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/*
* Copyright (C) 2012-2015 Jorrit "Chainfire" Jongma
*
* Licensed under the Apache License, Version 2.0 (the "License");
* you may not use this file except in compliance with the License.
* You may obtain a copy of the License at
*
* http://www.apache.org/licenses/LICENSE-2.0
*
* Unless required by applicable law or agreed to in writing, software
* distributed under the License is distributed on an "AS IS" BASIS,
* WITHOUT WARRANTIES OR CONDITIONS OF ANY KIND, either express or implied.
* See the License for the specific language governing permissions and
* limitations under the License.
*/
package eu.chainfire.libsuperuser;
import android.os.Handler;
import android.os.Looper;
import java.io.DataOutputStream;
import java.io.File;
import java.io.FileInputStream;
import java.io.IOException;
import java.io.InputStream;
import java.lang.reflect.Method;
import java.util.ArrayList;
import java.util.Collections;
import java.util.HashMap;
import java.util.LinkedList;
import java.util.List;
import java.util.Locale;
import java.util.Map;
import java.util.UUID;
import java.util.concurrent.ScheduledThreadPoolExecutor;
import java.util.concurrent.TimeUnit;
import eu.chainfire.libsuperuser.StreamGobbler.OnLineListener;
/**
* Class providing functionality to execute commands in a (root) shell
*/
public class Shell {
/**
* <p>
* Runs commands using the supplied shell, and returns the output, or null
* in case of errors.
* </p>
* <p>
* This method is deprecated and only provided for backwards compatibility.
* Use {@link #run(String, String[], String[], boolean)} instead, and see
* that same method for usage notes.
* </p>
*
* @param shell The shell to use for executing the commands
* @param commands The commands to execute
* @param wantSTDERR Return STDERR in the output ?
* @return Output of the commands, or null in case of an error
*/
@Deprecated
public static List<String> run(String shell, String[] commands, boolean wantSTDERR) {
return run(shell, commands, null, wantSTDERR);
}
/**
* <p>
* Runs commands using the supplied shell, and returns the output, or null
* in case of errors.
* </p>
* <p>
* Note that due to compatibility with older Android versions, wantSTDERR is
* not implemented using redirectErrorStream, but rather appended to the
* output. STDOUT and STDERR are thus not guaranteed to be in the correct
* order in the output.
* </p>
* <p>
* Note as well that this code will intentionally crash when run in debug
* mode from the main thread of the application. You should always execute
* shell commands from a background thread.
* </p>
* <p>
* When in debug mode, the code will also excessively log the commands
* passed to and the output returned from the shell.
* </p>
* <p>
* Though this function uses background threads to gobble STDOUT and STDERR
* so a deadlock does not occur if the shell produces massive output, the
* output is still stored in a List&lt;String&gt;, and as such doing
* something like <em>'ls -lR /'</em> will probably have you run out of
* memory.
* </p>
*
* @param shell The shell to use for executing the commands
* @param commands The commands to execute
* @param environment List of all environment variables (in 'key=value'
* format) or null for defaults
* @param wantSTDERR Return STDERR in the output ?
* @return Output of the commands, or null in case of an error
*/
public static List<String> run(String shell, String[] commands, String[] environment,
boolean wantSTDERR) {
String shellUpper = shell.toUpperCase(Locale.ENGLISH);
if (Debug.getSanityChecksEnabledEffective() && Debug.onMainThread()) {
// check if we're running in the main thread, and if so, crash if
// we're in debug mode, to let the developer know attention is
// needed here.
Debug.log(ShellOnMainThreadException.EXCEPTION_COMMAND);
throw new ShellOnMainThreadException(ShellOnMainThreadException.EXCEPTION_COMMAND);
}
Debug.logCommand(String.format("[%s%%] START", shellUpper));
List<String> res = Collections.synchronizedList(new ArrayList<String>());
try {
// Combine passed environment with system environment
if (environment != null) {
Map<String, String> newEnvironment = new HashMap<String, String>();
newEnvironment.putAll(System.getenv());
int split;
for (String entry : environment) {
if ((split = entry.indexOf("=")) >= 0) {
newEnvironment.put(entry.substring(0, split), entry.substring(split + 1));
}
}
int i = 0;
environment = new String[newEnvironment.size()];
for (Map.Entry<String, String> entry : newEnvironment.entrySet()) {
environment[i] = entry.getKey() + "=" + entry.getValue();
i++;
}
}
// setup our process, retrieve STDIN stream, and STDOUT/STDERR
// gobblers
Process process = Runtime.getRuntime().exec(shell, environment);
DataOutputStream STDIN = new DataOutputStream(process.getOutputStream());
StreamGobbler STDOUT = new StreamGobbler(shellUpper + "-", process.getInputStream(),
res);
StreamGobbler STDERR = new StreamGobbler(shellUpper + "*", process.getErrorStream(),
wantSTDERR ? res : null);
// start gobbling and write our commands to the shell
STDOUT.start();
STDERR.start();
try {
for (String write : commands) {
Debug.logCommand(String.format("[%s+] %s", shellUpper, write));
STDIN.write((write + "\n").getBytes("UTF-8"));
STDIN.flush();
}
STDIN.write("exit\n".getBytes("UTF-8"));
STDIN.flush();
} catch (IOException e) {
if (e.getMessage().contains("EPIPE") || e.getMessage().contains("Stream closed")) {
// Method most horrid to catch broken pipe, in which case we
// do nothing. The command is not a shell, the shell closed
// STDIN, the script already contained the exit command, etc.
