The Whitepaper of Continuous Organisations
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Continuous Organizations

Aligning stakeholders’ financial interests in the Digital Economy

Author: Thibauld Favre

Version: 0.9

Keywords: FAIR Securities, Decentralized Autonomous Trust, Bonding Curve Smart-Contract, Multitude

Acknowledgments

This research is financially supported by The Family.

Many thanks to those persons who have kindly contributed to this research through their valuable feedbacks and insights: Pierre-Louis Guhur (Student - ENS Cachan) ● Marie Ekeland (Founder - Daphni) ● Tonje Bakang (Founder - Afrostream, Partner - The Family, Alumni - YC) ● Solomon Hykes (_Founder - Docker) ● Andrea Luzzardi (Software Engineer - Docker) ● Samuel Alba (Senior Director of Engineering - Docker) ● Joris Delanoue (Founder - Nexteem) ● Oussama Ammar (Founder - The Family) ● Alexandre Obadia (Research - Cambrial) ● David Fauchier (Founder - Cambrial) ● Minh Ha Duong (Principal - Cambrial) ● Florent Artaud (Founder - Ekwity) ● Willy Braun (Co-Founder - Daphni) ● Franck Le Ouay (Founder - Lifen) ● Duc Ha Duong (Founder - Officience) ● Dimitri De Jonghe (Founder - Ocean Protocol) ● Jérôme de Tychey (Blockchain tech Lead - Consensys) ● Kyle Hall (Writer - The Family).

Abstract

The digital economy has radically changed the nature of the relationship between customers and corporations. Today's individuals have switched from being passive consumers to being an essential force in creating value, either by their actual work (think Airbnb, Uber, Apple's App Store, Amazon Marketplace...) or through their data (Facebook, Google...). By leveraging their users' work, organizations in the digital economy have the ability to create products with personalized user experiences that can sustain increasing returns to scale, thus providing investors with large returns on investments.

Unfortunately, today's organizations have no simple and efficient way to strongly align the interests of their workforce of users with the financial success of their organization. This is mostly due to today's securities' laws that impose constraints and frictions when it comes to selling and distributing securities, especially to non-accredited investors.

To solve this issue, we propose a new paradigm: the Continuous Organization (CO), a new type of organization designed to align the stakeholders' interests significantly better than in traditional organizations. A Continuous Organization is any kind of organization that issues fully digital securities called FAIR Securities (Frictionless Agreement for Investments and Returns securities) by funneling part or all of its cash-flows to a Decentralized Autonomous Trust (DAT). A DAT is a smart-contract that automatically mints, burns and distributes FAIR Securities (FAIRs) according to the organization's cash-flows and predefined rules.

Continuous Organizations present very beneficial properties for all stakeholders:

  • Founders get a simple and efficient mechanism to strongly incentivize their community with regards to the financial success of their project, enhancing their capacity to create strong network effects without affecting the organization's governance.
  • Employees advantageously trade alienable illiquid stock options for inalienable liquid FAIR Securities (which can vest), truly aligning their interests with those of the organization.
  • Early investors receive their fair share of the upside in the case whereby the organization is successful, without having to fear disproportionate dilution in later, bigger rounds.
  • The community of users, customers, suppliers and partners of the organization can be rewarded or simply able to invest in the organization in a friction-less and permission-less manner, thus aligning their interests with those of the organization.
  • Regulators can better protect citizens from risky ICOs due to the 'security' nature of FAIR Securities while also having the ability to tax revenues generated by Continuous Organizations.
  • The environment benefits from the decoupling of governance and financial interests proposed by the Continuous Organization model, allowing founders and their organizations to be more focused on the long term.

Even though the "security" nature of FAIR Securities (FAIR Securities undeniably pass the Howey test) prevents organizations from creating Decentralized Autonomous Trusts today, we are confident that the Continuous Organization model provides a strong enough value proposition that forward-thinking jurisdictions around the world will be quick to adopt this new model.

Table of Contents

  1. Context
    1. Organizations have evolved and adapted to the digital economy
    2. The rise of the multitude
    3. New challenges
      1. For founders
      2. For employees
      3. For the multitude
      4. For investors
      5. For the planet
    4. ICOs: An initial (insufficient) answer to a real challenge
      1. The principle
      2. The good
      3. The bad
      4. The ugly
  2. Continuous Organizations
    1. Understanding the token bonding curve model
    2. The Decentralized Autonomous Trust
      1. Investment - Buy
      2. Investment - Sell
      3. Dividends
      4. Revenues
      5. Summary
    3. Properties and incentives of a Continuous Organization
      1. Long-term investment focus
      2. Secondary market
      3. Guaranteed liquidity
      4. Continuous fundraising
    4. Benefits
  3. Use cases
  4. Legal & Regulatory considerations
    1. DAT and assets
    2. DAT and regulations
  5. Attack vectors
    1. Front-running attack
  6. Conclusion

Context

Organizations have evolved and adapted to the digital economy

As the world transitions from the industrial age to the digital age, the legal structures that were invented and optimized to address the business needs of the industrial age are now showing their limits. Indeed, the digital economy has pushed organizations to adapt and transform their ways of doing business to such extent that their very nature has now completely changed:

Industrial Age
think "General Motors"
Digital Age
think "Airbnb"
Capital intensity High 💲💲💲 Low 💲
Returns to scale Decreasing Increasing
Main assets Tangible 🏭 Intangible 💻
Size of workforce Large 🙋‍🙋‍🙋‍ Small 🙋‍
Location of workforce Concentrated 🌆 Distributed 🌎
Type of jobs Manual 🔧 Intellectual 🧠
Main growth driver Cost 💵 User experience 👌
Tax contribution High 💲💲💲 Low 💲

But despite this massive evolution of organizations, we still use the same type of legal entities to operate our businesses. These legal entities were designed within nation states to address the needs of organizations in the Industrial Age. They are ill-suited in the age of ubiquitous computing and networks, where organizations harness the power of the multitude to achieve increasing returns to scale, blurring the line between users and workers. To illustrate: an Uber driver is at the same time a user of Uber and a worker for Uber. Same goes for the renter of a flat on Airbnb. A Facebook user is also a (unpaid) Facebook worker etc...

The rise of the multitude

Nicolas Colin, a colleague of mine at The Family, succintly described the situation in his book "Hedge":

"The key to understanding the digital economy is that it redistributes power from inside to the outside of organizations. A corollary to this law is that the businesses that succeed in the digital economy are the ones that realize how power has been redistributed outside of their organizations and learn to harness it anyway to fuel growth and profits."

To define the nature of this power, Nicolas Colin defined the concept of multitude in a previous book co-authored with Henri Verdier:

"The multitude is defined as the billions of individuals that are now equipped with increasingly powerful devices and connected with one another through wide networks."

In the digital economy, organizations rely on the multitude (i.e., "Uber drivers", "Airbnb hosts", "Apple App Store developers", "Facebook users"...) to thrive as a business yet the multitude has no vested financial interest in the wealth it contributes to creating at the organization level. Instead, the multitude enters the "gig economy", defined by part-time jobs paid upon successful completion of a service. These jobs, which used to be very rare during the Industrial Age, are now becoming the new standard.

New challenges

The radical transformation of organizations in the digital economy has created important challenges for all stakeholders that must be addressed:

🏃🏽‍For founders

"How can I incentivize my community to promote the long-term success of my organization?"

Money. As the multitude has become an essential part of the organization's workforce in the digital economy, founders need new mechanisms to attract, retain and empower a diverse and global community. Many marketing tactics already exist but none of them allow for a lasting, solid alignment of interests between the organization and its community. The real solution, which would be to sell and/or distribute securities to the multitude is so legally complex under current security laws that it is not a realistic option.

"Airbnb is a community-based company and we would be nothing without our hosts. We would like our most loyal hosts to be shareholders, but need these policies to change in order to make that happen."

The above quote is from Brian Chesky, CEO of Airbnb, in a statement about a comment letter Airbnb addressed to the SEC.

"How can I create a long lasting trust relationship with my community?"

Trust. To forge a lasting and solid alliance with the multitude, organizations need to earn the trust of the multitude. However, as more and more people understand how the VC financial model works, it is becoming harder and harder for VC-backed organizations to gain the trust of their community. Indeed, VCs' interests are only aligned with those of the organization until investors need liquidity. When investors demand liquidity, the alignment of interests suddenly focus on the very short term, wanting to sell their shares at the best price possible. In most cases, founders got heavily diluted and have lost control of the organization, and so there is not very much they can do to create a different outcome.

👩‍💻For employees

"I want a financial reward proportional to the risk I took and the value I created."

Fair value creation capture. Unlike investors whose investments are diversified across a portfolio of organizations, employees are not diversified and only derive revenues from the organization they work for. Many schemes exists to align employees' interests with the financial success of the organization, but most of them consist in providing illiquid and alienable conditioned securities or options on securities. The lack of liquidity in private organizations very often means that employees are forced to leave a lot of value (that they contributed to creating) on the table when they leave the organization.

🙋🏻‍For the multitude

"I wish I could be financially rewarded by this organization that I contribute to."

Long-term wealth-building & economic security. When a community (be they users, workers, partners, suppliers, customers...) fall in love with the product or service provided by an organization, they wish they could have the possibility of being financially rewarded for their active contributions to the product and building long-term wealth as they help the organization grow. One-off referrals, coupons and goodies can only do so much… people want money! This is especially true in today's context where well-paid jobs with pensions and 401ks are becoming the exception.

👩🏿‍💼For investors

"I want the best return on investment for the risk I took."

Highest Return on Investment. Investors really want one thing: the ability to sell their stake at the highest valuation possible. The investors' need for governance only comes from the fact that their investments are illiquid and they need governance to protect it until a liquidity event comes. As long as they can sell their stake at the best price and at the time they see fit, they are happy. Without liquidity, venture capital investment is a game of home runs, which consists in finding the one investment that will make exceptional returns and over-compensate for the vast majority of other investments that did not perform well at all.

👨‍⚖️For regulators

"I want to help innovators, protect investors and collect my fair share in taxes."

