Stored procedures that help you to debug stored procedures
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Debugging Stored Procedures

Over the past several weeks, we've been working on debugging a stored
procedure bug for a client. Coming from a software development background, I
looked at the procedure like any piece of code -- how can I debug the
program and be able to use some means of knowing the values within the
program while it's running? In C, I've always used GDB, as well as Perl
having it's own debugger. I also love print statements! Those can be the
most simplistic but also useful tools in debugging, especially in the case
of a C program that's so optimized that GDB gives you the famous "value
optimized out" message, preventing you from knowing what the program is
really doing. 

Stored procedures are a whole different matter than compiled or interpreted
code. They are executing within the database. The line numbers in your
source file you inevitably create the procedure with don't match the line
numbers of the procedure as stored by the database. Furthermore, if you are
a developer of other languages, you will find debugging stored procedures to 
be a exercise in misery. You can load a stored procedure into MySQL, and as 
long as the SQL is syntactically correct, it will not catch things such as 
specifying variables that don't exist-- you will have the joy of discovering
those during run-time-- and most often the error message displayed will 
be of little use. 

How then, can you better observe the execution of a stored procedure? 

In some cases, you could run it with print statements and simply observe the
output when the procedure is executed. But in our case, that was not a
solution as the procedure had mostly DML statements and we needed something
that was more precise. We needed something that not only allows you to
display the values of variables, but also show you when the statement was
executed. 

There is this very useful article on Dr. Dobbs, a concept that we expanded upon
(http://www.drdobbs.com/database/218100564;jsessionid=BZTU3OQCTRMTFQE1GHRSKHWATMY32JVN?pgno=2).
The main idea of this article is that a temporary memory table is used
during the execution of the stored procedure to insert stored procedure
debug messages into, and being a memory table, won't touch disk and will 
be as lightweight as possible. At the end of a debug session, these 
messages are copied from the temporary table into a permanent table 
with the same table definition. This gives you a means of reading 
the debug messages written during the execution of your stored procedure.

We built upon the idea from the article and came up with these useful stored procedures that
are easy to load and utilize in a stored procedure. They allow you to print
any message that you want to, along with the time and the connection/thread
ID of the thread executing the procedure-- something that was invaluable in
debugging what we thought at first was a race condition.

Debugging procedures

The following debugging procedures can be used within your stored procedures. First, each will be introduced, and then a more descriptive explanation on how they work will be provided, along with source code. Note that these procedures are also available at:

 

setupProcLog()

This procedure you run once at the beginning of your procedure to set up the the temporary table for storing messages in, as well as ensuring that there is a permanent log table.

procLog()

This is the procedure you call for each debug message. 

cleanup()

This is the procedure you call at the end of your debugging session

The code for each of these procedures:

CREATE PROCEDURE setupProcLog()
BEGIN
    DECLARE proclog_exists int default 0;

    /* 
       check if proclog is existing. This check seems redundant, but
       simply relying on 'create table if not exists' is not enough because
       a warning is thrown which will be caught by your exception handler
    */
    SELECT count(*) INTO proclog_exists
        FROM information_schema.tables 
        WHERE table_schema = database() AND table_name = 'proclog';

    IF proclog_exists = 0 THEN 
         create table if not exists proclog(entrytime datetime, 
                                        connection_id int not null default 0,
                                        msg varchar(512));
    END IF;
    /* 
     * temp table is not checked in information_schema because it is a temp
     * table
     */
     create temporary table if not exists tmp_proclog(
                                                entrytime timestamp, 
                                                connection_id int not null default 0,
                                                msg varchar(512)) engine = memory;
END |


As you can see, setupProcLog() first checks to see if the permanent logging
table exists, and if not, creates it. The second create statement creates the
tempory memory table for logging messages to. Note that 'if exists' is not
sufficient for avoiding warnings that will cause your exception handler to be
called in the event the table already exists and is even created specifying an 'if
exists' condition. Also note that a storage engine is not specified for proclog. 
In this case, proclog should be a non-transactional table to avoid any issues with
the stored procedure using the debugging procedures within a transaction-- you don't
want all your debug messages rolled-back!


