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Provides an authorization mechanism for the Owin Framework


Authorization is the business of figuring out what each identity within the system is permitted to do. This authorization middleware requires an Identification mechanism to be installed into the application. Any identification mechanism can be used.


This authorization middleware stores identity permissions in a database using the Prius ORM. This ORM has plug-ins for all major databases, but I only wrote SQL scripts to create the database in MySQL so far. Translating this script into SQL Server or another syntax is straightforward because the database is fairly simple.

This solution also contains an optional UI middleware. This middleware is not required, but if you integrate it with your application then it will fill a

element with a UI for managing permissions. The UI is written in the Dart programming language which compiles into JavaScript. This JavaScript and any image resources it references are embedded into the assembly so that you only have to deploy a single DLL for the UI to work.

Before using the assets embedded in the UI assembly the assembly checks for the existance of a file first and uses that in preference. This means that you can customize the images and CSS for the authorization UI by deploying your own versions of these fiels with your application.

Data Model

This middleware defines the following entities:


An action performed by your application that only some users are allowed to perform. You must write your application to check if the current user has this permission before allowing the action.

Many OWIN framework components can be configured with the names of permissions required. For example the static files middleware has a configurable permission, and only users with that permission can access the static fies.

Permissions can also be restricted to only give access to specific resources, for example you can grant permission to update any users profile, or restrict the permission to only certain users. Your resources should be organized into a heirachy so that permissions can be granted at the top of the heirachy can apply to everything below it in the heirachy.

For example if you define a "view user information" permission you might want to structure your user information so that for example you can grant access to /user/*/profile (the profile information of any user), or /user/123/profile (only grant access to the profile of user 123) or /user/{my.username} (all of my own user information).


A collection of permissions that are frequently granted together. This is called a role because the most common use case is that all staff with a particular job title (role within the organization) need access to the same data and therefore have the same permissions.

An identity can have many roles. If any of these roles grants them access to the protected resource then they are granted access.


This is a collection of identities that have exactly the same permissions.

If every identity needs a completely custom set of permissions then you need to create a group for each identity and put only one identity in each group. The more common use case is that there are collections of identities with identical permissions and it makes it easier to manage permissions at the group level.


This authorization middleware must be used in conjunction with identification middleware. The identification middleware is responsible for figuring out who made the request. This middleware is responsible for figuring out if the caller is allowed to make this request. The identity is the piece that is shared between these two systems.

An identity can be a user identified though a login mechanism, a machine, service, external third party integration, or anything else capable of making a request to the service that is checking permissions.

Identities make claims about their identity and the Identification middleware is responsible for checking these claims. For example a user might claim to have a first name of "John" and last name of "Doe" with an email address of "john.doe@gov". The Identification middleware might send an email to the email address with a link the user must click to verrify their email address, or it might send SMS messages containing codes, or require that the user present government issued ID in person and have someone check it and confirm their claims.

As far as this Authorization middleware is concerned it trusts the Identification middleware to provide a unique identifier for the caller who made the request, and to present a set of claims with validation status for that identity. This middleware doesn't care how the caller was identified, or how their claims wer validated.

In this Authorization middleware if you create a permission that says you can read user information but limited to /user/{my.username} then this middleware will only grant permission if the caller has a validated "username" claim from the Identification middleware that matches the username of the user information that was requested.


If you add all of these packages to your project it will: store authentication data in a MySQL database, validate requests and return 404 responses, provide a user interface for managing user permissions.

The only piece that is not provided here and is required to make the user interface work is an implementation of IIdentityDirectory. This interface is required to search for users so that they can be assigned to groups.


This package defines all of th interfaces between the other packages. There is no funcionallity here, but all of the other packages depend on it.


This package contains Owin middleware that uses the IIdentityData interface to validate requests. Whenever a request comes into the Owin pipeline this middleware will check if any permissions are required and if the caller does not have those permissions then a 403 response is rerurned.


This package contains an implementation of IIdentityData and IAuthorizationData using the Prius ORM. The Prius ORM has drivers for a number of popular relational database engines.


This package contains a user interface for manag8ng groups, roles and permissions.