// these cases we want the output instead of returning null.
} else {
// other issues we don't know how to handle, leads to
// returning null
throw e;
}
}
// wait for our process to finish, while we gobble away in the
// background
process.waitFor();
// make sure our threads are done gobbling, our streams are closed,
// and the process is destroyed - while the latter two shouldn't be
// needed in theory, and may even produce warnings, in "normal" Java
// they are required for guaranteed cleanup of resources, so lets be
// safe and do this on Android as well
try {
STDIN.close();
} catch (IOException e) {
// might be closed already
}
STDOUT.join();
STDERR.join();
process.destroy();
// in case of su, 255 usually indicates access denied
if (SU.isSU(shell) && (process.exitValue() == 255)) {
res = null;
}
} catch (IOException e) {
// shell probably not found
res = null;
} catch (InterruptedException e) {
// this should really be re-thrown
res = null;
}
Debug.logCommand(String.format("[%s%%] END", shell.toUpperCase(Locale.ENGLISH)));
return res;
}
protected static String[] availableTestCommands = new String[]{
"echo -BOC-",
"id"
};
/**
* See if the shell is alive, and if so, check the UID
*
* @param ret Standard output from running availableTestCommands
* @param checkForRoot true if we are expecting this shell to be running as
* root
* @return true on success, false on error
*/
protected static boolean parseAvailableResult(List<String> ret, boolean checkForRoot) {
if (ret == null)
return false;
// this is only one of many ways this can be done
boolean echo_seen = false;
for (String line : ret) {
if (line.contains("uid=")) {
// id command is working, let's see if we are actually root
return !checkForRoot || line.contains("uid=0");
} else if (line.contains("-BOC-")) {
// if we end up here, at least the su command starts some kind
// of shell, let's hope it has root privileges - no way to know without
// additional native binaries
echo_seen = true;
}
}
return echo_seen;
}
/**
* This class provides utility functions to easily execute commands using SH
*/
public static class SH {
/**
* Runs command and return output
*
* @param command The command to run
* @return Output of the command, or null in case of an error
*/
public static List<String> run(String command) {
return Shell.run("sh", new String[]{
command
}, null, false);
}
/**
* Runs commands and return output
*
* @param commands The commands to run
* @return Output of the commands, or null in case of an error
*/
public static List<String> run(List<String> commands) {
return Shell.run("sh", commands.toArray(new String[commands.size()]), null, false);
}
/**
* Runs commands and return output
*
* @param commands The commands to run
* @return Output of the commands, or null in case of an error
*/
public static List<String> run(String[] commands) {
return Shell.run("sh", commands, null, false);
}
}
/**
* This class provides utility functions to easily execute commands using SU
* (root shell), as well as detecting whether or not root is available, and
* if so which version.
*/
public static class SU {
private static Boolean isSELinuxEnforcing = null;
private static String[] suVersion = new String[]{
null, null
};
/**
* Runs command as root (if available) and return output
*
* @param command The command to run
* @return Output of the command, or null if root isn't available or in
* case of an error
*/
public static List<String> run(String command) {
return Shell.run("su", new String[]{
command
}, null, false);
}
/**
* Runs commands as root (if available) and return output
*
* @param commands The commands to run
* @return Output of the commands, or null if root isn't available or in
* case of an error
*/
public static List<String> run(List<String> commands) {
return Shell.run("su", commands.toArray(new String[commands.size()]), null, false);
}
/**
* Runs commands as root (if available) and return output
*
* @param commands The commands to run
* @return Output of the commands, or null if root isn't available or in
* case of an error
*/
public static List<String> run(String[] commands) {
return Shell.run("su", commands, null, false);
}
/**
* Detects whether or not superuser access is available, by checking the
* output of the "id" command if available, checking if a shell runs at
* all otherwise
*
* @return True if superuser access available
*/
public static boolean available() {
// this is only one of many ways this can be done
List<String> ret = run(Shell.availableTestCommands);
return Shell.parseAvailableResult(ret, true);
}
/**
* <p>
* Detects the version of the su binary installed (if any), if supported
* by the binary. Most binaries support two different version numbers,
* the public version that is displayed to users, and an internal
* version number that is used for version number comparisons. Returns
* null if su not available or retrieving the version isn't supported.
