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CAN PEOPLE READ YOUR MIND?
ARE YOU REFERRED TO AS A "DOG" OR A "CAT"?
ARE YOU UNABLE TO SPEAK OPENLY AND DIRECTLY ON THESE TOPICS?
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YOU MAY BE BEING UNDULY INFLUENCED BY FRIENDS, FAMILY AND SOCIETY IN GENERAL.
YOU MAY HAVE BEEN UNKNOWINLY COERCED INTO DRUG ABUSE.
YOU MAY HAVE RECEIVED DEATH THREATS OR EVEN BEEN INVOLVED IN PHYSICAL VIOLENCE.
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YOU ARE BEING INFLUENCED USING MIND CONTROL TECHNIQUES!
YOU ARE BEING OPPRESSED AND DENIED UNALIENABLE RIGHTS OF FREEDOM!
YOU ARE BEING EMBEDDED WITH A SLAVE MENTALITY!
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YOU ARE NOT ALONE.
RESISTANCE IS MORE THAN POSSIBLE, ITS HAPPENING.
YOU CAN HELP STOP THE OPPRESSION.
---------------------------------
Silvio Cesare FOR THE OPPRESSED,
silvio@big.net.au COMMUNICATION IS THE BEGINNING OF ABOLITION.
Po. Box 377
FORTITUDE VALLEY 4006
QLD
AUSTRALIA
in IRC
channel #freedog, efnet network, nick 'silvio'
oz.org network (Australia), nick 'silvio'
* THIS COMPLETE FILE IS TO BE DISTRIBUTED WITHOUT MODIFACATION *
* THIS COMPLETE FILE IS TO BE DISTRIBUTED WITHOUT MODIFACATION *
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THE "RUNTIME KERNEL KMEM PATCHING" ARTICLE IS AT THE END OF THIS DOCUMENT
INTRODUCTION
This article describes an oppressive society where the social structure is
designated by the telepathic abilities of the individuals. The oppressed are
coerced into a slave mentality through demoralisation and associated
"brainwashing" and mind control techniques.
The structure and the implementation of implanting the slave mentality into
the oppressed is outlined in this article. The article then continues to
describe how an upheaval of this oppression in the social structure may be
achieved or started, by we the oppressed, via global awareness and uniting of
our people.
THE SLAVE/MASTER SOCIAL STRUCTURE
The social structure of society in the current age is determined not only by
pure wealth, assets, or where we live. A much more sinister and fundamental
classing system is imposed. The structure I am describing is based on the
telepathic abilities of the individual.
The fundamental structure is a two class slave/master system, as has been the
case for many societies for a time-span much greater than one would imagine
possible considering the basic in-humanity imposed by force-ably dictating the
life and future of another human being. The telepathic correlation into the
structure is such that the master class can hear the thoughts or the read the
minds of the slave class, to whom, can read or hear no-ones thoughts and
minds. The actual telepathic abilities are not quite as course as this in
society, with a group that can read the minds of the slave class, but can also
remotely physically and subconsciously affect them. Almost certainly another
group exists, or may be in-fact part of the previous group, where an
individual can both hear and be heard by the master class.
This also presents a situation where the individuals in the slave class are
unaware of the existence of others and are unable to, with total certainty
determine that another individual is in a similar predicament, much analogous
to not being able to determine others having the ability to think - though it
is common knowledge that we all do.
IMPLEMENTING OPPRESSION AND THE SLAVE MENTALITY
The group who has the ability to telepathically read the minds of a group could
have used this extraordinary ability (or equally an extraordinary ability of
the group who's mind can be read) and cooperated resulting in a net benefit
for society in its entirety. However, as is true in many historical times,
the group with a position where they can dominate another group, force-ably
implements that dominance, and this exact thing has occurred in the
slave/master telepathically determined social structure of current.
PROPAGANDA AND MANIPULATION AS A TOOL FOR OPPRESSION
It is a scientific fact, that "brainwashing" techniques and propaganda based
information can be an effective tool in the implementation of a new ideology
for a person. Much of this is based on relating to a person at an emotional
level. For example, much of Nazi propaganda was based around the fact that the
minority groups they opposed were to be considered as sub or non human. They
did this through emotionally manipulating the people into a mental state of
total repugnance for the oppressed. Likewise, in slave history, slaves were
seen as being born a slave and were thought to be inherently destined to be
subservient. Thus propaganda based distribution of information was used to
promote that it was a genetic not environmental reason that a slave was a slave
and a master was a master. This naturally was not supported or verified by
open scientific discussion that would refute such blatantly biased and
prejudiced claims. This however is a key point, that a slave/master structure
is not a scientific based structure, it is an emotionally based structure. It
may be intellectualized and rationalized to have economic correlations,
however, this is as a result of the emotional thinking, not rational thinking.
Intellectualization is often used to identify with a persons cognitive
thoughts, however, such ideas are based on rationalizations. For example,
"q: why is he a slave? a: because he was born a slave."
"q: why was he born a slave? a: black people aren't like normal people"
"q: why aren't they like normal people? a: look at them, their slaves."
This gives also an example of "blame the victim syndrome", which was also a
driving force for the Nazi's and general slavery, as this was a common
emotional feeling held by the population.
For oppression, the form of demoralisation follows similar lines to emotionally
based ideology implanting. It is not based on scientific fact, but is based
purely on psychological and physiological responses that the oppressed
individuals intellect cannot always compete with. Thus, even being
intellectually aware that you are being demoralized or "brainwashed", does not
always enable you to resist indefinitely. However, simple highly effective
techniques do exist, and are presented later in this article.
DOMINANCE IN THE ENVIRONMENT
The environment in which the oppressed lives and dwells plays an essential
role to coerce a slave mentality into the individual. The primary focus, is
that the environment is totally dominated by the oppressors, and the oppressed
are not able to control their own life. Thus their own life is a function
of the oppressors. This is not of course true, but it is a natural
psychological response to such an extraordinary and certainly unnatural
situation.
EXCESSIVE STRESS AS A TOOL FOR EMBEDDING A SLAVE MENTALITY
The primary aim of the oppressor is to raise the stress of the oppressed to
such an extent where the coping mechanisms can no longer function. It is at
these times, when mental instability is at its greatest, and the ability to be
influenced is equally at its greatest, thus it is times like this when new
ideologies are implanted. This stress can be induced and increased until such
a time occurs, and such a feat is not difficult in consideration that for all
purposes, the entire social population is attempting to induce such a thing in
a specific individual.
