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Xiaomi M365 compatible, open source firmware for ATMega328p+BQ769x0 BMS. Ninebot in proto_test branch

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Xiaomi M365 compatible BMS

Warning: This project is meant for people with electronics and microcontroller knowledge!

This repository contains alternative firmware for the following BMS hardware: SP15SV0001-LLT.
It's programmed with the Arduino platform and is built with PlatformIO.
It runs on an ATMega328p MCU and controls a TI BQ769x0 (TI Datasheet) battery monitoring IC over I²C.

This is a fully fledged replacement BMS for the Xiaomi M365 that implements their proprietary BMS protocol and supports all of the features you'd expect, like:

  • Battery SOC (State Of Charge: mAh, %) using Coulomb Counting
  • Pack Voltage, Cell Voltages, Current, Temperature
  • Discharge and Charge cycles

All the battery information can be viewed in the native apps or 3rd party apps like m365 Tools.

Here's some pr0n of my 12S4P NCR18650B battery: Gallery.
Materials I used:

The caveat

The BMS uses an ATMega328p MCU without an external crystal and thus has to use the internal 8 MHz resonator.
However at 8 MHz the hardware UART will not function at 115200 baud, which is the baudrate the M365 controller expects.
The frequency of the internal resonator can be calibrated (manually with an oscilloscope or logic analyzer) using OSCCAL to still make this work.

But instead we simply patch the M365 firmware to use 76800 baud which works just fine with the internal 8 MHz resonator and no calibration trouble.
Patch your firmware at and use the "Change ESC<->BMS baud rate to 76800" option.
Thanks to Oleg for the idea and help.



  • The BMS itself: SP15SV0001-LLT or on Aliexpress
    • 10S - 12S. 30A version is recommended, >30A versions have both sides of the BMS PCB populated with MOSFETs and will not fit in the limited space of the M365.
  • An ISP programmer with a 6pin ISP cable/adapter, example: Aliexpress
  • Serial UART adapter, sold by the BMS shop or on Aliexpress

Current Shunt resistors

By default the BMS comes with ten 4mOhm shunt resistors in parallel. This results in a shunt resistance of 0.4mOhm, this is too small for accurate coulomb counting. In addition the voltage coming from the shunt resistors is also cut in half.

A simple fix for this is to simply remove some of the 4mOhm resistors so that only four resistors are left. Thus the shunt resistance will be 1mOhm.
And to fix the shunt voltage from getting cut in half two more small resistors are removed from the top layer, as in the pictures: Bottom and Top.

Current Shunt Resistors Calibration

One way to calibrate the BMS to know the exact current:

While measuring the charging current with a calibrated multimeter you can query the RAW current value via using debug_print() command. Now we make some calculations: R[uOhm] = RAW Value * 8440 / A[mA].

An example:

  • measured 4,1169A charging current
  • raw value of 445
  • Results in R = 445 * 8440 / 4116,9 = 911,69
  • used in Settings: g_Settings.shuntResistor_uOhm = 912.

Please refer to Software/Configuration on how to get, change, put, apply and save Settings for the BMS.


IMPORTANT: The M365 ESC - connects to P- of the BMS!

Otherwise the M365 will be damaged when you brake with a full battery due to overvoltage!

C- has to be used to charge the battery, otherwise the BMS offers no protection against faulty chargers/overvoltage!

Do not cut the big - trace on the M365 ESC or it will damage the BMS because of different GND potentials on UART!

Do not connect GND from the BMS to the M365 anywhere! P- is GND for the M365! The only extra wires going from the BMS to the M365 are RX and TX!



Depending on your battery you might want to configure some of the settings here: src/main.h

  • capacity: The actual total capacity in mAh of your battery pack, don't use the manufacturer stated capacity if you want to have accurate SOC but rather look at sites like, etc.
    • Example: for 4 * NCR18650B I used a value of 12400mAh.
  • nominal_voltage: The nominal voltage in mV of your cells, this will be 3.6V for almost all cells.
  • full_voltage: The voltage in mV that you will charge your cells to. I only charge mine to 4.1V for cycle life.
  • ODP_current: Over current protection value in mA, if your scooter is shutting off on your crazy settings then make this higher.
  • UVP_voltage: The BMS will shut off P- when any cells voltage goes below this.
    • Remember: During load the cell voltage will drop a lot.
  • OVP_voltage: The BMS will shut off C- when any cells voltage goes above this.
    • So do not connect your M365 ESC to C- or it'll die when you brake with a full battery, use P- for the ESC and C- to charge!