* </p>
* <p>
* Note that su binary version and GUI (APK) version can be completely
* different.
* </p>
* <p>
* This function caches its result to improve performance on multiple
* calls
* </p>
*
* @param internal Request human-readable version or application
* internal version
* @return String containing the su version or null
*/
public static synchronized String version(boolean internal) {
int idx = internal ? 0 : 1;
if (suVersion[idx] == null) {
String version = null;
List<String> ret = Shell.run(
internal ? "su -V" : "su -v",
new String[] { "exit" },
null,
false
);
if (ret != null) {
for (String line : ret) {
if (!internal) {
if (!line.trim().equals("")) {
version = line;
break;
}
} else {
try {
if (Integer.parseInt(line) > 0) {
version = line;
break;
}
} catch (NumberFormatException e) {
// should be parsable, try next line otherwise
}
}
}
}
suVersion[idx] = version;
}
return suVersion[idx];
}
/**
* Attempts to deduce if the shell command refers to a su shell
*
* @param shell Shell command to run
* @return Shell command appears to be su
*/
public static boolean isSU(String shell) {
// Strip parameters
int pos = shell.indexOf(' ');
if (pos >= 0) {
shell = shell.substring(0, pos);
}
// Strip path
pos = shell.lastIndexOf('/');
if (pos >= 0) {
shell = shell.substring(pos + 1);
}
return shell.equals("su");
}
/**
* Constructs a shell command to start a su shell using the supplied uid
* and SELinux context. This is can be an expensive operation, consider
* caching the result.
*
* @param uid Uid to use (0 == root)
* @param context (SELinux) context name to use or null
* @return Shell command
*/
public static String shell(int uid, String context) {
// su[ --context <context>][ <uid>]
String shell = "su";
if ((context != null) && isSELinuxEnforcing()) {
String display = version(false);
String internal = version(true);
// We only know the format for SuperSU v1.90+ right now
//TODO add detection for other su's that support this
if ((display != null) &&
(internal != null) &&
(display.endsWith("SUPERSU")) &&
(Integer.valueOf(internal) >= 190)) {
shell = String.format(Locale.ENGLISH, "%s --context %s", shell, context);
}
}
// Most su binaries support the "su <uid>" format, but in case
// they don't, lets skip it for the default 0 (root) case
if (uid > 0) {
shell = String.format(Locale.ENGLISH, "%s %d", shell, uid);
}
return shell;
}
/**
* Constructs a shell command to start a su shell connected to mount
* master daemon, to perform public mounts on Android 4.3+ (or 4.2+ in
* SELinux enforcing mode)
*
* @return Shell command
*/
public static String shellMountMaster() {
if (android.os.Build.VERSION.SDK_INT >= 17) {
return "su --mount-master";
}
return "su";
}
/**
* Detect if SELinux is set to enforcing, caches result
*
* @return true if SELinux set to enforcing, or false in the case of
* permissive or not present
*/
public static synchronized boolean isSELinuxEnforcing() {
if (isSELinuxEnforcing == null) {
Boolean enforcing = null;
// First known firmware with SELinux built-in was a 4.2 (17)
// leak
if (android.os.Build.VERSION.SDK_INT >= 17) {
// Detect enforcing through sysfs, not always present
File f = new File("/sys/fs/selinux/enforce");
if (f.exists()) {
try {
InputStream is = new FileInputStream("/sys/fs/selinux/enforce");
try {
enforcing = (is.read() == '1');
} finally {
is.close();
}
} catch (Exception e) {
// we might not be allowed to read, thanks SELinux
}
}
// 4.4+ has a new API to detect SELinux mode, so use it
// SELinux is typically in enforced mode, but emulators may have SELinux disabled
if (enforcing == null) {
try {
Class seLinux = Class.forName("android.os.SELinux");
Method isSELinuxEnforced = seLinux.getMethod("isSELinuxEnforced");
enforcing = (Boolean) isSELinuxEnforced.invoke(seLinux.newInstance());
} catch (Exception e) {
// 4.4+ release builds are enforcing by default, take the gamble
enforcing = (android.os.Build.VERSION.SDK_INT >= 19);
}
}
}
if (enforcing == null) {
enforcing = false;
}
isSELinuxEnforcing = enforcing;
}
return isSELinuxEnforcing;
}
/**
* <p>
* Clears results cached by isSELinuxEnforcing() and version(boolean
* internal) calls.