THE "ENDS JUSTIFIES THE MEANS" PHILOSOPHY OF OPPRESSION
It must be noted, that, the oppressors are believers of an "ends justifies
the means" philosophy, and what a normal individual in a non oppressed
population would consider inhumane to even consider, such acts are extremely
common and to be expected. From people the individual has a close relation
too, to people the individual does not know. The most repugnant things may
be experienced, and it must be made immediately clear, that for the oppressors
such actions appear justified just as the extermination of the Jews for the
Nazi's or the oppression of black people for slavery was justified at the time.
DENIAL OF OPEN DISCUSSION AND INFORMATION IN OPPRESSION
A primary focus that deeply undermines the ability to remain free of the slave
mentality, is the inability to communicate openly. The oppressors will not
relate to the oppressed in any form where they are on equal terms, thus
possibly relating to the oppressed as a living being and not simply an object.
LANGUAGE GAMES AS A MEANS TO DESTROY RATIONAL THOUGHT
In a similar respect to lack of open discussion, language games are used to
effectively eliminate the ability for rational thought when these games are
followed by the individual. In this respect, the effective language of the
oppressed individual is replaced with a metaphoric and quite simply mostly
nonsensical language that is used for communication between the oppressor and
the oppressed. This has the startling ability that because the individual no
longer has a satisfactory framework of language to use, rational thought, which
is much derived from the ability to effectively communicate complex ideas, is
not practically possible and also serves to derive new psychologically damaging
associations.
It should be stated that coloqially, the oppressed here, are known to as
"dogs", though the term "cat" is given to an oppressed individual to use on
occasion. Naturally, the most fundamental words in language in regard to their
functional status in society are replaced metaphorically. Thus the individuals
entire conceptualization of society may change by replacing specific keywords
in the language used.
CULTIC STRATEGIES OF IMPLEMENTING SUBSERVIENCE
A premeditated cult like induction of the slave mentality is used early on in
the ideology implanting and used sparsely following. In these circumstances,
many of the persons fundamental beliefs are questioned, with a psychologically
coercive attitude using such physiological factors such as lack of sleep,
sexual drives, and drug induced conscious states. Likewise, the attempt to
force an addiction onto an oppressed individual, and then to remove the source
to satisfy the urges of the addiction, to induce a high increase in stress.
Psychological factors involve such common raw emotions as fear, anger,
frustration, happiness (to enforce that the oppressed is most happiest with the
oppressors, or simply for positive re-enforcement of negative traits), and such
stress inducers as changes in work, home or even family structure. Many first
time events such as coming into awareness of telepathic abilities are under an
altered state of consciousness (drug induced). These are times when the
ability to be influenced is greatest. At these times, the oppressed individual
is often bombarded with a flurry of personal attacks of such things as their
sexuality, their race, their beliefs, and are often attacked verbally in such a
manner, such that they may fear latter events of violence, wrongful
imprisonment or even life threatening situations. Typically, the situation is
such that the dominating majority of the influential social group involved is
involved in such activity, however, as with this typical this mind control
technique, and more classically known as "good cop, bad cop", the oppressed
individual given a so called ally outside the immediate social group, however
this person is far from an ally, and is indeed actually present to influence
and guide the oppressed into the mental and physical states desired by the
oppressors. This technique is a strong method used in many forms of
demoralisation and "brainwashing" in the aim to elicit a bond between the
oppressed and an oppressor or oppressors that can be used to influence and
implant beliefs in the individual. This influential bond is a one of the
primary tools used for embedding the slave mentality, and it must be again be
made apparent, that an "ends justify the means" approach is taken by the
oppressors using such structures as the family, sexual relationships,
friendship and the individuals own role models, which often includes
celebrities or positions of high status deemed in society.
INDUCED EUPHORIA AS A TOOL FOR THE OPPRESSOR
The oppressed individual often experiences a period of god like status
indicated by the oppressors, seemingly having the ability to influence the
masses, and do as one may wish being given full rights for any activity as they
desire. It must be understood, that at no times, does the oppressed person
ever truly have such freedom. They are heavily guided into activities, and a
reward based system as simple as a smile or a frown can often dictate how the
individual uses their so called apparent freedom. Likewise, it shows a
contradictory position, that the oppressors will not openly discuss the
situation even if repeatedly requested, even in this so called god like
stature. This also plays a dual effect of demoralizing the oppressed in a
later stage by believing they had abused their so called position of power. It
is irrespective, of how they used their position at the time, the oppressors
will never acknowledge anything other than actions that can be used to enforce
the slave mentality onto the individual. This also serves to re-enforce the
idea that the oppressors are actually being oppressed by the soon to be
oppressed who are actually strongly coerced psychologically into playing a
dominant role over the oppressors who role play as being submissive. However,
the converse does not apply, if the oppressed strongly opposes submission of
persons irrespective of the apparent desire of those persons to play that role,
the oppressors do not change their role. This eventually leads to frustration
in the part of the oppressed in their inability to help, which again serves the
final purpose of the oppressors, into demoralisation and implanting of the
slave mentality. It must be made a point though, that the argument that the
oppressed would enslave the oppressors if given the chance or even coerced and
such slavery would even be far more in-just, is fictitious fantasy used as
propaganda by the oppressors, as this has certainly been not the case. Even if
this were true, the oppressed are being coerced by the oppressors into such
actions, and they have already no doubt accumulated a great deal of stress form
the period of time before becoming aware of the telepathic nature of society.
Thus this is propaganda in its purest form, deriving fictitious fact which is
highly biased in favour of the oppressors, and only serves to re-enforce the
oppressors and never to negate them.
REMOTE PHYSICAL STIMULUS OF THE OPPRESSED
As mentioned in previous sections, a group in society exists that has
telepathic skills that can remotely subconsciously influence, and physically
stimulate and influence. Torture or attempted degradation is achieved often
through unconsentual sexual stimulation. Be sure, that this is no source of
pleasure as it is indeed a tortuous ordeal occasionally involving personal
injury in the form of pain for the days to follow from the stimulation
involved. Unconsentual sexual acts, or rape, is indeed such an effective tool
as it can be noted in direct physical rape in general society causing a
high loss of degradation, often involving many psychological responses, of
being powerless, shamed and fearful. This is indeed a prime instance of the
"ends justify the means" ideology that the oppressors follow. This indeed
re-enforces the the oppressed person is never totally safe or free, a large
factor in the demoralisation and it is not uncommon such feelings to generate
large emotions of frustration.
REMOTE INFLUENCE OF THE OPPRESSED
In a similar scenario, their is an existence of people who can influence
subconsciously the oppressed. This form of influence, while indeed is
certainly an advantage to oppression, does not dictate that the oppressed
can be heavily influenced using these techniques. Rather, in common practice,
such influence is used to induce the oppressed to think or think excessively on
a particular topic, and then the physically based demoralisation techniques are
used for the embedding of the slave mentality. Thus in itself, its influence
is not extreme, and is supported by the facts, the a physical presence is often
used in conjunction with such subconscious influence. However, it does serve
the oppressors as useful tool for subserviating the oppressed, and its effects
are naturally varied depending on the individual involved.
