenticate.
        - `AZURE_CLIENT_ID`: Specifies the app client ID to use.
        - `AZURE_USERNAME`: Specifies the username to use.
        - `AZURE_PASSWORD`: Specifies the password to use.
    
    4. **Azure Managed Service Identity**: Delegate credential management to the
       platform. Requires that code is running in Azure, e.g. on a VM. All
       configuration is handled by Azure. See [Azure Managed Service
       Identity](https://docs.microsoft.com/azure/active-directory/msi-overview)
       for more details.
    
  • The auth.NewAuthorizerFromFile() method creates an authorizer using credentials from an auth file created by the Azure CLI. Follow these steps to utilize:

    1. Create a service principal and output an auth file using az ad sp create-for-rbac --sdk-auth > client_credentials.json.
    2. Set environment variable AZURE_AUTH_LOCATION to the path of the saved output file.
    3. Use the authorizer returned by auth.NewAuthorizerFromFile() in your client as described above.
  • The auth.NewAuthorizerFromCLI() method creates an authorizer which uses Azure CLI to obtain its credentials.

    The default audience being requested is https://management.azure.com (Azure ARM API). To specify your own audience, export AZURE_AD_RESOURCE as an evironment variable. This is read by auth.NewAuthorizerFromCLI() and passed to Azure CLI to acquire the access token.

    For example, to request an access token for Azure Key Vault, export

    AZURE_AD_RESOURCE="https://vault.azure.net"
    
  • auth.NewAuthorizerFromCLIWithResource(AUDIENCE_URL_OR_APPLICATION_ID) - this method is self contained and does not require exporting environment variables. For example, to request an access token for Azure Key Vault:

    auth.NewAuthorizerFromCLIWithResource("https://vault.azure.net")
    

    To use NewAuthorizerFromCLI() or NewAuthorizerFromCLIWithResource(), follow these steps:

    1. Install Azure CLI v2.0.12 or later. Upgrade earlier versions.
    2. Use az login to sign in to Azure.

    If you receive an error, use az account get-access-token to verify access.

    If Azure CLI is not installed to the default directory, you may receive an error reporting that az cannot be found.
    Use the AzureCLIPath environment variable to define the Azure CLI installation folder.

    If you are signed in to Azure CLI using multiple accounts or your account has access to multiple subscriptions, you need to specify the specific subscription to be used. To do so, use:

    az account set --subscription <subscription-id>
    

    To verify the current account settings, use:

    az account list
    
  • Finally, you can use OAuth's Device Flow by calling auth.NewDeviceFlowConfig() and extracting the Authorizer as follows:

    config := auth.NewDeviceFlowConfig(clientID, tenantID)
    a, err := config.Authorizer()

Versioning

azure-sdk-for-go provides at least a basic Go binding for every Azure API. To provide maximum flexibility to users, the SDK even includes previous versions of Azure APIs which are still in use. This enables us to support users of the most updated Azure datacenters, regional datacenters with earlier APIs, and even on-premises installations of Azure Stack.

SDK versions apply globally and are tracked by git tags. These are in x.y.z form and generally adhere to semantic versioning specifications.

Service API versions are generally represented by a date string and are tracked by offering separate packages for each version. For example, to choose the latest API versions for Compute and Network, use the following imports:

import (
    "github.com/Azure/azure-sdk-for-go/services/compute/mgmt/2017-12-01/compute"
    "github.com/Azure/azure-sdk-for-go/services/network/mgmt/2017-09-01/network"
)

Occasionally service-side changes require major changes to existing versions. These cases are noted in the changelog, and for this reason Service API versions cannot be used alone to ensure backwards compatibility.

All available services and versions are listed under the services/ path in this repo and in GoDoc. Run find ./services -type d -mindepth 3 to list all available service packages.

Profiles

Azure API profiles specify subsets of Azure APIs and versions. Profiles can provide:

  • stability for your application by locking to specific API versions; and/or
  • compatibility for your application with Azure Stack and regional Azure datacenters.

In the Go SDK, profiles are available under the profiles/ path and their component API versions are aliases to the true service package under services/. You can use them as follows:

import "github.com/Azure/azure-sdk-for-go/profiles/2017-03-09/compute/mgmt/compute"
import "github.com/Azure/azure-sdk-for-go/profiles/2017-03-09/network/mgmt/network"
import "github.com/Azure/azure-sdk-for-go/profiles/2017-03-09/storage/mgmt/storage"

The following profiles are available for hybrid Azure and Azure Stack environments.