* </p>
* <p>
* Most apps should never need to call this, as neither enforcing status
* nor su version is likely to change on a running device - though it is
* not impossible.
* </p>
*/
public static synchronized void clearCachedResults() {
isSELinuxEnforcing = null;
suVersion[0] = null;
suVersion[1] = null;
}
}
private interface OnResult {
// for any onCommandResult callback
int WATCHDOG_EXIT = -1;
int SHELL_DIED = -2;
// for Interactive.open() callbacks only
int SHELL_EXEC_FAILED = -3;
int SHELL_WRONG_UID = -4;
int SHELL_RUNNING = 0;
}
/**
* Command result callback, notifies the recipient of the completion of a
* command block, including the (last) exit code, and the full output
*/
public interface OnCommandResultListener extends OnResult {
/**
* <p>
* Command result callback
* </p>
* <p>
* Depending on how and on which thread the shell was created, this
* callback may be executed on one of the gobbler threads. In that case,
* it is important the callback returns as quickly as possible, as
* delays in this callback may pause the native process or even result
* in a deadlock
* </p>
* <p>
* See {@link Shell.Interactive} for threading details
* </p>
*
* @param commandCode Value previously supplied to addCommand
* @param exitCode Exit code of the last command in the block
* @param output All output generated by the command block
*/
void onCommandResult(int commandCode, int exitCode, List<String> output);
}
/**
* Command per line callback for parsing the output line by line without
* buffering It also notifies the recipient of the completion of a command
* block, including the (last) exit code.
*/
public interface OnCommandLineListener extends OnResult, OnLineListener {
/**
* <p>
* Command result callback
* </p>
* <p>
* Depending on how and on which thread the shell was created, this
* callback may be executed on one of the gobbler threads. In that case,
* it is important the callback returns as quickly as possible, as
* delays in this callback may pause the native process or even result
* in a deadlock
* </p>
* <p>
* See {@link Shell.Interactive} for threading details
* </p>
*
* @param commandCode Value previously supplied to addCommand
* @param exitCode Exit code of the last command in the block
*/
void onCommandResult(int commandCode, int exitCode);
}
/**
* Internal class to store command block properties
*/
private static class Command {
private static int commandCounter = 0;
private final String[] commands;
private final int code;
private final OnCommandResultListener onCommandResultListener;
private final OnCommandLineListener onCommandLineListener;
private final String marker;
public Command(String[] commands, int code,
OnCommandResultListener onCommandResultListener,
OnCommandLineListener onCommandLineListener) {
this.commands = commands;
this.code = code;
this.onCommandResultListener = onCommandResultListener;
this.onCommandLineListener = onCommandLineListener;
this.marker = UUID.randomUUID().toString() + String.format("-%08x", ++commandCounter);
}
}
/**
* Builder class for {@link Shell.Interactive}
*/
public static class Builder {
private Handler handler = null;
private boolean autoHandler = true;
private String shell = "sh";
private boolean wantSTDERR = false;
private List<Command> commands = new LinkedList<Command>();
private Map<String, String> environment = new HashMap<String, String>();
private OnLineListener onSTDOUTLineListener = null;
private OnLineListener onSTDERRLineListener = null;
private int watchdogTimeout = 0;
/**
* <p>
* Set a custom handler that will be used to post all callbacks to
* </p>
* <p>
* See {@link Shell.Interactive} for further details on threading and
* handlers
* </p>
*
* @param handler Handler to use
* @return This Builder object for method chaining
*/
public Builder setHandler(Handler handler) {
this.handler = handler;
return this;
}
/**
* <p>
* Automatically create a handler if possible ? Default to true
* </p>
* <p>
* See {@link Shell.Interactive} for further details on threading and
* handlers
* </p>
*
* @param autoHandler Auto-create handler ?
* @return This Builder object for method chaining
*/
public Builder setAutoHandler(boolean autoHandler) {
this.autoHandler = autoHandler;
return this;
}
/**
* Set shell binary to use. Usually "sh" or "su", do not use a full path
* unless you have a good reason to
*
* @param shell Shell to use
* @return This Builder object for method chaining
*/
public Builder setShell(String shell) {
this.shell = shell;
return this;
}
/**
* Convenience function to set "sh" as used shell
*
* @return This Builder object for method chaining
*/
public Builder useSH() {
return setShell("sh");
}
/**
* Convenience function to set "su" as used shell
*
* @return This Builder object for method chaining
*/
public Builder useSU() {
return setShell("su");
}
/**
* Set if error output should be appended to command block result output
*
* @param wantSTDERR Want error output ?