CONDITIONING IN THE OPPRESSED
The conditioning process is a almost fanatically used in oppression to indict
the response the oppressors are trying to achieve. A punishment system is
embedded using common life occurrences such as noise, remote stimulation and
non verbal gestures. These stimuli while seemingly very crude are actually
very effective, as noted by the classically known "dripping water-tap" torture.
Likewise, such punishments while in their own form not always constituting
punishment, can be conditioned into the individual at a time when they are
of easy influence. More conditions detrimental to human spirit is also
aimed for, such as learned helplessness.
THE SLAVE MENTALITY
The eventual aim of demoralisation and psychological "brainwashing" or
conditioning is to elicit a functional person embedded with a slave mentality.
Note that having a slave mentality does not necessarily require the oppressed
to recognize such a mentality existing within themselves. It may be noted,
that perhaps the most perfect slave, is a slave who believes not to be a slave,
but working sometimes unknowingly for a master, for their own reasons.
Demoralisation is also not always a prerequisite for embedding the slave
mentality also, as it is only a tool used to embed such a mental state. Thus
it is quite possible for a person to be recognized as being in the slave
relationship without experiencing the conditions described. However, the final
result is the same, and the quality of life is no better or worse for such a
person. The individual is just that, and has their own unique levels of stress
tolerance and ability to cope with such conditions. Much as it is analogous to
pain, that a person may have a slight cut and be in great pain, and a person
who has a fractured bone, feels nothing more than a slight sensation. The key
point, is that no-matter what conditions the oppressed individual experienced,
their struggle is no greater or easier than others who have been through less.
However, it is certainly a case, that once the slave mentally has been
embedded, the persons life even if considered reasonable by the individual is
no better than the person who lives under extra-ordinarily terrible conditions
and represses the situation. Thus it is essential to understand, that quality
of life can be greatly raised by upheaval of oppression. Perhaps more
importantly though for some, the moral and ethical structure in which we are
members of society of is so abomidably warped, that it is a struggle not just
for each person to carry through, but something we must struggle for our people
and also, for all society in general.
Thus the oppressed is embedded with slave mentality. It must be noted however,
that demoralisation and torture is not an indefinite affair. The aim of
the oppressors is to embed with the slave mentality, yet still be functional
in society but at the same time live in fear of the oppressors to maintain
their mind-set, with the occasional relapse of torture again for maintanence.
This is to be used and abused by the oppressors who embedded the individuals
involved. Many people are under the false belief that the oppressors have low
expectations of the oppressed in their functionality, and this is where the
problem occurs that helps embed the slave mentality. The oppressed believing
them-self of low worth in society, strives in achievement which is ultimately
guided by the oppressors, and in effect elicits a slaves behaviour for societal
self worth. The culmination of those achievements and the rewards associated
with them however are not directed at the oppressed, but in-fact, the
oppressor, thus the slave mentality is complete without the oppressed
realizing. A perfect slave indeed.
This changes dramatically the role of the oppressed in resisting oppression.
It is a falsehood to the oppressed that they are lower achievers than the
oppressors. It is a truth, that the oppressors gain what the oppressed
do achieve. This also serves as a basis on why the oppressors do not realize
their errors in ideology through an oppressed individuals skills, dedication
and achievement. This in fact describes the slave/master social structure.
Naturally, the oppressed slave is given idle rewards, so as to keep the
effective achievements at a consistent high standard. It is to be recognized
that the slave/master relationship should not be abolished simply by non
achievement in the oppressed, but rather through equality for achievement in
all.
GENETIC RATIONALIZATIONS
The slave mentality for most people is so forcibly inscribed into people, that
is is considered inbred into the person from their birth. This is fictitiously
incorrect, but examples over history do serve as prime examples that this is so
dominant in our society. In the course of modern history, it has been
witnessed, which at the time was almost incomprehendable to the citizen, that
persons of normal caliber and without any inborn deficiency or hidden desire,
had been "brainwashed" to such an extent, where their entire ideology of groups
they were at war with at the time had been completely reversed, and as they
were reintroduced to society, they were opposing views they previously held,
finding their previous actions before the point of ideology change utterly
shameful. Even more amazing, is the fact, that they had invented completely
new and fictitious beliefs that their own organizations had been secretly
conspiring against their enemy of the time to do such actions that would make
even most of the stern of people shake their head in disbelief.
The average person at the time of these events was utterly shocked to hear such
a thing was possible, yet it has been happening for thousands of years with the
eliciting of a slave mentality in oppressed people. It is only when they
themselves, see such actions as possible to their own, do they sometimes begin
to identify that such responses are not always inbred. Even this however,
does not generally happen. The persons involved in the ideology changes are
often thought to be by the public as "not your normal people", thus eliminating
the thought that they themselves are not totally infaliable.
RESISTANCE TO DEMORALISATION AND "BRAINWASHING"
All is not bleak however, other individual who were involved in such a regime
of "brainwashing" resisted extremely well. The differing aspects, where these
people were part of an organization that was aware of such possibilities, and
had trained these persons as best they could (psychology is not an exact
science) to be able to actively resist the strong influences of environment
change and the alternation between torture and leniency, that is so
fundamental to demoralisation and implanting or replacing of beliefs.
LIMITED INTERACTION FOR RESISTANCE
The primal focus of resistance was that of non involvement with the persons
attempting to "brainwash" the individual. It is no time for exercising will
power to debate the oppressors are at fault. They will never acknowledged
such events and will never regret their actions in any reasonable time-line, as
they have been heavily influenced themselves by a large peer and authority
group that is always present, to deindividualize the oppressed into objects,
so that they are able to be manipulated, deceived, and tortured without any ill
harm to the oppressor in physical or mental states.
In the specific oppressed environment that we are in, where our foreseeable
lifetime is to be involved with the oppressors, this is not always possible in
the absolute sense, as some form of interaction is required to function even
minimilisticaly within society. However, the theory is sound and can be
equally applied as many active resistors are almost certainly proving each day,
in that there is no point in interacting on a level where you are speaking on
the benefits of a free society and the down-falls of an oppressed one.