  • 2017-03-09
  • 2018-03-01

In addition to versioned profiles, we also provide two special profiles latest and preview. The latest profile contains the latest API version of each service, excluding any preview versions and/or content. The preview profile is similar to the latest profile but includes preview API versions.

The latest and preview profiles can help you stay up to date with API updates as you build applications. Since they are by definition not stable, however, they should not be used in production apps. Instead, choose the latest specific API version (or an older one if necessary) from the services/ path.

As an example, to automatically use the most recent Compute APIs, use one of the following imports:

import "github.com/Azure/azure-sdk-for-go/profiles/latest/compute/mgmt/compute"
import "github.com/Azure/azure-sdk-for-go/profiles/preview/compute/mgmt/compute"

Avoiding Breaking Changes

To avoid breaking changes, when specifying imports you should specify a Service API Version or Profile, as well as lock (using dep and soon with Go Modules) to a specific SDK version.

For example, in your source code imports, use a Service API Version (2017-12-01):

import "github.com/Azure/azure-sdk-for-go/services/compute/mgmt/2017-12-01/compute"

or Profile version (2017-03-09):

import "github.com/Azure/azure-sdk-for-go/profiles/2017-03-09/compute/mgmt/compute"

As well as, for dep, a Gopkg.toml file with:

[[constraint]]
  name = "github.com/Azure/azure-sdk-for-go"
  version = "21.0.0"

Combined, these techniques will ensure that breaking changes should not occur. If you are extra sensitive to changes, adding an additional version pin in your SDK Version should satisfy your needs:

[[constraint]]
  name = "github.com/Azure/azure-sdk-for-go"
  version = "=21.3.0"

Inspecting and Debugging

Built-in Basic Request/Response Logging

Starting with go-autorest v10.15.0 you can enable basic logging of requests and responses through setting environment variables. Setting AZURE_GO_SDK_LOG_LEVEL to INFO will log request/response without their bodies. To include the bodies set the log level to DEBUG.

By default the logger writes to stderr, however it can also write to stdout or a file if specified in AZURE_GO_SDK_LOG_FILE. Note that if the specified file already exists it will be truncated.

IMPORTANT: by default the logger will redact the Authorization and Ocp-Apim-Subscription-Key headers. Any other secrets will not be redacted.

Writing Custom Request/Response Inspectors

All clients implement some handy hooks to help inspect the underlying requests being made to Azure.

  • RequestInspector: View and manipulate the go http.Request before it's sent
  • ResponseInspector: View the http.Response received

Here is an example of how these can be used with net/http/httputil to see requests and responses.

vnetClient := network.NewVirtualNetworksClient("<subscriptionID>")
vnetClient.RequestInspector = LogRequest()
vnetClient.ResponseInspector = LogResponse()

// ...

func LogRequest() autorest.PrepareDecorator {
	return func(p autorest.Preparer) autorest.Preparer {
		return autorest.PreparerFunc(func(r *http.Request) (*http.Request, error) {
			r, err := p.Prepare(r)
			if err != nil {
				log.Println(err)
			}
			dump, _ := httputil.DumpRequestOut(r, true)
			log.Println(string(dump))
			return r, err
		})
	}
}

func LogResponse() autorest.RespondDecorator {
	return func(p autorest.Responder) autorest.Responder {
		return autorest.ResponderFunc(func(r *http.Response) error {
			err := p.Respond(r)
			if err != nil {
				log.Println(err)
			}
			dump, _ := httputil.DumpResponse(r, true)
			log.Println(string(dump))
			return err
		})
	}
}

Tracing and Metrics

All packages and the runtime are instrumented using OpenCensus.

Enable

By default, no tracing provider will be compiled into your program, and the legacy approach of setting AZURE_SDK_TRACING_ENABLED environment variable will no longer take effect.

To enable tracing, you must now add the following include to your source file.

import _ "github.com/Azure/go-autorest/tracing/opencensus"

To hook up a tracer simply call tracing.Register() passing in a type that satisfies the tracing.Tracer interface.

Note: In future major releases of the SDK, tracing may become enabled by default.

Usage

Once enabled, all SDK calls will emit traces and metrics and the traces will correlate the SDK calls with the raw http calls made to Azure API's. To consume those traces, if are not doing it yet, you need to register an exporter of your choice such as Azure App Insights or Zipkin.