If you've already flashed and run the firmware on your BMS you can only make changes using (since the settings are written to EEPROM).
Use getSettings() to populate g_Settings, then make changes like so: g_Settings.capacity = 7800.
If you're done with making changes use: putSettings() to push them to the BMS, use applySettings() to apply them and saveSettings() to write them to EEPROM.


This project uses PlatformIO, please check out their Documentation to get started.

Programming bootloader via ISP

Connect your ISP programmer to the BMS, you can (and should) keep the battery disconnected while programming.
Here's the pinout of the ISP header: Image
On the new V1.5 PCB it's a little trickier: Image1 Image2

Choose the correct bootloader file (the MHZ value in the Filename must match your hardware, default = 8MHz)

Choose the correct fuses for your hardware

  • for internal 8MHz Clock use -U lfuse:w:0xE2:m -U hfuse:w:0xDE:m -U efuse:w:0xFD:m (Hardware version <= 1.5)
  • for external 8MHz Clock use -U lfuse:w:0xFF:m -U hfuse:w:0xDE:m -U efuse:w:0xFD:m (Hardware version >= 1.6)
  • for anything else think twice what values you are using as you can brick your atmega chip with wrong values, use of tools like AVR Fuse Calculator is recommended.

Finally flash the bootloader with [AVRDUDE](https:// using the following command: avrdude -patmega328p -cstk500v2 -P/dev/ttyUSB0 -U lfuse:w:0xE2:m -U hfuse:w:0xDE:m -U efuse:w:0xFD:m -U lock:w:0x3F:m -U flash:w:optiboot_atmega328_8mhz_57600bps.hex

  • Adjust the -P/dev/ttyUSB0 part to the correct COM port on your PC. (Omit for usbasp)
  • Adjust the -cstk500v2 part to your programmer (-cusbasp for the Aliexpress example one.)
  • Adjust the -U parts with your fuse values

Uploading/Updating firmware

You can upload the firmware in platformio, there's a little arrow somewhere.
You have to short the RESET pin to GROUND right before you hit the upload button!
For updating firmware you don't have to short the RESET pin but can run /dev/ttyUSB0 right before you hit upload.

Optional: Building optiboot yourself

Clone the Optiboot repository and git apply this patch: optiboot.diff

  • 8MHz build: make atmega328 AVR_FREQ=8000000L PRODUCTION=1 BAUD_RATE=57600 LED_START_FLASHES=0
  • 16MHz build: make atmega328 AVR_FREQ=16000000L PRODUCTION=1 BAUD_RATE=115200 LED_START_FLASHES=0


Have you patched your M365 firmware for 76800 baud?

Make sure the temperature sensors are plugged in and all wires are connected properly. B- needs to be connected to the battery -.

Reset the BMS by shorting GND with RST on the ISP header.

Does your Voltmeter only show a too low voltage like 10 or 20 Volt? -> Reset the BMS by shorting GND with RST on the ISP header. The AVR Chip crashed during plugging the balancing connector.

Run /dev/ttyUSB0 in an interactive python shell (IDLE on Windows, python -i on Linux) with the correct COM port.
You'll probably have to install these two dependencies: cstruct and pyserial.
Check the source code for commands you can use, though you'll probably only need debug_print(). You can also use any serial terminal and send this string in HEX 55aa0322fa0500dbfe instead of debug_print().
Since the controller will enter sleep mode after 5 seconds of inactivity you'll have to send this twice quickly when using a serial terminal.


After you've checked that your BMS works (voltage between + and P-) and communicates via UART (it print's BOOTED! when it boots) you can connect it with your M365.

The original BMS was connected to the top 3pin header on the M365 ESC: Image
You'll have to connect the ESC R pin to the BMS TX pin and the T pin to the RX pin.
The ESC L pin is + for the red/brake light on the back fender, you'll have to make your own cable for that.

Final words


A big part of the BQ769x0 code is taken from here: LibreSolar/bq769x0_mbed_lib.


If you've spent at least an hour with your issue you can ask about it nicely in my M365 Telegram group.


If you break anything it's your own fault.
Works for me™. is the only guarantee I can give you.

I am in no way affiliated with the company that makes the BMS. I just bought it, reversed some stuff and made this firmware.


Xiaomi M365 compatible, open source firmware for ATMega328p+BQ769x0 BMS. Ninebot in proto_test branch






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