Regulators (usually) aim at providing innovators with a regulatory framework that helps them create new services and products. One key aspect of such a regulatory framework is to help innovators raise capital while giving investors reasonable legal protections against misconduct. Before the digital economy, this strategy would yield big returns through tax collection. Unfortunately for regulators, the digital economy has made tax collection much more difficult:

"The digital economy systematically disconnects the place of business from the place of consumption. Consequently, it is increasingly difficult to fix the location of the value created by this economy and to apply the rules of tax laws that are now outmoded." - Taxation of the Digital Economy - Pierre Collin & Nicolas Colin - 2013

🌎For the planet

"I want long-term thinking organizations."

Long-term, energy-efficient organizations. Creating incentive mechanisms that could lead to organizations optimizing for the long-term while keeping them accountable for their environmental impact would be highly beneficial for humanity as a whole. As of today, our inability to establish globally enforceable governance regarding environmental topics and the short-termism of today's financial markets, have made the Tragedy of the Commons all too real.

ICOs: An initial (insufficient) answer to a real challenge

In recent years, the rise of cryptocurrencies has given birth to a new alternative to the traditional ways of financing organizations: the Initial Coin Offering.

📝The principle

Simply put (and grossly generalized), organizations doing an ICO have more or less the following generic pitch:

«We created a (sometimes fixed) supply of millions of tokens on a blockchain. These tokens are not securities as we don't give investors any financial or voting rights. However, you can expect these tokens to have future value because we designed a system in which they will have the following utility. We are putting a certain number of tokens up for sale to finance the development of the project. These tokens will be liquid very soon because we are going to be listed on exchange X. Buy our tokens.»

👍The Good

The good part of ICOs is that, on the surface, they seem to align the interests of the main stakeholders in the organization quite well:

  • Founders raise a lot of money without giving any governance rights, allowing them to pursue their vision. Thanks to the tokens they generated, they can create many financial incentives that are beneficial to the organization, from recruiting talent to enabling network effects that have the potential exponentially grow their community. Some projects implemented on-chain governance or used a DAICOs to raise funds which gave token holders some governance rights, but they are more the exception than the rule.
  • Investors are happy because they usually invest at a discounted valuation and their investment will likely become liquid quickly, when the token gets listed on one of the crypto-exchanges. This early liquidity allows them to drastically reduce their risk as they can decide to sell how and when they want, provided there is enough liquidity of course.
  • Employees are happy because instead of stock options, they can get tokens that nobody can take away from them and that are liquid. If you were lucky enough to work for a crypto project in its early stage, you have a decent chance of becoming a millionaire not only on paper, but in cash.

The problem with this model is that it works only if the token does have value… unfortunately, that's rarely the case!

👎The Bad

The problem is that it is very hard for the unsophisticated investor (and also for so-called 'sophisticated' ones!) to assess whether tokens will have any value at all. As a result, many retail investors, lured by the exceptional returns of a handful of well thought-out projects, burned themselves very badly.

Indeed, in most projects, the risk associated with investing in the project is an order of magnitude higher than the potential reward, and so the investment makes no financial sense. Here are a collection of the main risks associated with investing in an ICO:

  1. Is the team properly incentivized to create the product? In many projects, founders give themselves a large number of tokens with little or no vesting period. So if the ICO succeeds, the founders will immediately become rich and might very lose the motivation to actually create the product.
  2. Will the team be able to create the product at all? The project is usually at its earliest stage with no product to show, only good intentions described in a document.
  3. Can the product be created on the proposed timeline? Many projects massively underestimate the significant technical constraints posed by integrating a blockchain with a token in their system.
  4. Can the product achieve a good user experience? Most projects completely underestimate the UX constraints posed by integrating a token in their system.
  5. If the product is delivered, will it be used at all? It is hard to know whether the team will achieve product/market fit.
  6. If users like the product, will the token capture any value? The project could be wildly successful and yet the token may have no value as it's not a security.
  7. If the token has value, will it be a good investment? Most projects sell their tokens at what is already a very high valuation.

Given the above, it is expected that most projects will fail and are bad investments. Even worse, a project can be very successful yet the token has no value. This creates two important problems:

  1. Retail investors get scammed due the way the Shitcoin Waterfall works in ICOs
  2. Regulators don't know how to handle ICOs. On the one hand, they welcome innovations that attract talent and investors; but on the other hand, they don't like it when retail investors get scammed.
💩The Ugly

At the time of writing this paper (September 2018), it has been now established that, unless an ICO takes place within the context of a reputable platform (i.e. CoinList, which is very selective or, to a lesser degree, TokenFoundry...), odds are that the ICO is a scam and you should be very cautious before investing. Indeed, due to the legal uncertainty around ICOs, the most promising projects now raise money privately and only use ICOs (or pure Airdrops) as a way to boost their community-building efforts.

It is sad to see that many of the ICOs on the market are scams. In the best case scenario, they are promoted by well-intentioned founders who mistook an ICO for a Series A fundraising round. In the worst-case scenario, these ICOs are simply engineered by scammers trying to abuse unsophisticated investors to get rich quick. Needless to say that, in this context, it is hard not to see the ICO market for utility tokens dying off.