CREATE PROCEDURE procLog(in logMsg varchar(512))
BEGIN
  declare continue handler for 1146 -- Table not found
  BEGIN
    call setupProcLog();
    insert into tmp_proclog (connection_id, msg) values (connection_id(), 'reset tmp table');
    insert into tmp_proclog (connection_id, msg) values (connection_id(), logMsg);
  END;

  insert into tmp_proclog (connection_id, msg) values (connection_id(), logMsg);
END |

The procLog() procedure is what you use to log messages with. You can see 
an exception handler is set in case the table is not found, setupProcLog() 
is called to make sure the both the temporary and permanent log tables exist, 
as well as display a message that the temporary table has been set up. 
Then of course, in the case of no exception, the message is inserted into the table.


CREATE PROCEDURE cleanup(in logMsg varchar(512))
BEGIN
   call procLog(concat("cleanup() ",ifnull(logMsg, ''))); 
   insert into proclog select * from tmp_proclog;
   drop table tmp_proclog;
END |

Finally, the cleanup() procedure copies all entries made during the session 
into the permanent logging table, then the temporary logging table is truncated.
Note that this procedure just drops the temporary table, tmp_proclog. This is
to allow you to be able to run setupProcLog() without a warning about
tmp_proclog existing. Since all the data has been copied to proclog as well as
being temporary table that will be re-created if setupProcLog() is called,
dropping it works out well.

These procedures are easy to use. Just load them into your MySQL instance:

mysql yourschema < proclog.sql

In your procedure code, you are able to now log messages! 

First, you will call:

call setupProcLog();

Then you can log message:

call procLog("this is a message");

Or even with variables:

call procLog(concat("this is a message with a variable - foo = ", ifnull(foo,'NULL')));

Note above the use of ifnull(). This is because concat() fails if the variable
in the list being concatenated is is NULL.

Now, for an actual procedure. The procedure shown below is for demonstration
purposes and will show as succinctly as possible the problem we encountered.

The issue was essentially that there is a stored procedure that has a number
start of a transaction, a number insert statements that occur within a loop 
into tables relating to a single unique id and then a final check on the 
primary table to see if that unique id has been inserted already-- and based
on this, commits or rolls back the subsequent inserts. The procedure looked
bullet-proof, and it seemed that there would be no way for any of the
subsequent insert statements to ever be committed, but there was one problem:
within the loop, there was a call to another stored procedure that also had
it's own call to start and commit a transaction. You cannot have nested
transactions in MySQL, and this was the crux of the problem, and what the
example procedure here will attempt to show, as well as show you how you can
practically utilize the debugging procedures.

CREATE PROCEDURE proc_example 
(
	_username varchar(32)
)
 BEGIN

	DECLARE status_code int;
    DECLARE counter int default 0;
	DECLARE BAIL int default 0;
    DECLARE sleep_foo int;
	
    /* 
     * exit handler for anything that goes wrong during execution. This will
     * ensure the any subsequent DML statements are rolled back
     */
	DECLARE EXIT HANDLER FOR SQLEXCEPTION
	BEGIN
		SET status_code = -1;
		ROLLBACK;
	    SELECT status_code as status_code;
        call cleanup("line 65: exception handler");
	END;
	
	SET status_code = 0;

    CALL setupProcLog();
    CALL procLog("line 71: Entering proc_example");

    /* start the transaction - so that anything that follows will be atomic */
	START TRANSACTION; 
	
    call procLog(concat("line 76: START TRANSACTION, status_code=",
                        ifnull(status_code, NULL)));
	IF status_code = 0
	THEN
        /* 
         * the loop. The only thing that will cause this loop to end other
         * than the counter exceeding the value of 5 is if BAIL is set to 1
         */
        myloop: LOOP
            CALL procLog(concat("line 85: loop iteration #",
                                ifnull(counter, NULL)));

            /* leave the loop is counter exceeds the value of 5 */
            IF counter > 5 THEN
                LEAVE myloop;
            END IF;

