This code compute the results in and is based on the mathematical model developed in
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Land-cover Maps

Land-cover maps based on pollen observations for Europe

The usage of the land-cover maps is free, however attribution to the publication is required.

The .csv files in Land-cover Maps folder

  1. land-cover-maps_1900CE,
  2. land-cover-maps_11725CE,
  3. land-cover-maps_4000BCE,

consist of six models described in details in (

a) constant
b) elevation
c) K-L_ESM
d) K-L-RCA3
e) H-L_ESM
f) H-L-RCA3

K: Kapplan human-land use (KK10), L: LPJ-GUESS dynamic vegetation model forced by climate data from: ESM : Earth System model RCA3: Rossby Centre Regional Climate Model


  1. land-cover-maps_1425CE,
  2. land-cover-maps_1000BCE,

only consist of K-L_ESM based on the results in Pirzamanbein et al. (2018) (

The columns represent

  • Lon: longitude
  • Lat: latitude
  • C: coniferous forest
  • B: Broadleaved forest
  • U: Unforested land

These results obtained by running the Demo.m function in the src folder in MATLAB. Demo.m sets the structures, dependency and the names. It calls Main.m function to run the MCMC sampling. The results of the Main.m functions are based on the papers mentioned above. However, some of the functions can be used in general cases, dealing with Gaussian Markov Random fields, Compositional Data and Dirichlet distribution.


  • Pirzamanbein, Behnaz, Johan Lindström, Anneli Poska, and Marie-José Gaillard. "Modelling Spatial Compositional Data: Reconstructions of past land cover and uncertainties." Spatial statistics 24 (2018): 14-31.
  • Pirzamanbein, Behnaz, Anneli Poska, and Johan Lindström. "Bayesian reconstruction of past land-cover from pollen data: model robustness and sensitivity to auxiliary variables." arXiv preprint arXiv:1703.06719 (2017).



MATLAB code for modelling spatial compositional data, specifically for reconstructions of past land cover and uncertainties. Copyright (C) 2018 Pirzamanbein Pirzamanbein

This program is free software: you can redistribute it and/or modify it under the terms of the GNU General Public License as published by the Free Software Foundation, either version 3 of the License, or (at your option) any later version.

This program is distributed in the hope that it will be useful, but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. See the GNU General Public License for more details.

You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License along with this program. If not, see


Creative Commons License
Land-cover maps based on pollen observations for Europe by Behnaz Pirzamanbein is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.
Based on a work at