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This repo provides some utilities for building low-dimensional vector representations (embeddings) from discrete data. This toolbox is intended to facilitate creation of e.g. GloVe and PPMI style vectors at varying degrees of granularity. Most python packages that create these embeddings make bespoke creation of embedding vectors difficult. This package allows users to specify the amount of context they need to learn latent word representations from text. Functions within parse_utils, for example, allow for users to select small chunks to whole-sentence and whole-document co-occurrence statistics as the input to the matrix factorization step, depending on their needs.

Why (P)PMI or GloVe over word2vec?

It is notoriously difficult to integrate contextual information into word2vec-like algorithms. Entity embeddings and document-level representations are not as coherently interpreted within the semantics of the objective (e.g. "predict the missing word" can't encompass secondary features as formulated). PPMI and GloVe vectors are derived from simple matrix factorization procedures (PCA) over co-occurrence matrices, which increases the interpretability of the derived vectors. You can learn more about this method in Levy and Goldberg (2014).

(P)PMI differs from GloVe in that it uses one additional transformation step. Whereas GloVe uses a log-transformed co-occurrence matrix c, PMI subtracts out a marginal matrix m from c, which produces a matrix corresponding to

P(AB) / (P(A)*P(B))

So, each of the cells in the PMI matrix corresponds to the likelihood that two words co-occur beyond what would be expected by chance, in log space. PMI can capture longer-distance dependencies than word2vec and has been used to learn the meanings of collocations, or phrases, so relative to GloVe, PMI-based vectors may show slightly different behavior. Which one you use should be in line with your theoretical question or application.

Why use this package?

One goal of mine is to make learning embeddings using the GloVe and PPMI algorithms easier for end users, in the same manner that the gensim implementations of skip-gram and CBOW take much of the guesswork out of training these models. This package still allows the user to obtain intermediate representations that may be useful for other applications.

There are two modules within nontology that contain tools for the easy construction of these vectors, parse_utils and ppmi_matrix_utils.


For those who are highly comfortable with sklearn, numpy, scipy and nltk, the tools in parse_utils may not be necessary. One notable contribution is the ability to shrink sentences down to smaller chunks with the function parse_utils.chunkify_docs. The function breaks down a sentence like

[["This", "is", "an", "example", "sentence", "for", "github", "."]]

into multiple chunks with a given window size, e.g.:

[["this", "is", "an"],
["is", "an", "example"],
["an", "example", "sentence"]]

The chunkify_docs capability makes the learning objective more similar to that of conventional algorithms like skip-gram and contextual bag-of-words (CBOW), and especially the vanilla implementation (i.e. just word2vec). My (=Cassandra) experience with using smaller documents is that syntactic similarity between words can come through more easily. One downside, however, is that learning over many small documents inflates co-occurrence statistics (by a constant factor) relative to sentence-level or document-level counts, so please be mindful of this.

Additionally, previous versions of nontology relied on sklearn.feature_extraction.text.CountVectorizer's off-the-shelf tokenization, which performs poorly in many common cases, such as contractions or emoji. The current version allows the user to pre-tokenize using their algorithm of choice, while still allowing CountVectorizer to do the work. The default implementation of parse_utils.tokenize uses nltk.tokenize.word_tokenize and nltk.tokenize.sent_tokenize. If you are working with languages other than English or wish to use a different tokenization scheme, you can simply pass in pre-tokenized data to parse_utils.make_sparse. Of course, if you wish to construct sparse matrices yourself you're welcome to do so, in which case you should move on to the next section 😃


The ability to add metadata and fine-tune parameters is another advantage of the PPMI method. Whereas off-the-shelf implementations of word2vec make it difficult to include metadata, in numpy/scipy it is trivial to add features to a matrix of observations where each row corresponds to some set of counts of categorical variables. Furthermore, using different cutoffs for frequency (either minimums or maximums) may be an important parameter to tune for your application -- for example you may want to set a higher frequency cutoff for words than for entities, bigrams, trigrams, etc. Working with the matrices going into the PCA algorithm directly provides greater flexibility.


First, start by importing the modules:

from nontology import parse_utils as pu, ppmi_matrix_utils as ppmi, live_similarity_functions as lsf
import pandas as pd

Load in some data, and then optionally tokenize it as you'd like. I recommend this route over using scikit-learn's off-the-shelf tokenizer. As a reminder, word_tokenize depends on nltk.tokenize.word_tokenize.

docs = open('example_file.txt').readlines()
word_tokenized = [pu.word_tokenize(x) for x in docs]

And define the dimensionality of your output vectors.

n_components = 100
Example 1: GloVe embeddings without windows

You might not want windows and would prefer to use the whole document as a sort of "context" for computing word vectors. Whether you want to do this will depend on your application -- more context can create noise, but can also capture long-distance relationships between words.

v, sparse = pu.make_sparse(
    docs_to_fit = word_tokenized,
    ngram_range=(1, 2)
m = ppmi.construct_co_occurrence_matrix(sparse)
vecs = ppmi.compute_vectors(m, n_components)

and even more simply the last two lines can be replaced by

vecs = ppmi.compute_glove_vectors(m, n_components)
Example 2: GloVe embeddings with windows

To set a window but otherwise train on the documents as normal, assign docs_to_fit to your original dataset, and docs_to_transform to be some pu.chunkify_docs variant. You can set the window to any size you'd like, though you may see diminishing returns eventually.

v, sparse = pu.make_sparse(
    docs_to_fit = word_tokenized,
    docs_to_transform = pu.chunkify_docs(
        word_tokenized, window=4
    ngram_range=(1, 2)
m = ppmi.construct_co_occurrence_matrix(sparse)
vecs = ppmi.compute_vectors(m, n_components)

This results in an n x k numpy array with n being the size of your vocabulary and k being the size of the components (here, 100). The implementation here will work reasonably well until ~45k features, depending on the density of your data.

The last two lines can again be replaced by ppmi.compute_glove_vectors.

Example 3: PPMI embeddings without windows

Getting PPMI values is a matter of adding a single line.

cooc_m = ppmi.construct_co_occurrence_matrix(sparse)
marg_m = ppmi.construct_marginal_matrix(sparse)
ppmi_m = ppmi.construct_pmi_matrix(cooc_m, marg_m)
vecs = ppmi.compute_vectors(ppmi_m, n_components)

The lines above can also be written as follows:

cooc_m, marg_m = ppmi.construct_matrices(sparse)
ppmi_m = ppmi.construct_pmi_matrix(cooc_m, marg_m)
vecs = ppmi.compute_vectors(ppmi_m, n_components)

And most simply as below:

vecs = compute_pmi_vectors(sparse, n_components)
Example 4: Entity embeddings -- Coming soon!

Entity embeddings are easy. Simply include metadata as a set of features that you can vectorize. Any categorical variable can be easily vectorized by CountVectorizer. Simply use pu.concatenate_sparse_matrices and then compute the entity-term co-occurrence matrix.


Matrix tools for building and inspecting latent spaces




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