            /* 
             * this statement is just to show an example of an insert
             * statement that should NOT be committed until the end of 
             * the procedure, or if the status_code is anything other than
             * zero then a rollback will result in this statement being rolled
             * back
             */
            INSERT INTO userloop_count (username, count) 
                VALUES (_username, counter);

            CALL procLog("line 103: CALL someother_proc()");
            /* 
             * This call to someother_proc() will set a value for BAIL. This
             * is the type of thing you want to be cognizant of in your stored 
             * procedures - that a procedure that you call doesn't have it's
             * own transaction. Nested transactions are not supported by MySQL
             */
            CALL someother_proc(rand(), _username, BAIL);
            CALL procLog(concat("line 111: BAIL = ", ifnull(BAIL, 'NULL')));
            IF BAIL THEN
                SET status_code = 1;
                LEAVE myloop;
            END IF;

            SET counter = counter + 1;

        END LOOP;		
    END IF;

    /* 
     * this is the do or die part of the procedure that will either commit or
     * roll back any subsequent DML statements (insert, update, delete, etc)
     * if the username exists, a status_code of 2 is set, which results in a
     * rollback, and if not, an insert into users is called. If the insert
     * fails for any reason, the EXIT handler will also roll back subsequent
     * statements 
     *  
     */
    IF (status_code = 0)
    THEN
        IF (SELECT user_id FROM users WHERE username = _username) IS NOT NULL 
        THEN 
            call procLog("line 135: user exists, setting status_code to 5");
            SET status_code = 2;
        ELSE
            call procLog("line 138: user does not exist, inserting");
	        INSERT INTO users (username) VALUES (_username);
        END IF;
    END IF;

    select sleep(3) into sleep_foo;
    call procLog(concat( "line 148 status_code = ", ifnull(status_code,'NULL')));
    /* if status_code of 0, then commit, else roll back */
    IF (status_code = 0) THEN
	    COMMIT;
	ELSE
	    ROLLBACK;
	END IF;
			
    /* 
     * call cleanup() to ensure the temp proc logging table's entries are
     * copied to the proclog table
     */
    call cleanup("line 160: end of proc");
	SELECT status_code as status_code;

 END|

As you can see, the call to procLog() gives you the ability to see what line
of the procedure was called. This all corresponds to the line numbers you have
in whatever source file you use to add your stored procedure to your database
from.

As you just saw, there was a call to the someother_proc() procedure. In this
case, someother_proc()  contains a transaction which will
demonstrate the problem with trying to attempted nested transactions--
something that you should always be cognizant of in debugging stored
procedures

DROP PROCEDURE IF EXISTS someother_proc | 
CREATE PROCEDURE someother_proc 
(
    _rand float,
	_username varchar(32),
    out _return_val int
)
 MODIFIES SQL DATA
 BEGIN
    /* 
     * this is passed by the calling procedure and is available after the
     * program is called
     */
    set _return_val = 0;

    /* 
     * this will cause grief for the test procedure that calls it because it
     * will result in an attempt of a nested procedure, which is not supported
     * in MySQL. This call will be an implicit commit, so all subsequent DML
     * statements in the calling procedure will be committed
     */
    START TRANSACTION;

    /* 
     * Arbitrary. Just to have some way to randomly set a true value that the
     * calling procedure will use to test whether or not to leave the loop
     * that this procedure was called from
     */
    IF (_rand > 0.8)
    THEN
        SET _return_val = 1;
    END IF;

    /* this is here to provide a means to see what random value was tested */
    INSERT INTO randlog (username, rvalue, returned) 
        VALUES (_username, _rand, _return_val);
    
    COMMIT;
END|

Now, to actually run this procedure and see what is entred into the proclog
table. 

mysql> call proc_example('testuser');
+-------------+
| status_code |
+-------------+
|           1 | 
+-------------+
1 row in set (3.04 sec)

