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Whole-genome genotyping in experimental pedigrees from outbred founders utilizing low coverage individual based sequencing

Carlborg's Lab (Yanjun Zan, Thibaut Payen, Örjan Carlborg) - BMC - Uppsala University

Problem solved

Experimental intercrosses of divergent lines are useful to map loci (quantitative trait loci; QTL) contributing to phenotypic variation using the recombinant founder mosaic genotypes in the F2 generation. In this context, we developed a pipeline to infer the founder mosaic genotypes in the F2 individuals of an intercross of divergent, outbred lines, taking advantage of the fact that the pedigree is known, using very low-coverage whole-genome sequencing.


  • If you use conda ( ) the requirements.txt in the project will help you deploy it, if not you should have:

    • Python3
    • bcftools
    • Snakemake
  • In any case some things are considered installed on the computer here, if it is not the case you must install them via conda or accessible by the user in an other way:

    • Java (for TIGER)
    • Perl (for TIGER)
    • R
  • Download git clone Stripes

  • Command to install the environnement

git clone
cd Stripes
conda create --name Stripes --file requirements.txt
source activate Stripes


The first step is to give to the pipeline the folders containing your data in the configuration file named config.yaml.

This pipeline need at least:

  • a pedigree file,
  • a VCF of the founders,
  • a table containing informations about the scaffolds (see example),
  • and the way to obtain BAM files for the F2 (either directy the BAMs or FASTQs + the reference genome)

Once the configuration file is set, launch the pipeline with:

snakemake -k -s scripts/Snakefile

NB: Creating the graph can take some time (more than 10 minutes for 900 individuals is still in the reasonnable range)


If you are using this pipeline in a scientific publication please cite:

Zan, Yanjun, Thibaut Payen, Mette Lillie, Christa Honaker, Paul B Siegel, and Örjan Carlborg. “Genotyping by Low-Coverage Whole-Genome Sequencing in Intercross Pedigrees from Outbred Founders: A Cost Efficient Approach.” BioRxiv, January 1, 2018, 421768.

As the inputation is made by TIGER also cite:

Rowan, B. A., Patel, V., Weigel, D., & Schneeberger, K. (2015). Rapid and inexpensive whole-genome genotyping-by-sequencing for crossover localization and fine-scale genetic mapping. G3: Genes, Genomes, Genetics, g3-114 ( )

Example data

This folder contains a small data set with 2 F2s on one chromosome and the files needed to run them.

Pipeline steps and files description

1 fastq2vcf

This part of the pipeline consist in the steps between fastqs input and a VCF containing all the individuals. The "calling" is based on the fact that reads are rare and just give a presence/absence of the REF/ALT allele.

2 vcf2individualGenotypes

This part use the previously computed VCF and the pedigree to create a file per F2 which trace the allele observed to one of the 2 divergent lines.

3 individualGenotypes2breaks

copied from with one modification to take the scaffold name correctly into account. The README contained in this folder explain the different steps for the inputation that have been automated and linked in the general Snakefile.

And after

The downstream analysis of this pipeline is described in

Comparison with existing methods

Why use Stripes ?

A lot of methods exists if you don't have a pedigree or for outbred populations, like using TIGER directy for example but to our knowledge Stripes is the only pipeline that take into account the pedigree and the fact that the populations are outbred to do QTL mapping using low-coverage data.


Genotyping by low-coverage whole-genome sequencing in intercross pedigrees from outbred founders




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