Continuous Organizations

A Continuous Organization is an organization that issues fully digital securities called FAIR Securities by funneling part or all of its cash-flows into a Decentralized Autonomous Trust (DAT). A DAT is a smart-contract that automatically mints, burns and distributes FAIR Securities (FAIRs) following a token bonding curve contract with sponsored burning.

Important note about the currency used to interact with a DAT

In the following examples, we are using ETH (the currency of the Ethereum blockchain) as the currency to interact with the DAT. ETH is the native currency for an Ethereum-based DAT. It does not mean that end users (individuals and organizations) will necessarily have to manipulate ETH to interact with DATs. One can envision a future where services are created to allow end users to use fiat currency like USD or EUR to interact with a DAT, greatly simplifying the user experience.

Understanding the token bonding curve model

Many individuals have explored the bonding curve model since Simon De La Rouvière first came up with the idea in 2017.

A bonding curve contract is a specific type of smart-contract that issues its own tokens through Buy and Sell functions. To buy tokens, the buyer sends ETH to the Buy function which calculates the average price of the token in ETH and issues you the correct amount. The Sell function works in reverse: The contract will calculate the current average selling price and will send you the correct amount of ETH (excerpt taken from Token Bonding Curves Explained).

In the case of Continuous Organizations, the Buy and Sell functions are distinct:

The Bonding Curves of a Continuous Organization

A token bonding curve model has interesting properties, including:

  • Limitless supply. There is no limit to the number of tokens that can be minted.
  • Deterministic price calculation. The buy and sell prices of tokens increase and decrease with the number of tokens minted.
  • Guaranteed and immediate liquidity. The bonding curve contract is the counterparty of the transaction and always holds enough ETH in reserve to buy tokens back. So tokens can be bought or sold instantaneously at any time, the bonding curve acting as an automated market maker.
  • Continuous price. The price of token n being inferior to the token n+1 and superior to the token n-1, calculating the number of tokens minted for a given amount of ETH (or the number of ETH sent back for a given amount tokens) requires some integral calculus.

It is important to note that in a bonding curve model, the x-axis represents the number of tokens issued. To give a simple example, let's say B(x)=x and S(x)=0. The cost C to buy the first 10 tokens is given by the surface between the buy curve and the sell curve that can be expressed as the following integral:

.

Cost C to buy the 1st 10 tokens

So, in our example: C=10*10/2=50.

The Decentralized Autonomous Trust

In the case of Continuous Organizations, we introduce the cash-flow-based bonding curve: a bonding curve that uses 2 different functions, one for the buy curve and another for the sell curve: B (for buy) and S (for sell) with .

Buy and Sell curves

The bonding curve contract of a Decentralized Autonomous Trust issues FAIR Securities (FAIRs). These FAIR Securities represent a claim on the DAT's future cash-flows. It is important to note that, unlike a stock, a FAIR does not represent a claim on the organization's ownership, it only carries a financial right to the future cash-flows managed by the DAT.

The function B defines the price at which FAIRs can be bought from the DAT. B is a linear function and has a positive slope b such that B(x)=b*x where and b>0. The slope b can be chosen arbitrarily. The higher b is, the more value unit tokens will have, and vice-versa, as the lower b is, the less value unit tokens will have.

If you want your investors to have a lot of tokens, pick a very small value for b (like 1x10^(-9)). It has no financial impact, simply allowing more granularity for fractional rights.

The function S defines the price at which FAIRs are bought back by the DAT. S is a linear function as well and has a slope s such that S(x)=s*x where and s>0. However, in a Continuous Organization, the value of s increases discretely over time, i.e., . To explain how the value of s increases over time, it is important to understand that a DAT receives and processes the cash-flows it receives.

📈 Investments - Buy

The first (in "time", not in "proportion") source of cash-flows for a Continuous Organization are investors who want to invest in the Continuous Organization. Whenever an investor sends funds to the DAT, a fraction of the funds sent is being held in the "buyback" reserve by the DAT and the rest of the funds are being transferred to the organization's wallet. We'll call I (for invest) the percentage of the funds being held with . Please note that I is a function of s0, the slope of S at t=0 so I is constant.

Investments - Buy

Value flow when an investment occurs

Investments - Buy - Impact on bonding curve

Impact on the Bonding Curve Contract of the DAT when an investment occurs

The investors buying tokens are doing so to invest money in the underlying organization. Investors don't want their money to be held in reserve by the DAT, they want their money to be put to good use by the organization. Consequently, the value of s must be an order of magnitude lower than b.

Example: Let's say that an investor sends 10 ETH to the DAT, if I=10% then the DAT will transfer 9 ETH to the organization's wallet and will keep 1 ETH in its "buyback" reserve.

💰 Investments - Sell

Investors can at any time decide to sell their FAIRs to get ETH back. When the DAT receives FAIRs, it burns the received FAIRs and sends ETH back to the selling investor according to a function S (for sell). S has a slope s that increases discretely over time, every time the DAT receives a payment. The ETH sent back to the investor is taken from the DAT "buyback" reserve and does not affect the organization's cash reserve.

