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Contributing

Developing on CTFd

Developing new code for CTFd is easy and fun! CTFd is organized into components which each serve a distinct purpose.

Core Routes/Controllers

The core routes are identified in blueprints in the main CTFd folder for user facing routes and in the CTFd/admin folder for the admin panel. These core routes are used to display theme content and render the main server response that the user will receive.

API Routes/Controllers

The API routes are implemented in the CTFd/api folder as seperate blueprints for each type of resource used in CTFd. Most behavior that manipulates data should be implemented at the API level and seperated by method and resource level. The most common API methods are GET, POST, PATCH, DELETE.

Models

CTFd makes heavy usage of the SQLAlchemy ORM to access database contents. The core CTFd models are defined here. Plugins are however capable of adding their own models.

CTFd makes use of alembic and Flask-Migrate to perform database migrations between versions.

Schemas

Schemas provide an abstraction layer on top of the database models for permissioning and filtering of data. Schemas and the API work together to make distinctions about what data to show users and what data a user can edit.

Jinja2

Jinja2 is used by the CTFd server to render HTML content with data. In some cases (i.e. JavaScript challenge rendering), Mozilla Nunjucks templates are used as a mostly compatible alternative. Any templates written in Nunjucks must still be compatible with Jinja2.

JavaScript & CSS

JavaScript & CSS are used to style the front end of CTFd.

Linting

Python

Python code in CTFd is linted with flake8 and black.

Javascript & CSS

JavaScript and CSS are linted with prettier.

Tip

The recommendation is to integrate all linters into your editor as your changes will fail to pass if the lint checks fail. See the Makefile for make lint

Testing

Python

Python tests are run using pytest on Travis. To run the test suite you can run make test. By default tests run against sqlite but this can be configured by setting the TESTING_DATABASE_URL environment variable.

CTFd will support both Python 2 and 3 until Python 2's EOL in 2020.

Tests are run in parallel with pytest-xdist and each test is run in its own database.

Documentation

CTFd's documentation is written using Sphinx and hosted by Read the Docs.

To build the documentation, you should go into the docs folder and run make html. The content output into the docs/_build folder will be the resulting hosted output.

Tips & Tricks

Typically while developing CTFd, developers use the provided serve.py script or its make serve wrapper and access CTFd at http://localhost:4000.

Very often you will need to generate testing data so that you can exercise CTFd's behavior. The included populate.py script will insert randomized testing data into the CTFd database.

The export.py script can be used to create a CTFd export on the command line.

The import.py script can be used to load in a CTFd export on the command line.

If you need to wipe CTFd completely, you should:

  • delete the database (CTFd/ctfd.db by default)
  • empty the cache. By default it will be stored in the .data folder if Redis is unavailable
  • (optional) remove the contents of the CTFd/uploads folder
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