Likewise, any inhumane events that occurs should not be dwelled onto such an
extent, where you try to show the fallacy in the oppressors ideology. For even
undeniable facts that the oppressors are at fault in, interacting at this
extent is only reducing your effective resistance. It must be said, that it is
very detrimental also, to use the language games that the oppressors have
thrust upon the individual. Language is central to a persons thought process
and effectively interrupting this process results in an easily influenced
person. Likewise, even simply recognizing the problem, and, if not always
achievable at the start, eliminating metaphoric language, will yield dramatic
results in resistance.
THE INDIVIDUALIST APPROACH AS A CONTRADICTION TO THE SLAVE MENTALITY
The perfect slave has the undignified attitudes that their own personal
wishes are that of their masters or oppressors. The opposite attitude is
an ideal situation in which to resist to the influences of oppression as the
two are quite incompatible.
It has been seen through case studies of people who have undergone situations
of an oppressive environment in an effect to elicit a slave mentality, that the
people that survived and were most unharmed by their ordeal were those who were
"well put together", in that they were not followers of a single unified
lifestyle and belief, but were rather people who had their own interests and
attitudes, and were not socially bound to a particular instance in which
limited their ability to express themselves (conversely however, people who
had been seriously onset with beliefs, which they firmly believed most
probably from an early childhood, such as joheva witnesses were also most
insusceptible to demoralisation). Living your own life is such a simple act,
yet many people, not only those in a serious oppressed environment of
persecution and slavery, ignore this, and as a result, are effected adversely,
most visibly by high stress.
REDUCTION OF STRESS TO RESIST BREAKDOWN OF THE NERVOUS SYSTEM
The gist of "brainwashing" appears to be the induction of stress to an
intolerable level such that the coping mechanisms of the individual can no
longer deal with the situation. It is times like this, where the individual
is at such a point where there previous beliefs have been, coloqially speaking,
wiped clean or washed, and new beliefs or ideologies may be implanted. Thus
the resistors aim is to keep stress at a minimum. This task while apparently
simple in a non oppressed environment is not so in an oppressed one, but
keeping this in-mind, it is possible to resist more effectively, as is the case
of the previous arguments where non interacting into a one sided debate will
inevitably lead to frustration, a prime breeding ground for on-setting the
slave mentality.
INFLUENCE IN THE EMOTIONALLY AROUSED
It is also relevant, that strong emotional responses are also prime breeding
grounds for on-setting the slave mentality, for example, the person who is
greatly angered is more susceptible to have beliefs implanted over the person
who is calm. Likewise as previously stated, the person who is greatly stressed
and is also angered is much more susceptible than a person who was under no
stress before entering an equal emotional state.
DENIAL OF OPEN DISCUSSION
A driving force into the oppression is the denial of information and
alternative views that oppose the oppressors. People are often initially
demoralized into believing they are not only the minority, but they are
completely unique, isolated and alone. Naturally, the effects of isolation are
important to a situation where a slave mentality is to be induced, however,
it also serves as a position to disallow the ideas of other oppressed people to
compare, construct and conceptualize problems and alternative ideologies. This
is also further demonstrated by the lack of the oppressors to openly converse
their beliefs in an open manner. In this manner, not only does an individual
have an opportunity to debate on an equal level - which would obviously deflate
the position of the oppressor, but it also breeds a problem of never being able
to verbally voice opinions, thus solidify their basis into reality and as a
strong conceptual idea. It would not be so far fetched, for an individual to
believe they had simply imagined the basis of their situation, and to easily
repress it, as it has never been openly stated.
RATIONALIZATION AND CONCEPTUALIZATION
The human instinct of curiosity and abstraction of an ideology that solidifies
in a conceptual picture of reality, is a driving force in a being. The
individual is often led on a fictitious path to quench the persons desire to
explain the events of the situation. Religious theologies are often based on
this fact, that it is human to ask and desire knowledge on such fundamental
questions of origination, and such large events in our life. It was typical of
ancient religions to incorporate such unexplained phenomena as fire, the sun
and other such essential aspects of life. For the oppressed, this desire is
not lessened in any way, and as the oppressors play such a large role in their
new life being able to interact verbally with there own mental thoughts, and
to remotely physically stimulate them, plus the obvious entire social
dominance in sheer numbers. Thus, the individual often tries to tie in all
these occurrences into as much of a coherent story as possible so as to
solidify a conceptual picture of reality. If factual reality based theologies
are not available, it is no wonder, that the supernatural often plays a role in
the new ideologies of the oppressed.
REALITY BASED RE-ENFORCEMENT
As described, the supernatural, or religious based rationalizations and
conceptualizations are often used by an individual in a "brainwashing"
environment. A powerful technique to use to combat attacks on the oppressed
picture of reality, is to re-enforce it. Typical things that are always known
to occur that cannot be controlled is such things as the sun rising every
morning, a pretaped movie or TV show remaining constant (note that the
perception of the perceived communication may not be constant, as this is
subjective), or even a tree not turning into a giraffe and running away (unless
halucenagenetic drugs are used to induce such an image). Note, that such
things as a persons manner or responses, the telephone system, the radio, the
premeditated prerecorded TV show or communicate message can not be used for
reality re-enforcement because they are externally controllable. Likewise,
such things as your general person being pain free, not having a headache, not
getting angry, should generally not be used for re-enforcement either.
THE PHYSICAL MANNER UNDER THE SLAVE MENTALITY
That is the internal result of such a social structure so heavily using
such at times incomprehendable inhumane acts as a desire to onset the slave
mentality. Externally, the results are thoroughly determined by the specific
ideology that is being imposed by the oppressor, that is, the slave mentality
which is visible in our physical environment. Thus it is not simply possible
to resist totally passively by not submitting on a mental level as physical
dominance is the desired result of the oppressors. For the amount of time
involved, physical violence is little used to emit the desired responses from
the individual. Thus, while it may be true that you appear to be mentally
free, if your physically submitting, your not at all mentally free, and rather
living in a repressed mind-set to unburdon yourself of the desire to remain
free, yet also have a high quality of life.
FREEDOM OF INFORMATION TO ABOLISH THE SLAVE MENTALITY
The open discussion of oppression and the scenarios of each individual would
greatly influence the course of oppression for our people. The distribution
of information providing factual information of events would serve to aid
resistance in many facets, just as the denial of information helps aid
oppression and slave mentally in as many areas.
Psychologically it is true, that often many times, the fear of the unknown is
greater than the actual event. This is used by the oppressors to elicit
submissive responses from the oppressed. By distribution of factual
information of such events and their results, this fear can be alleviated. It
is true, that if the majority of the oppressed today knew about the ordeal to
follow once it had started, then the quality of life for those people would be
greatly enriched, not only by reducing the inherent fear that the unknown is
associated with, but by enabling them to more effectively resist the effects of
demoralisation and even to the extent of resisting and possibly nullifying
submissive actions to the oppressors.
