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README.md

Atomic Kotlin Examples

These are the code examples from the book Atomic Kotlin, created by an automatic extraction process directly from the book. This repository provides a test of the code that is shown in the book, to verify that it is correct.

Although you can download this repository and run the build system, the examples are more conveniently available pre-integrated with the Intellij IDEA development environment, along with the exercises and solutions for the book. See AtomicKotlin.com for the IDEA examples. (Note that you can also clone/download this repository and open it with IDEA).

Quick Version

Before you can run the examples from this repository, you must install the current version of Java, although some earlier versions should also work. (If you get any errors try upgrading to a more recent version of Java).

If you just want to download and check the code, Download Here and unzip into your destination directory. Open a shell/command window and move into the root of that directory. You'll know you are in the right directory if you see the files gradlew and gradlew.bat.

On Mac/Linux, enter:

./gradlew test

(If you get a Permission denied error, run chmod +x ./gradlew)

On Windows, enter

gradlew test

You'll need an Internet connection the first time you compile the code, because Gradle needs to first install itself, then all the support libraries. Once these are installed you can perform additional compiling and running offline.

If all goes well, the tests will run. Everything should complete without errors.

All the book examples are in the subdirectory Examples in subdirectories corresponding to the atom names.

To compile and run examples using the Kotlin command-line tools, see Command-Line Hello World.

Using JetBrains IDEA

Follow the tutorials Here.

Detailed Instructions

If you are not familiar with the command line, first read Command-Line Basics.

Install Java

Kotlin runs on top of Java, so you must first install Java (you only need basic Java; the development kit also works but is not required).

Windows

  1. Follow the instructions at this link to Install Chocolatey.

  2. At a shell prompt, type: choco install jdk8 (you may also select a more recent version). This takes some time, but when it's finished Java is installed and the necessary environment variables are set.

Macintosh

The Mac comes with a much older version of Java that won't work for the examples in this book, so you'll need to update it to (at least) Java 8.

  1. Follow the instructions at this link to Install HomeBrew

  2. At a shell prompt, first type brew update. When that completes, enter brew cask install java.

NOTE: Sometimes the default version of Java that you get with the above installation will be too recent and not validated by the Mac's security system. If this happens you'll either need to turn off the security by hand or install an earlier version of Java. For either choice, you'll need to Google for answers on how to solve the problem (often the easiest approach is to just search for the error message produced by the Mac).

Linux

Use the standard package installer with the following shell commands:

Ubuntu/Debian:

  1. sudo apt-get update

  2. sudo apt-get install default-jdk

Fedora/Redhat:

su -c "yum install java-1.8.0-openjdk"

Verify Your Installation

Open a new shell and type:

java -version

You should see something like the following (Version numbers and actual text will vary):

java version "10.0.2" 2018-07-17
Java(TM) SE Runtime Environment 18.3 (build 10.0.2+13)
Java HotSpot(TM) 64-Bit Server VM 18.3 (build 10.0.2+13, mixed mode)

If you see a message that the command is not found or not recognized, review the installation instructions. If you still can't get it to work, check StackOverflow.

Installing and Running the Book Examples

Once you have Java installed, the process to install and run the book examples is the same for all platforms:

  1. Download the book examples from the GitHub Repository.

  2. unzip the downloaded file into the directory of your choice.

  3. Use the Windows Explorer, the Mac Finder, or Nautilus or equivalent on Linux to browse to the directory where you uzipped AtomicKotlinExamples, and open a shell there.

  4. If you're in the right directory, you should see files named gradlew and gradlew.bat in that directory, along with numerous other files and directories. The directories correspond to the chapters in the book.

  5. At the shell prompt, type gradlew run (Windows) or ./gradlew run (Mac/Linux).

The first time you do this, Gradle will install itself and numerous other packages, so it will take some time. After everything is installed, subsequent builds and runs will be much faster.

Note that you must be connected to the Internet the first time you run gradlew so that Gradle can download the necessary packages.

Using run

In each atom-named subdirectory under the Examples directory, you will see two files: run.bat and run.sh. These are convenience commands for Windows and Mac/Linux that allow you to compile and run the examples in that subdirectory. They are not necessary to build the code, but if you begin experimenting with individual examples they are helpful.

To run these scripts, you must first install a recent version of Python 3.

If you just type run (./run.sh in Mac/Linux), it will (using Gradle) compile and run all the examples in the directory. You can also type run AnExample.kt to compile and run the example AnExample.kt (assuming it has a main()).

If you get a Permission denied error on OSX or Linux, run chmod +x ./run.sh

Running Kotlin from the Command Line

The Kotlin interpreter is also called the REPL (for Read-Evaluate-Print- Loop). To use this you must first install the latest version (1.3 or higher) of the Kotlin command-line compiler.

NOTE: You do not need to install command-line Kotlin for the operations described previously in this README.

Install Kotlin

In this book, we use Kotlin version 1.3, the latest available at the time. The detailed installation instructions for the command-line compiler are available at The Kotlin Site.

To check your installation, open a new shell and type:

kotlin -version

at the shell prompt. You'll see the version information for your Kotlin installation.

The REPL

You get the REPL when you type kotlinc by itself on the command line. You should see something like the following:

Welcome to Kotlin version 1.3 (JRE 1.8.0_144-b01)
Type :help for help, :quit for quit
>>>

The exact version numbers will vary depending on the versions of Kotlin and Java you've installed, but make sure that you're running Kotlin 1.3 or greater.

The REPL gives you immediate interactive feedback, which is helpful for experimentation. For example, you can do arithmetic:

>>> 42 * 11.3
474.6

Find out more by typing :help at the Kotlin prompt. To exit the REPL, type:

>>> :quit

To compile and run examples using the Kotlin command-line tools, see Command-Line Hello World.

Testing

The test system is built in so that we (the authors) can verify the correctness of what goes into the book. You don't need to run the tests, but if you want to:

  1. gradlew GenerateTests generates tests from the sources in this repository. It creates (or recreates) the file TestExamples.java. You normally don't need to run this; the TestExamples.java in the repository should be up to date.

  2. gradlew TestExamples runs the tests in TestExamples.java.

Alternatively, TestExamples.java can be called as a regular JUnit test class.

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Examples auto-extracted from the book "Atomic Kotlin" (under development)

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