Investments - Sell

Value flow when a FAIR sale occurs

Investments - Sell - Impact on bonding curve

Impact on the Bonding Curve Contract of the DAT when an investor sells its tokens

💵 Dividends

The second source of cash-flow for the DAT are dividends. At any point in time, the organization can decide to pay dividends to its FAIRs holders. To do so, the organization sends ETH to the dividend function of the DAT. Two things happen:

  1. The DAT buyback reserve is increased. All the funds sent are used to mint new FAIRs with a contribution ratio of 100%, meaning that 100% of the funds sent are being saved in the DAT buyback reserve, thus creating value for FAIRs holders by increasing the slope of the selling curve (see detailed explanation below).
  2. FAIRs holders receive dividends in FAIRs. The newly minted FAIRs are distributed as dividends to the current FAIRs holders as a pro-rata of their holdings and taking into account any "dividend bonus" they might have (see below for the definition of "dividend bonus").

Dividends

Value flow when a dividend payment occurs

The biggest difference between an investment cash-flow and a dividend cash-flow is their respective contribution ratio to the DAT's reserve:

  1. investment: an amount M contributes I*M to the DAT's reserve while minting the value equivalent of M, thus a contribution ratio of (I*M)/M=I and by construction I<<100%
  2. dividend: an amount M contributes M to the DAT's reserve while minting the value equivalent of M, thus a contribution ratio of M/M=100%

So we have (remember from above that st is the slope of the sell function at time t). As we saw that s0=I this means that everytime a dividend is received by the DAT, s increases in value. After each transaction, s can be recalculated from the amount in reserve Rt:

so

(proof available in Annex)

Example: Say I=10%, D=10% and b=1. Assume an investor buys the first 10 tokens for 50 ETH, so the DAT now has 5010%=5 ETH in reserve. Then, the DAT receives a payment of 10 ETH from revenues. From this payment, 1010%=1 ETH is used to mint 0.0995 tokens (we'll leave this as an exercise for the reader. Hint: the equation to solve is ), which gives s1=0.1176, which is indeed superior to I.

Dividend bonus

Finally, to incentivize long-term FAIR holders, the DAT also has a dividend bonus mechanism that enables long-term token holders to enjoy a higher dividend than short-term token holders. The mechanism is the following: each month an investor holding a FAIR sees their dividend bonus increase until the maximum dividend bonus M is reached after holding the FAIR for H months. When a FAIR is sold or transferred, M is reset to 0.

💲 Revenues

For some Continuous Organizations (COs with no underlying legal entity, for example), it can make sense to receive their customers' payments (i.e. the CO's revenues) through the DAT. It is important to note that it is not mandatory for the organization's revenues to funnel through the DAT as the organization can also decide to only reward FAIRs holders through dividends.

For organizations that already have a running business, they will very likely prefer to first receive the payment from their customer in fiat (as they usually do, without changing their selling process) and will then transfer a fraction D of their perceived revenues to the DAT in the form of dividends, as illustrated here:

Revenues for real organizations

This way, the DAT is made completely invisible for the customer (no change in UX) and the organization does not have to modify any of its highly optimized selling processes.

Whenever the DAT receives a payment P, a fraction of the payment received is being used to mint new FAIRs. We'll call D (for dividends) the percentage of the revenues being used to mint new tokens, d the corresponding fraction of the revenues (d=P*D) and t the number of new tokens minted. The entire amount d used to mint FAIRs is saved in the DAT's "buyback" reserve and the t FAIRs minted are distributed to the current token holders according to their current holdings as well as their dividend bonus (see above). This distribution is like a dividend distribution but paid in FAIRs rather than ETH.

Revenues

Value flow when the CO relies on the DAT to receive its payments

Example: Suppose D=5%, if the Continuous Organization receives a payment of 100 ETH, 5 ETH will be used to mint FAIRs. The FAIRs are then distributed to existing token holders who can decide to either keep or sell them.

🍯Pre-minted FAIR pool

When the DAT is being created (and only then because once created the DAT becomes immutable), the organization can decide to "pre-mint" for itself and for free a number PM of FAIRs. That means that, instead of having the supply of FAIRs of the DAT start from zero, it would start from PM.

Pre-minting FAIRs can often make a lot of sense to the organization, be it to reward its founders, to pay its early employees, to reward its early users, etc… However, it is very important to realize that pre-creating FAIRs comes with a potentially high cost, as these "free" pre-minted FAIRs represent a selling pressure on the DAT as they are _FAIR_s that got allocated "for free", without any contribution to the DAT buyback reserve.

Technically speaking, it means that the greater the number of FAIR tokens that are pre-minted, the lower the sell curve will be (i.e., the s slope defined previously). So concretely, if an organization decides to pre-mint a large number of FAIRs when setting up the DAT, it may want to be very careful not to pre-mint too many of them because it significantly increases the risk and financial reward of investors.

Pre-minted FAIR pool

Impact of pre-minted tokens, everything else being equal

Even though it is not mandatory, it is highly recommended to have a vesting schedule for the _FAIR_s that are pre-minted in order to commit their beneficiaries over the long term and help them resist the temptation to sell at the first opportunity.