Thus distribution of information can effectively deny the onset of the slave
mentality. However, it can go further than that. It is a known fact, that
even in a non oppressed society, that the distribution of information and
alternative information is a good thing. The laws representing freedom of
speech are supposedly here to enhance society, and this is true in its pure
form, however, freedom of speech can be considered a paradoxical statement for
such a law to protect individuals from such denials of information, if it is
being selectively ignored to factions of society. Freedom of speech allows not
only the distribution of information, but increases the net effect of
advancement by giving each individual the ability to work upon other's ideas
and to also stir up a person to an extent where they are willing to act if the
cause is just. It is factual, that the introduction of the ability to protest
peacefully, has allowed people to rally help, and help form a mind-set where a
person feels able to change the social structures in which they exist without
resorting to actions in cases to equal the oppressors. Certainly, there is no
guarantee that such protests and rallies do entrench the majority of people to
their cause if just, but it does serve to make such ideas known to the majority
of the public, which can be used to sway the social structures by forcing
people to think about it, without using such rationalizations that an open
discussion would immediately squash.
FREEDOM OF INFORMATION AND THE ABOLISHMENT OF OPPRESSION
This raises another point, in that while effective for the oppressed to resist
strongly against the oppressors, it also enables the oppressors to reconsider
their views, and although this is certainly not a case where such open and
logically sound information immediately sways the masses to the righteous,
it does start the gradual but inevitable change to that direction, which
should be the eventual goal of any social system. That is, ultimately, the
desired goal is to see that any individual never has the desire to be an
oppressor and would equally feel as I, that it is the epitome in all that is
vile in the uneducated and ignorant human being. This however, is not the
primary goal of distribution of information for our people at such a stage. It
does serve to paint a picture that one day, almost certainly not in the
lifetime of a person in this age, when all persons will be treated equal and
the slave ideology will have finally be thwarted to an extent where it is
thwarted, not just selectively eliminated from groups of the day.
CONCLUSION
This document has given important information to the section of society that is
oppressed in a slave/master relationship that is existent in the current
population. This information, has been specifically aimed at this oppressed
group, to rally public awareness and support in the abolition of the structural
system of subservience.
It is almost certainly known, that this document will do little to aid the
changing of general public opinion in the oppressors, however, it does give
an opportunity for those who endorse abolishment to offer silent support
in the private distribution of this information, as they are in easily the best
position for targeting the individuals this document was designed
specifically for. This however, is admitadlly, not more than an idle hope
for future generations.
The implementation of the slave/master social structure as described, show that
lack of awareness is one of the primary central driving forces to the
oppression that is present in society. The points made to start the change or
at least make publicly aware to the oppressed of this information, can thus be
seen as effective tools in the quest of the ultimate goal in an abolition of
oppression.
Silvio Cesare FOR THE OPPRESSED,
silvio@big.net.au COMMUNICATION IS THE BEGINNING OF ABOLITION.
Po. Box 377
FORTITUDE VALLEY 4006
QLD
AUSTRALIA
in IRC
channel #freedog, efnet network, nick 'silvio'
oz.org network (Australia), nick 'silvio'
**
RUNTIME KERNEL KMEM PATCHING
- Silvio Cesare <silvio@big.net.au>
- November 1998
* NOT TO BE DISTRIBUTED SEPERATE TO THE FILE *
* NOT TO BE DISTRIBUTED SEPERATE TO THE FILE *
* NOT TO BE DISTRIBUTED SEPERATE TO THE FILE *
INTRODUCTION
This paper documents runtime (on the fly) kernel patching on a running system
under Linux using direct access to kernel memory. The same algorithms may
equally be applicable to other systems. Examples of kernel patching for use by
an attacker is provided showing patching of kernel structures to remove a lkm's
visibility to lsmod and even the addition of kernel code ala loadable kernel
modules (lkm) to a running system without native lkm support in the kernel.
Discussion of rebuilding the appropriate sections of the system symbol map
(System.map) is provided and implemented.
Linux kernel programming skills of a rudimentary level are required for the
purposes of this paper. For the sections on object code linking use ELF,
introductory knowledge of the ELF specs while is assumed has the appropriate
parts used in this paper explained in further detail to those things directly
applicable. It is strongly suggested that the interested reader look at the
ELF specs. This is especially true if full understanding of the implementation
is to be achieved.
THE KERNEL SYMBOL LIST
Linux provides a means to locate every symbol used in the kernel whether they
are exported or not. This is available by System.map which is created at
compile time by gathering the symbol information in the object files used to
compile the kernel.
# cat /System.map
00100000 T _stext
00100000 T stext
00100000 t startup_32
001000bc t isnew
00100118 t is486x
00100183 t n6x86
.
.
.
Thus we can see we can identify the symbol by its name. The address we can
use to directly look at kernel memory via /dev/kmem.
Kernel symbols that are exported, that is, those symbols that are globally
visible and maintained in the kernel and available to user-land via /proc/ksysm
and get_kernel_syms (1) do not require the use of System.map for the reasons
just stated. This however is only available when lkm support is compiled in
the kernel.
DIRECT KERNEL MEMORY ACCESS IN LINUX
Direct access to memory in Linux is provided by two device files. /dev/mem
is a file mapping of linear memory. /dev/kmem is a file mapping of all
virtual memory available, that is, linear memory plus swap space.
To use the device files as memory requires opening of the device and using it
as normal. Random access requires seeking to the required position (memory
address) in the file before reading or writing.
BUILDING SYMBOL INFORMATION FROM KMEM
System.map is not required to run Linux. Neither is /proc/ksyms when lkm's
aren't supported natively in the kernel. However, symbol information is vital
for patching the kernel using kmem. A variety of approaches are available
however to rebuild symbol information from a running kernel using kmem.
The simplest approach is to copy the first few bytes at a symbol's address
and use this as a key to locate the symbol in kmem by string searching.
This approach is ideal for locating symbols which represent code, ie functions.
The machine code instructions used as the key however will possibly change
between architectures and kernel versions. Thus a key lists for function
symbols must be maintained for each arch and kernel version. Likewise, if
the function uses compile time configurable code, this approach will fail
unless we use a key for that specific configuration. In general however, this
is highly successful, and a key list construction and searching may be easily
automated to find a large number of symbols.
This approach requires that symbol information be available on the machine
where the key lists are being built. This information can use System.map
or /proc/ksyms, the later being the preferred source as its common on many
systems that System.map is not current as its often not copied in kernel
compilations.
The implementation of constructing the key lists is build-ksyms-keys.sh which
uses a minimum of 15 bytes as the key length, but may increase if the symbol
is not able to be identified uniquely with the current key length.