To correlate the SDK calls between them and with the rest of your code, pass in a context that has a span initiated using the opencensus-go library using the trace.Startspan(ctx context.Context, name string, o ...StartOption) function. Here is an example:

func doAzureCalls() {
	// The resulting context will be initialized with a root span as the context passed to
	// trace.StartSpan() has no existing span.
	ctx, span := trace.StartSpan(context.Background(), "doAzureCalls", trace.WithSampler(trace.AlwaysSample()))
	defer span.End()

	// The traces from the SDK calls will be correlated under the span inside the context that is passed in.
	zone, _ := zonesClient.CreateOrUpdate(ctx, rg, zoneName, dns.Zone{Location: to.StringPtr("global")}, "", "")
	zone, _ = zonesClient.Get(ctx, rg, *zone.Name)
	for i := 0; i < rrCount; i++ {
		rr, _ := recordsClient.CreateOrUpdate(ctx, rg, zoneName, fmt.Sprintf("rr%d", i), dns.CNAME, rdSet{
			RecordSetProperties: &dns.RecordSetProperties{
				TTL: to.Int64Ptr(3600),
				CnameRecord: &dns.CnameRecord{
					Cname: to.StringPtr("vladdbCname"),
				},
			},
		},
			"",
			"",
		)
	}
}

Request Retry Policy

The SDK provides a baked in retry policy for failed requests with default values that can be configured. Each client object contains the follow fields.

  • RetryAttempts - the number of times to retry a failed request
  • RetryDuration - the duration to wait between retries

For async operations the follow values are also used.

  • PollingDelay - the duration to wait between polling requests
  • PollingDuration - the total time to poll an async request before timing out

Please see the documentation for the default values used.

Changing one or more values will affect all subsequet API calls.

The default policy is to call autorest.DoRetryForStatusCodes() from an API's Sender method. Example:

func (client OperationsClient) ListSender(req *http.Request) (*http.Response, error) {
	sd := autorest.GetSendDecorators(req.Context(), autorest.DoRetryForStatusCodes(client.RetryAttempts, client.RetryDuration, autorest.StatusCodesForRetry...))
	return autorest.SendWithSender(client, req, sd...)
}

Details on how autorest.DoRetryforStatusCodes() works can be found in the documentation.

The slice of SendDecorators used in a Sender method can be customized per API call by smuggling them in the context. Here's an example.

ctx := context.Background()
autorest.WithSendDecorators(ctx, []autorest.SendDecorator{
	autorest.DoRetryForStatusCodesWithCap(client.RetryAttempts,
		client.RetryDuration, time.Duration(0),
		autorest.StatusCodesForRetry...)})
client.List(ctx)

This will replace the default slice of SendDecorators with the provided slice.

The PollingDelay and PollingDuration values are used exclusively by WaitForCompletionRef() when blocking on an async call until it completes.

Resources

Reporting security issues and security bugs

Security issues and bugs should be reported privately, via email, to the Microsoft Security Response Center (MSRC) secure@microsoft.com. You should receive a response within 24 hours. If for some reason you do not, please follow up via email to ensure we received your original message. Further information, including the MSRC PGP key, can be found in the Security TechCenter.

License

   The MIT License (MIT)

   Copyright (c) 2021 Microsoft

   Permission is hereby granted, free of charge, to any person obtaining a copy
   of this software and associated documentation files (the "Software"), to deal
   in the Software without restriction, including without limitation the rights
   to use, copy, modify, merge, publish, distribute, sublicense, and/or sell
   copies of the Software, and to permit persons to whom the Software is
   furnished to do so, subject to the following conditions:

   The above copyright notice and this permission notice shall be included in all
   copies or substantial portions of the Software.

   THE SOFTWARE IS PROVIDED "AS IS", WITHOUT WARRANTY OF ANY KIND, EXPRESS OR
   IMPLIED, INCLUDING BUT NOT LIMITED TO THE WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY,
   FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE AND NONINFRINGEMENT. IN NO EVENT SHALL THE
   AUTHORS OR COPYRIGHT HOLDERS BE LIABLE FOR ANY CLAIM, DAMAGES OR OTHER
   LIABILITY, WHETHER IN AN ACTION OF CONTRACT, TORT OR OTHERWISE, ARISING FROM,
   OUT OF OR IN CONNECTION WITH THE SOFTWARE OR THE USE OR OTHER DEALINGS IN THE
   SOFTWARE.

Contribute

See CONTRIBUTING.md.