📄 Summary

A Continuous Organization is an organization that issues FAIR securities by funneling part or all of its cash-flows to a specific type of smart-contract called Decentralized Autonomous Trust (DAT). These FAIR Securities represent a claim on the DAT's future cash-flows. The organization, its investors and, potentially, its customers interact with the DAT by sending ETH or FAIRs to it:

Source of cash-flow What happens at the DAT?
Investment (buy)

Investment (buy)

▪ The DAT receives ETH from the buying investor
▪ The DAT mints new FAIRs and send them to the buying investor.
▪ The sum invested is in part distributed to the beneficiary organization and in part saved in the DAT "buyback" reserve according to a pre-defined immutable function I (for investment).
Investment (sell)

Investment (sell)

▪ The DAT receives FAIR securities from the selling investor
▪ The DAT burns the received FAIRs and sends ETH back to the selling investor according to a function S (for sell). S has a slope s that increases discretely over time, every time the DAT receives a payment.
▪ The ETH sent back to the investor is taken from the DAT "buyback" reserve and does not affect the organization's cash reserve.
Dividend payment

Dividend payment

▪ the DAT receives ETH from the organization
▪ the DAT uses the funds to mint new FAIRs and distribute them to the current FAIR holders according to their holdings and their respective dividend bonuses.
▪ The funds used to mint the FAIRs are being saved in the DAT "buyback" reserve.
Revenues

Revenues

▪ The DAT receives a payment from a customer
▪ The DAT transfers the revenues to the organization but retains a fraction D (for dividends) of the revenues to mint new FAIRs
▪ The new FAIRs are distributed among the existing FAIRs holders.
▪ 100% of the funds used to mint the new FAIRs are saved in the DAT "buyback" reserve.

Finally, a DAT can be created with pre-minted FAIRs allocated to the organization that can then distribute them freely to stakeholders. However, it is important to note that these pre-minted FAIRs come at a cost as they are directly diluting future investors.

Properties and incentives of a Continuous Organization

🌲 Long-term investment focus

The spread that exists between the buy price and the sell price of _FAIR_s creates an incentive for investors to buy and hold FAIRs until the Continuous Organization starts generating revenues:

  1. Pre-revenue. The price appreciation of FAIRs is due to investors' speculation as they anticipate future revenues.
  2. Post-revenues. Once revenues begin to flow, the price appreciation of FAIRs starts being driven by the revenues generated by the organization, as a fraction of the revenues is used to buy FAIRs and distribute them as dividends to the current token holders.

Combined with the dividend bonus described earlier, there is a clear incentive for investors to hold their tokens and act as long-term investors yet still retain liquidity power if they wish.

🤝Secondary market

The spread between the Buy and Sell curves also leaves space for a secondary market of FAIRs. If the current price of a newly minted FAIR is 10, an investor would rather buy an already-minted FAIR from another investor willing to sell at a better price than the buyback price offered by the DAT.

Obviously, this secondary market is bounded in a dynamic price range imposed by the DAT: it would not make sense for a buyer to bid a price higher than the current price proposed by the DAT. Likewise, it would not make sense for a seller to ask for a price lower than the price proposed by the DAT.

Secondary market

Said otherwise, an investor will always be better off buying or selling their FAIRs in the secondary market, as the price will likely be better than the price proposed by the DAT.

💧Guaranteed liquidity

One of the most valuable properties of a Continuous Organization is that the liquidity of FAIRs is immediate and guaranteed. If an investor does not find a buyer or a seller in the secondary market, they can always buy or sell tokens to the DAT. By construction, the DAT always has the funds to buyback FAIRs at a price defined by the S function. The DAT really acts as the organization's central bank, minting new tokens when demand exceeds available supply and contracting the token supply when sellers outnumber buyers.

In the proposed bonding curve model the buyback price (defined by the S function) for a given supply is very low compared to the buy price (the B function). So one could argue that, even if there is guaranteed liquidity, this liquidity has limited utility because investors would likely take a loss by selling to the DAT. This is true only if an investor buys FAIRs and sells them back to the DAT short thereafter.

However, if the investors have more patience and if the organization develops well:

  1. more investors will buy FAIRs, thus increasing both the buy and the sell price to where the investor will turn a profit by selling their FAIRs back to the DAT.
  2. the organization will start generating revenues, thus automatically distributing token dividends (using the mechanism described previously).
  3. the organization can also start distributing dividends directly if it is doing well and sees an interest in doing so. Distributing token dividends has a double effect:
  4. significantly increasing sell price because these dividend tokens are bought from the DAT and the funds are 100% saved in the buyback reserve, thus increasing the value of s and with it the minimum sell price.
  5. increasing the investor's return on investment (ROI) as the investors can decide to immediately sell back the dividend tokens they received to cash them out.

Finally, it is good to keep in mind that the DAT is only the buyer-of-last-resort. For a given supply, it is very likely that an investor could sell their tokens at a higher price than the price of the DAT on the secondary market.