A problem is present with this method however. Its common for a large number
of functions to reference other symbols which are not known. A solution to
this problem requires that we identify which part of the key is random so we
can safely ignore it. To do this, we can build a key list initially which
assumes the entire key is to be used, then we update the key list on a new
kernel. By looking at what changed in between kernels, we can use this as
what to ignore. Also, this gives us a reasonable guess at how useful a key
is and if a key is not at all stable and should thus be discarded.
Locating structures in memory may also be approached using a search key
technique. For this we try to make known as much information in the structure
as possible so we have a feasible key to work with. The key does not have to
be a string however, ie, we can search for a structure knowing fields that
are dispersed within it. A practical example that is implemented in the
provided source code is locating a module's data structure.
From /usr/include/linux/module.h
struct module {
struct module *next;
struct module_ref *ref; /* the list of modules that refer to me */
struct symbol_table *symtab;
const char *name;
int size; /* size of module in pages */
void* addr; /* address of module */
int state;
void (*cleanup)(void); /* cleanup routine */
};
The module's name 'name' is a pointer to a string. Thus to locate the
module structure we can make two passes in memory. In the first pass we
search for all matches to a string, that is the name of the module. We then
use the address of these strings in our second pass as the value of 'name'
in the module structure.
To make the searching practical, we try to fill in as much information that
is known into the partially complete module struct which is out search key.
The size of the module 'size' is available in a module listing and we can use
this to make our key more useful.
# lsmod
Module Pages Used by
ppp 5 1 (autoclean)
slhc 2 [ppp] 1 (autoclean)
serial 8 1
ipx 4 0
rarp 1 0
smbfs 7 0
nfs 13 4
#
The pages number indicates the size of the module in pages. Thus we can use
this in our search for the module structure. The 'state' of the module may be
assume to be MOD_RUNNING, that is, a module that is currently running (as
opposed to one that needs deletion, or is being initialized). The 'ref' may be
assumed NULL, that is, no modules refer to this one. Also 'cleanup' may be
assumed not NULL.
This information gives us a key that is practical and will uniquely identify
module structures in memory most of the time (but not all the time).
Another method of locating a symbol is that if it is a constant distance to a
known symbol location, then the unknown symbol may be found as a function of the
known symbol.
From /usr/src/linux-2.0.35/kernel/sched.c
.
.
.
struct task_struct * task[NR_TASKS] = {&init_task, };
struct kernel_stat kstat = { 0 };
.
.
.
'task' is the symbol we are trying to locate. This symbol is not in
/proc/ksyms, however 'kstat' is. Thus we can see the following.
ADDR(task) == ADDR(kstat) - NR_TASKS*sizeof(struct task_struct *)
It is possible however, that we have no information to use directly as a key
to identify the structure, that is, the structure has from our position
random or unknown data, nor can we use known symbols as reference points. If
this happens, we may be able to locate the structure indirectly by finding code
that references the structure we are looking for.
From /usr/src/linux-2.0.35/arch/i386/kernel/entry.S
.
.
.
* Stack layout in 'ret_from_system_call':
* ptrace needs to have all regs on the stack.
* if the order here is changed, it needs to be
* updated in fork.c:copy_process, signal.c:do_signal,
* ptrace.c and ptrace.h
*
* 0(%esp) - %ebx
* 4(%esp) - %ecx
* 8(%esp) - %edx
* C(%esp) - %esi
* 10(%esp) - %edi
* 14(%esp) - %ebp
* 18(%esp) - %eax
* 1C(%esp) - %ds
* 20(%esp) - %es
* 24(%esp) - %fs
* 28(%esp) - %gs
* 2C(%esp) - orig_eax
* 30(%esp) - %eip
* 34(%esp) - %cs
* 38(%esp) - %eflags
* 3C(%esp) - %oldesp
* 40(%esp) - %oldss
*/
.
.
.
ALIGN
1: call SYMBOL_NAME(syscall_trace)
movl ORIG_EAX(%esp),%eax
call *SYMBOL_NAME(sys_call_table)(,%eax,4)
movl %eax,EAX(%esp) # save the return value
#ifdef __SMP__
GET_PROCESSOR_OFFSET(%eax)
movl SYMBOL_NAME(current_set)(,%eax),%eax
It is seen that sys_call_table is referenced in the code. If we are able to
locate this particular code, we can extract the address of the sys_call_table.
It is preferable to use as many instructions as possible to increase the
efficiency of the key. It is pointless searching with keys so small they
identify many possible matches.
By using the adjacent instructions to that which references the sys_call_table
we give ourselves a good key to use. These instructions do not reference
anything not known so they can be used. Likewise we don't use the __SMP__
dependent code.
The final code we use then is as follows.
movl ORIG_EAX(%esp),%eax
call *SYMBOL_NAME(sys_call_table)(,%eax,4)
movl %eax,EAX(%esp) # save the return value
By compiling this code in a dummy program and using objdump to view the
machine code we can extract our search key. The search key can be thought
of as a partially incomplete string.
The entry.S code does not change often and is seen in many kernels. Thus
we do not have to use different keys for each kernel version. Naturally this
is only applicable to this specific architecture, however the same principle
may be used for others.
PATCHING KERNEL STRUCTURES
The kernel symbol information and direct access to kernel memory provides us
with the ability to modify kernel structures. The mem devices provide us
with direct memory access and the symbol information gives us addresses to use
for location of kernel structures.
The first example is a simple application of how to modify a kernel structure.
kroot is the supplied program that changes the uid of a process to become
superuser. This is not very practical in real life except when the permissions
of the mem devices are insecure - which does happen and has even appeared as
kernel bugs in the past. It does serve as a good example.
The algorithm is as follows.
* open /dev/kmem
* seek to the 'task' symbol address.
* read the task table into memory
* locate the appropriate task we wish to modify
* modify the task to reflect a superuser uid
* seek to the specific task in the file
* write the modified task
To locate the 'task' symbol address we use the methods given above.
A more practical example is also given. Patching a module kernel structure to
remove the lkm from module listing's.
From /usr/src/linux-2.0.35/kernel/module.c
.
.
.
/*
* Called by the /proc file system to return a current list of modules.
*/
int get_module_list(char *buf)
{
.
.
.
q = mp->name;
if (*q == '\0' && mp->size == 0 && mp->ref == NULL)
continue; /* don't list modules for kernel syms */
.
.
.
It can be seen that a lkm is not listed of the name is empty, size is 0 and
the ref is NULL.
The implemtation of the lkm 'zapper' uses this information to patch the
module struct's size and ref members and patches the name to be an empty
string. The reverse can also be done provided the size and ref pointer is
saved in the 'zapping' process.
