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Hints and pseudo code for Exercise 8.23.1 (Goldberg et al., 2010)

  1. Write a program that counts how many species are in each category of Status. The output should be a data.frame.


    • to read the data, use read.csv; remember to set stringsAsFactors = FALSE, otherwise the species names will become of type factor, and you won't be able to manipulate them
    • there are different ways to solve the exercise; the most straightforward is to cycle through all possible values of Status, and count how many occurrences of each are in the data
    • alternatively, check the documentation for the function table


    # read the data
    # use read.csv
    possible_status <- extract unique Status
    # create empty data.frame to store results
    results <- data.frame()
    # cycle through the possible values:
    for (status in possible_status) {
      # count how many occurrences
      # append to the data frame
  2. Write a program that builds a data.frame specifying how many species are in each Status for each genus (note that each species name starts with the genus, followed by an underscore).

    Hints: you will need to extract the genus from the species name; use strsplit


    genera <- character(0) # empty vector
    for (each species){
        # split species name and extract genus
        # add to genera
    # now use the function table to produce the contingency table
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