💰 Continuous fundraising

By construct, a Continuous Organization is continuously fundraising as investors can permission-lessly buy and sell the organization's FAIRs at any time:

  • Any increase in FAIR supply (i.e., a FAIR that is being minted by the DAT, not bought on the secondary market) directly translates into funding for the organization.
  • Any decrease in FAIR supply (i.e., a FAIR that is being sold to the DAT, not sold on the secondary market) is being paid by the buyback reserve of the DAT and does not affect the organization's treasury.

Whereas in the traditional VC financing model, fundraising defocuses the entrepreneur in a time-consuming and uncertain process that creates dangerous valuation thresholds, COs help the entrepreneur stay focused on execution and make the organization more resilient to the business ups and downs.

To illustrate this, let's take the example of a Continuous Organization whose token price over time as measured by the buy function of the DAT follows the following very volatile curve:

Volatility

The zones in blue correspond to upward trends of the FAIR price, which translates into the Continuous Organization raising funds. Alternatively, the white zones are downward trends which translates into the DAT (not the organization) buying back the FAIRs that are being sent to it using its buyback reserve.

Benefits

Continuous Organizations provide many benefits over traditional organizations for all stakeholders, most notably:

Stakeholder Benefits
🏃🏽‍
Founders
▪ Build solid incentives to grow and strengthen your community
▪ Recruit talents more easily, anywhere in the world
▪ Keep long-term control of your organization
▪ Make your organization more resilient against business ups and downs
▪ Be less distracted (legal, fundraising) and focus more on execution.
▪ Get personal liquidity (once vested).
👩‍💻
Employees
▪ Align your personal financial interest with that of the organization
▪ Sell your FAIRs when it makes sense for you
🙋🏻‍
The multitude
▪ Get a share of the value created if the organization is successful
▪ Enjoy the same long-term financial benefits as employees
👩🏿‍💼
Investors
▪ Reduce your investment risk using the FAIRs liquidity
▪ Sell your FAIRs at public market price
▪ Sell your FAIRs at the pace you want
▪ Invest anywhere in the world
👨‍⚖️
Regulators
▪ Favor innovation in your jurisdiction to create new products and services
▪ Protect your citizens from scams with FAIR
▪ Collect taxes easily at the DAT level
🌎
The planet
▪ Founders can keep long-term control of their organization
▪ Investors are incentivized over the long-term
▪ Continuous Organizations are more inclusive than traditional organizations

Use cases

Ultimately, once the concept matures, we believe that COs have the potential to become the de-facto standard form of organization for founders looking to start a new venture, be it non-profit or for-profit. Until then, we think there are some use cases that already make a lot of sense, most notably:

  1. Long-term employee incentivization. Incentivizing employees is a key topic in any successful organization. Unfortunately, today's mechanisms are far from being perfect, especially for private organizations whose shares are not publicly listed. Instead of directly giving employees equity or offering stock options, an organization could use a DAT to provide their employees with inalienable, liquid FAIRs aligned with the success of the organization.
  2. Organizations with large contributive communities. As of now, it is very legally and technically difficult to financially incentivize communities. If you have a platform business at a late stage (Airbnb, Uber, Yelp-like...) and wish to further engage your community in your platform, you start a CO by setting up a DAT. Obviously, you would not funnel 100% of your revenues to the CO immediately but would instead perhaps commit to buying a certain amount of tokens of the DAT every month. This way, you can very simply financially align your community with the success of your business. Plus, you can use the _FAIR_s to distribute them in the way you prefer to your community, employees etc...
  3. Early startups bootstrapping their network effect. Startup founders who develop marketplaces or any kind of 2-sided network always face a chicken-and-egg problem. By setting up a CO and using FAIRs, they can solidly incentivize early adopters to join and contribute by aligning them with the long-term success of the project. Unlike today, FAIRs give early adopters the opportunity to get a fair part of the platform's upside value that they create by joining and contributing early.
  4. Real estate tokenization. Given that investors in Continuous Organizations are buying FAIRs in anticipation of future cash-flows, it would make a great deal of sense to use _CO_s to buy and tokenize real estate. Indeed, real estate is a well-known provider of steady and predictable cash-flows, and so such a project could create a CO to finance the acquisition of real estate and provide its investors with predictable returns.
  5. Organization-less online communities. You don't need a pre-existing organization to create a CO, nor do you need to incorporate one. Let's say you have a business idea and want to start a CO out of a purely online community. The beneficiary of the DAT could simply be a multisig wallet with the project leaders, the DAT would pre-mint FAIRs to distribute/incentivize the community and the D parameter of the DAT would be set rather high to yield strong token dividends to the community when revenues are generated.

A Continuous Organization relies on a Decentralized Autonomous Trust (DAT) to operate, and so it is important to legally define this DAT and its various properties. Be careful about what is written in this section as it only reflects the author's opinion and is absolutely not a legal opinion. If you have a legal opinion regarding your jurisdiction, please come and engage with us in our discussion forum.

DAT and assets

It is our belief that it should be relatively straightforward to transfer assets like intellectual property, shares, contracts, etc,... to a DAT. Having the ability to legally transfer assets to the DAT would open the door to a lot more use cases and scenarios for Continuous Organizations.