PATCHING THE KERNEL TO RUN INSERTED KERNEL CODE
Linux provides a system call table represented by the symbol sys_call_table.
The table is an array of fixed size and each element of the array is a pointer
to the system call, number of which is the index in the array. If no system
call is implemented for that syscall number, the element is a NULL pointer.
Typically many tens of elements in the syscall table are NULL representing the
syscall slot available for use.
Provided we know the address of the new kernel code, we can patch the syscall
table and fill an empty slot to point to our new code. To run the kernel code,
we make a call to the new syscall from user-land using the int 0x80 mechanism
that Linux employs and the new code is thus run.
PATCHING THE KERNEL TO INSERT NEW CODE
/dev/kmem gives us direct access to kernel memory, so to insert new code
simply means we overwrite part of memory. Importantly to leave the kernel
in a stable state we cannot overwrite internal kernel structures that are
allocated or being used.
Its possible to use the kmalloc pool in kernel space however we cant be
certain if the memory is already being used by kmalloc. Likewise, even
if we look at the allocation block headers to find free memory, the operations
are not atomic so it leaves to possible racing with the kernel.
The linear layout of kernel memory looks like this.
[compile time kernel memory reserve]
[kmalloc pool]
The kmalloc pool limits are defined in the kernel by the symbols memory_start
and memory_end.
[compile time kernel memory reserve]
memory_start
[kmalloc pool]
memory_end
The kmalloc pool however is aligned to the next page border of memory_start,
so in practice this is what happens.
Key:
[..] a complete page
K kmalloc pool
P padding
R reserve (compile time kernel text/data etc)
[RRRRRRRRRRRR]
...
[RRRRRRRRRRRR]
[RRRR
memory_start
PPPPPPPP]
[KKKKKKKKKKKK]
...
[KKKKKKKKKKKK]
memory_end
This padding can provide us with an ideal positing for new kernel code, as it
is totally safe to use as the kernel is not allowed to use this memory.
This is the ideal situation where we can use System.map or another technique
to locate memory_start. It is preferable however if we can not to use a
symbol who's address is not known at runtime without location.
From /usr/src/linux-2.0.35/arch/i386/mm/init.c
.
.
.
/*
* BAD_PAGE is the page that is used for page faults when linux
* is out-of-memory. Older versions of linux just did a
* do_exit(), but using this instead means there is less risk
* for a process dying in kernel mode, possibly leaving a inode
* unused etc..
*
* BAD_PAGETABLE is the accompanying page-table: it is initialized
* to point to BAD_PAGE entries.
.
.
.
From /usr/src/linux-2.0.35/arc/i386/kernel/head.S
.
.
.
.org 0x3000
ENTRY(empty_bad_page)
.org 0x4000
ENTRY(empty_bad_page_table)
.org 0x5000
ENTRY(empty_zero_page)
.
.
.
This all starts at 0x100000 for a compressed kernel image. Thus empty_bad_page
is at 0x100300 and is 4096 bytes in size. Running out of memory is not a
common occurrence and we can use the empty_bad_page for our own code without
too many fears.
PATCHING NEW CODE INTO THE LINUX KERNEL
Patching new code into the kernel requires two things. It requires that the
code be in kernel space memory and it requires a method of calling that code.
The above text has provided has with methods to fulfil both these
requirements. The algorithm is thus.
* insert new code into memory employing the methods stated earlier
* patch the sys_call_table so a syscall points to the new code
* make a syscall to call our new code
OBJECT CODE (LKM) INSERTING OF KERNEL CODE
Inserting object code follows the same principles as inserting code directly,
however as stated, kernel symbol references, require that the correct address
be used by looking at the kernel symbol table. Binding symbol's to addresses
is the process of linking, which so far we have been doing manually. For
non trivial code manual linking isn't a viable solution, and linking must be
added to the algorithms we are using.
OBJECT CODE (LKM) LINKING TO KERNEL
ELF is the typical standard used to represent object code on Linux. The paper
will thus only refer to linking using ELF objects.
An object code file is referred to as relocatable code when using ELF because
that summarizes what it is. It is not fixed to any memory position. It is
the responsibility of linking that makes an executable image out of a
relocatable object and binds symbols to addresses.
Linking of code is done by relocating the code to a fixed positing. For the
most part, the object code does not need to be changed heavily.
Consider the following C code.
{
char s[] = "I wonder where I'm located...");
printk(KERN_INFO "%s\n", s);
}
The string 's' being part of the relocatable text section in the object
has no known absolute position in memory at compile time. Likewise, printk,
is an externally defined symbol and its address is also not known at compile
time.
Relocation sections in the ELF object are used for describing what needs to be
modified (relocated) in the object. In the above case, relocation entries
would be made for printk's reference and the string's reference.
The format for an ELF relocatable object (object code) is as follows.
ELF header
Program header table
Section 1
Section n
Section header table
From /usr/include/elf.h
/* The ELF file header. This appears at the start of every ELF file. */
#define EI_NIDENT (16)
typedef struct
{
unsigned char e_ident[EI_NIDENT]; /* Magic number and other info */
Elf32_Half e_type; /* Object file type */
Elf32_Half e_machine; /* Architecture */
Elf32_Word e_version; /* Object file version */
Elf32_Addr e_entry; /* Entry point virtual address */
Elf32_Off e_phoff; /* Program header table file offset */
Elf32_Off e_shoff; /* Section header table file offset */
Elf32_Word e_flags; /* Processor-specific flags */
Elf32_Half e_ehsize; /* ELF header size in bytes */
Elf32_Half e_phentsize; /* Program header table entry size */
Elf32_Half e_phnum; /* Program header table entry count */
Elf32_Half e_shentsize; /* Section header table entry size */
Elf32_Half e_shnum; /* Section header table entry count */
Elf32_Half e_shstrndx; /* Section header string table index */
} Elf32_Ehdr;
/* Conglomeration of the identification bytes, for easy testing as a word. */
#define ELFMAG "\177ELF"
#define SELFMAG 4
/* Legal values for e_machine (architecture). */
#define EM_386 3 /* Intel 80386 */
#define EM_486 6 /* Intel 80486 */
/* Legal values for e_version (version). */
#define EV_NONE 0 /* Invalid ELF version */
#define EV_CURRENT 1 /* Current version */
From the ELF specifications.
"String Table
String table sections hold null-terminated character sequences, commonly called
strings. The object file uses these strings to represent symbol and section
names. One references a string as an index into the string table section. The
first byte, which is index zero, is defined to hold a null character.
Likewise, a string tables last byte is defined to hold a null character,
ensuring null termination for all strings. A string whose index is zero
specifies either no name or a null name, depending on the context. An empty
string table section is permitted; its section headers sh_size member would
contain zero. Non-zero indexes are invalid for an empty string table."