So, as can be seen, the status code returned is '1', meaning that the user wasn't inserted. How can this be? Well, now that the procLog() procedure is being utilized, you can query the table 'proclog'

mysql> select * from proclog;
+---------------------+---------------+-------------------------------------------+
| entrytime           | connection_id | msg                                       |
+---------------------+---------------+-------------------------------------------+
| 2010-10-15 09:34:27 |            11 | line 71: Entering proc_example            | 
| 2010-10-15 09:34:27 |            11 | line 76: START TRANSACTION, status_code=0 | 
| 2010-10-15 09:34:27 |            11 | line 85: loop iteration #0                | 
| 2010-10-15 09:34:27 |            11 | line 103: CALL someother_proc()           | 
| 2010-10-15 09:34:27 |            11 | line 111: BAIL = 1                        | 
| 2010-10-15 09:34:30 |            11 | line 145 status_code = 1                  | 
| 2010-10-15 09:34:30 |            11 | cleanup() line 156: end of proc           | 
+---------------------+---------------+-------------------------------------------+

Also, randlog can be queried to see what the random value was:

mysql> select * from randlog;
+----+---------------------+----------+----------+----------+
| id | created             | username | rvalue   | returned |
+----+---------------------+----------+----------+----------+
|  1 | 2010-10-15 09:34:27 | testuser | 0.880542 |        1 | 
+----+---------------------+----------+----------+----------+


Aha! BAIL was set to '1' because of the random value being greater than .5, so the loop ended. This means that the subsequent insert statements should have not been committed, right?  (well, we know there's a nested transaction, but for the sake of this example, let us forget about that momentarily)

The users table should be empty, and it is:

mysql> select * from users;  
Empty set (0.01 sec)

The next table to check is userloop_count, it too should be empty:

mysql> select * from userloop_count;
+----+---------------------+-------+----------+
| id | created             | count | username |
+----+---------------------+-------+----------+
|  1 | 2010-10-15 09:34:27 |     0 | testuser | 
+----+---------------------+-------+----------+

Hmm, but it is not! How could this be? The status code was set to '1', so the ROLLBACK having been issued would roll back all the previous insert statements. What else can we look at? 

Binary Log

The binary log is like a closed circuit TV camera of your database-- at least in terms of DML statements. Any statement that modifies your data will be found in your binary log. Not only that, you can see what thread issued the statement. The evidence is there for you to see!

The following is cleaned up to make clearer:

So, the first line below, the message "loop iteration #0" is inserted into proclog:

#101015  9:34:27 server id 2  end_log_pos 2733  Query   thread_id=11    exec_time=0 error_code=0
insert into tmp_proclog (connection_id, msg) values (connection_id(),  NAME_CONST('logMsg',_latin1'line 85: loop iteration #0'))/*!*/;

Next, the insertion into userloop_count is made:

#101015  9:34:27 server id 2  end_log_pos 2813  Query   thread_id=11    exec_time=0 error_code=0
INSERT INTO userloop_count (username, count) 
                VALUES ( NAME_CONST('_username',_latin1'testuser'),  NAME_CONST('counter',0))/*!*/;


The message indicating the call to someother_proc() is inserted into proclog:

#101015  9:34:27 server id 2  end_log_pos 3291  Query   thread_id=11    exec_time=0 error_code=0
insert into tmp_proclog (connection_id, msg) values (connection_id(),  NAME_CONST('logMsg',_latin1'line 103: CALL someother_proc()'))/*!*/;

Next, the crux of the problem! A COMMIT is issued. How can this be? Well, because there is a 'BEGIN TRANSACTION', which there was already a 'BEGIN TRANSACTION' issued in the calling procedure. Nested transactions are not supported, and when you issue a 'BEGIN TRANSACTION' within a transaction, it acts as an implicite 'COMMIT'

#101015  9:34:27 server id 2  end_log_pos 3318  Xid = 809
COMMIT/*!*/;
# at 3318

So, now the problem is know and can be fixed accordingly!

Summary

This post was written to help those who are pulling their hair out debugging their stored procedures. This post was also written for those who might have come from more from a development role and might have an approach that is overly complex. When debugging stored procedures, here are some tips that will help:

* binary log - look at this first when something seems awry. It is the closed-circuit TV recording of what happened with your database
* utilize these logging procedures to debug your stored procedures
* look closely at the data in the tables affected by your stored procedures

You will develop an intuition for the types of issues stored procedures present over time. You just have to think a bit differently than with regular programming.