DAT and regulations

As a Decentralized Autonomous Trust has no governance, it does not belong to anyone per se. To our knowledge, it has no equivalent in today's laws and is a new financial instrument. In spirit, it is close to an Irrevocable Trust with the code acting as the Trustee, the organization as the Grantor and the FAIRs holders as the Beneficiaries. Additionally, an Irrevocable Trust has no legal entity, it is simply a contract, just like a DAT. However, the comparison has its limits: Contrary to a DAT, an Irrevocable Trust is not a vehicle in which investors can invest to receive securities on the Trust's assets.

To make it legally safe for organizations to use DATs, we will likely have to work with regulators to have DATs recognized and regulated as a new financial instrument. Even though it may sound difficult at first glance, we are confident that it is a reachable goal given the solid value proposition of DATs for regulators (see the reasons in Benefits)

It is our belief that regulators will at least require a full KYC/AML for FAIRs holders as well as a reasonable tax withholding on the cash-flows that are managed by the DAT. If you are a regulator or have strong knowledge and competencies in this area, please feel free to leave us a message in our forum, we want to work hand-in-hand with regulators around the world to make Decentralized Autonomous Trusts a legal reality.

Attack vectors

Front-running attack

As perfectly stated in Relevant's blog:

"Bonding curves are susceptible to front-running attacks. This is when an adversary watches for a big buy order coming in and sends her own buy order with more gas to cut ahead of the original order. Once the original order is executed, the attacker sells her tokens at a guaranteed profit."

One simple solution to these attacks is to set an upper limit on the amount of gas buyers and sellers can use in their transaction. Another, more robust (but also more complex to implement) solution, would be to implement a regular price fixing: Instead of the orders being executed immediately, they are instead batched into a pool of orders and every hours the contract executes the trades taking into account the orders registered in the order book. It means that the trades are not executed immediately but it has the immense advantage of preventing front-running attacks. This is how the Gnosis DutchX Decentralized exchange works:

"Hence, with batched orders entering the block at the time the auction clears with the same price for all bidders and sellers, neither miners nor the exchange itself, or other participants will be able to game the system."

Such a system would not penalize liquidity much if the price fixing is regular enough (every 6 hours in the case of DutchX) and has the huge advantage of preventing front-running.

Conclusion

Any type of organization, for-profit and non-profit, can become a Continuous Organization by setting up a Decentralized Autonomous Trust and funneling all or part of its cash-flows to it. Continuous Organizations are a new type of internet-native organisation that are more efficient, stable and inclusive than traditional organizations. At the heart of Continuous Organizations are fully digital liquid securities that align stakeholders' interests better than traditional organizations. Continuous Organizations are easy to incorporate and their properties make them ideal to incentivize employees, grow and strengthen communities, and create virtual online organizations.

To continue the conversation and contribute, you are more than welcome to join our online forum. You can also interact with us on Twitter or on our dedicated Telegram channel.

Annex

How to recalculate s from R after each new transaction:

Proof

Notes

[1]: the definition of Returns to Scale on Wikipedia

[2]: FAIR: Frictionless Agreement for Investments and Returns

[3]: FAIR Securities undeniably pass the Howey test

[4]: To illustrate: an Uber driver is at the same time a user of Uber and a worker for Uber. Same goes for the renter of a flat on Airbnb. A Facebook user is also a Facebook (non-paid) worker.

[5]: Nicolas Colin is a regular contributor to the Financial Times and Forbes

[6]: The Family is a european organization educating, protecting, and financing ambitious Entrepreneurs

[7]: Hedge, A Greater Safety Net for the Entrepreneurial Age

[8]: L'age de la multitude - Entreprendre et gouverner après la révolution numérique (not translated in english)

[9]: Airbnb asks SEC to let it give hosts equity

[10]: In the 'best case scenario' liquidity event which is the IPO, "the average founder ownership at IPO was 17% and the average VC ownership at IPO was 56%"

[11]: The End of Employees

[12]: See Multicoin Capital "Venture Capital Economics with Public Market Liquidity"

[13]: Quote from Taxation of the Digital Economy - Pierre Collin & Nicolas Colin - 2013

[14]: See Tragedy of The Commons definition on wikipedia

[15]: Some projects have on-chain governance or used a DAICOs to raise funds which gave token holders some governance rights, but there are more the exception than the rule

[16]: ...and also for the so-called sophisticated investors!

[17]: ICOs raised a record $8.3B in Q2 2018 but most of them were abject failures

[18]: Public - ICO Returns 2014-2018

[19]: Meltem Demirors explains the ShitCoin Waterfall on Laura Shin's podcast

[20]: Multibillion dollar ICO market down to a few hundred million

[21]: Token Bonding Curves Explained

[22]: Sponsored Burning for TCRs

[23]: equilibrium bonding market, dynamic bonding curve, fomo3d etc...

[24]: Simon De La Rouvrière

[25]: Tokens 2.0 - Curved Token Bonding in Curation Markets

[26]: Excerpt adapted from the article Token Bonding Curves Explained

[27]: See the definition of Irrevocable Trust on investopedia

[28]: How to make bonding curves for continuous tokens

[29]: The main benefits of the DutchX mechanism