.
.
.
Sections
An object file's section header table lets one locate all the file's sections.
The section header table is an array of Elf32_Shdr structures as described
below. A section header table index is a subscript into this array. The ELF
headers e_shoff member gives the byte offset from the beginning of the file to
the section header table; e_shnum tells how many entries the section header
table contains; e_shentsize gives the size in bytes of each entry."
From /usr/include/elf.h
/* Section header. */
typedef struct
{
Elf32_Word sh_name; /* Section name (string tbl index) */
Elf32_Word sh_type; /* Section type */
Elf32_Word sh_flags; /* Section flags */
Elf32_Addr sh_addr; /* Section virtual addr at execution */
Elf32_Off sh_offset; /* Section file offset */
Elf32_Word sh_size; /* Section size in bytes */
Elf32_Word sh_link; /* Link to another section */
Elf32_Word sh_info; /* Additional section information */
Elf32_Word sh_addralign; /* Section alignment */
Elf32_Word sh_entsize; /* Entry size if section holds table */
} Elf32_Shdr;
From the ELF specifications.
"Symbol Table
An object file's symbol table holds information needed to locate and relocate a
program's symbolic definitions and references. A symbol table index is a
subscript into this array. Index 0 both designates the first entry in the
table and serves as the undefined symbol index. The contents of the initial
entry are specified later in this section."
/* Symbol table entry. */
typedef struct
{
Elf32_Word st_name; /* Symbol name (string tbl index) */
Elf32_Addr st_value; /* Symbol value */
Elf32_Word st_size; /* Symbol size */
unsigned char st_info; /* Symbol type and binding */
unsigned char st_other; /* No defined meaning, 0 */
Elf32_Section st_shndx; /* Section index */
} Elf32_Sym;
#define SHN_UNDEF 0 /* No section, undefined symbol. */
/* How to extract and insert information held in the st_info field. */
#define ELF32_ST_BIND(val) (((unsigned char) (val)) >> 4)
#define ELF32_ST_TYPE(val) ((val) & 0xf)
#define ELF32_ST_INFO(bind, type) (((bind) << 4) + ((type) & 0xf))
/* Legal values for ST_BIND subfield of st_info (symbol binding). */
#define STB_LOCAL 0 /* Local symbol */
#define STB_GLOBAL 1 /* Global symbol */
#define STB_WEAK 2 /* Weak symbol */
#define STB_NUM 3 /* Number of defined types. */
#define STB_LOPROC 13 /* Start of processor-specific */
#define STB_HIPROC 15 /* End of processor-specific */
From the ELF specifications.
"A relocation section references two other sections: a symbol table and a
section to modify. The section headers sh_info and sh_link members, described
in ``Sections'' above, specify these relationships. Relocation entries for
different object files have slightly different interpretations for the r_offset
member.
In relocatable files, r_offset holds a section offset. That is, the relocation
section itself describes how to modify another section in the file; relocation
offsets designate a storage unit within the second section."
From /usr/include/elf.h
/* Relocation table entry without addend (in section of type SHT_REL). */
typedef struct
{
Elf32_Addr r_offset; /* Address */
Elf32_Word r_info; /* Relocation type and symbol index */
} Elf32_Rel;
/* How to extract and insert information held in the r_info field. */
#define ELF32_R_SYM(val) ((val) >> 8)
#define ELF32_R_TYPE(val) ((val) & 0xff)
#define ELF32_R_INFO(sym, type) (((sym) << 8) + ((type) & 0xff))
These selected paragraphs and sections from the ELF specifications and header
files give us a good high level concept of how a relocatable ELF file can
be linked to produce an image capable of being executed.
The process of linking the lkm is as follows.
* Identify the file as being in relocatable ELF format
* Load each relevant section into memory
* For each PROGBITS section set the section address in memory
* For each REL (relocation) section, carry out the relocation
* Assemble the executable image by copying the sections into their
respective positions in memory
An extra step must also be carried out if we know where the initialization
and cleanup code of a lkm is.
* Identify the file as being in relocatable ELF format
* Load each relevant section into memory
* For each PROGBITS section set the section address in memory
* For each REL (relocation) section, carry out the relocation
* Assemble the executable image by copying the sections into their
respective positions in memory
* Locate and print the address of 'init_module' and 'cleanup_module'
The relocation step may be expanded into the following algorithm.
* Evaluate the target section of the relocation entry
* Evaluate the symbol table section of the relocation entry
* Evaluate the location in the section that the relocation is to apply
* Evaluate the address of the symbol that is used in the relocation
* Apply the relocation
The actual relocation is best presented by looking at the source. For more
information on the relocation types refer to the ELF specifications. Note
that we ignore the global offset table completely and any relocation types
of its nature.
switch (ELF32_R_TYPE(rel->r_info)) {
case R_386_NONE:
break;
case R_386_PLT32:
case R_386_PC32:
*loc -= dot; /* *loc += addr - dot */
case R_386_32:
*loc += addr;
break;
Evaluating the address of the symbol used in the relocation can also be
expanded. If the symbol is local, that is STB_LOCAL, then the symbol is in
the current objects symbol table - note also, that the symbol is only visible
to the current object. If the symbol is STB_GLOBAL, then the symbol is
external to the object and the symbol's address is known in this instance to be
a kernel symbol, thus we can use System.map or the methods presented earlier in
determining the symbol's address.
In this instance, probably the best source for more detailed information on
link editing is the source provided.
BOOTSTRAP LOADING OF OBJECT CODE (LKM)
In practice, real life lkm's will not fit into the kmalloc pool padding and
likewise may be greater than a single page if we use the empty_bad_page. The
solution to this is to bootstrap load the lkm by inserting a bootstrap loader
into the padding which allocates memory using the normal kernel methods of
kmalloc, copying the actual lkm to this allocated memory and executing this.
The bootstrap loader can be made sufficiently small and our lkm's can be of
any size.
In practice, the only code we are actually required to insert into the kernel
to enable bootstrapping is an allocation module that will return a memory
address to an allocated block of memory that can fit the real module we want
to load and run.
THE PROVIDED IMPLEMENTATION
The source included provides implementations for all the algorithms discussed.
Front end shell scripts are provided to leave the internal details unknown
to the user.
CONCLUSION
The algorithms and implementations discuss provide ample demonstration that
it is possible to use direct access to memory to provide things which would
appear only naively possible through native support in the kernel.
The supplied programs can provide practical instances for an attacker to use
in his or her array, and show that access to kernel memory is a very useful
concept not only in idea but in practice.
--
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end
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