* @return This Builder object for method chaining
*/
public Builder setWantSTDERR(boolean wantSTDERR) {
this.wantSTDERR = wantSTDERR;
return this;
}
/**
* Add or update an environment variable
*
* @param key Key of the environment variable
* @param value Value of the environment variable
* @return This Builder object for method chaining
*/
public Builder addEnvironment(String key, String value) {
environment.put(key, value);
return this;
}
/**
* Add or update environment variables
*
* @param addEnvironment Map of environment variables
* @return This Builder object for method chaining
*/
public Builder addEnvironment(Map<String, String> addEnvironment) {
environment.putAll(addEnvironment);
return this;
}
/**
* Add a command to execute
*
* @param command Command to execute
* @return This Builder object for method chaining
*/
public Builder addCommand(String command) {
return addCommand(command, 0, null);
}
/**
* <p>
* Add a command to execute, with a callback to be called on completion
* </p>
* <p>
* The thread on which the callback executes is dependent on various
* factors, see {@link Shell.Interactive} for further details
* </p>
*
* @param command Command to execute
* @param code User-defined value passed back to the callback
* @param onCommandResultListener Callback to be called on completion
* @return This Builder object for method chaining
*/
public Builder addCommand(String command, int code,
OnCommandResultListener onCommandResultListener) {
return addCommand(new String[]{
command
}, code, onCommandResultListener);
}
/**
* Add commands to execute
*
* @param commands Commands to execute
* @return This Builder object for method chaining
*/
public Builder addCommand(List<String> commands) {
return addCommand(commands, 0, null);
}
/**
* <p>
* Add commands to execute, with a callback to be called on completion
* (of all commands)
* </p>
* <p>
* The thread on which the callback executes is dependent on various
* factors, see {@link Shell.Interactive} for further details
* </p>
*
* @param commands Commands to execute
* @param code User-defined value passed back to the callback
* @param onCommandResultListener Callback to be called on completion
* (of all commands)
* @return This Builder object for method chaining
*/
public Builder addCommand(List<String> commands, int code,
OnCommandResultListener onCommandResultListener) {
return addCommand(commands.toArray(new String[commands.size()]), code,
onCommandResultListener);
}
/**
* Add commands to execute
*
* @param commands Commands to execute
* @return This Builder object for method chaining
*/
public Builder addCommand(String[] commands) {
return addCommand(commands, 0, null);
}
/**
* <p>
* Add commands to execute, with a callback to be called on completion
* (of all commands)
* </p>
* <p>
* The thread on which the callback executes is dependent on various
* factors, see {@link Shell.Interactive} for further details
* </p>
*
* @param commands Commands to execute
* @param code User-defined value passed back to the callback
* @param onCommandResultListener Callback to be called on completion
* (of all commands)
* @return This Builder object for method chaining
*/
public Builder addCommand(String[] commands, int code,
OnCommandResultListener onCommandResultListener) {
this.commands.add(new Command(commands, code, onCommandResultListener, null));
return this;
}
/**
* <p>
* Set a callback called for every line output to STDOUT by the shell
* </p>
* <p>
* The thread on which the callback executes is dependent on various
* factors, see {@link Shell.Interactive} for further details
* </p>
*
* @param onLineListener Callback to be called for each line
* @return This Builder object for method chaining
*/
public Builder setOnSTDOUTLineListener(OnLineListener onLineListener) {
this.onSTDOUTLineListener = onLineListener;
return this;
}
/**
* <p>
* Set a callback called for every line output to STDERR by the shell
* </p>
* <p>
* The thread on which the callback executes is dependent on various
* factors, see {@link Shell.Interactive} for further details
* </p>
*
* @param onLineListener Callback to be called for each line
* @return This Builder object for method chaining
*/
public Builder setOnSTDERRLineListener(OnLineListener onLineListener) {
this.onSTDERRLineListener = onLineListener;
return this;
}
/**
* <p>
* Enable command timeout callback
* </p>
* <p>
* This will invoke the onCommandResult() callback with exitCode
* WATCHDOG_EXIT if a command takes longer than watchdogTimeout seconds
* to complete.
* </p>
* <p>
* If a watchdog timeout occurs, it generally means that the Interactive
* session is out of sync with the shell process. The caller should
* close the current session and open a new one.
* </p>
*
* @param watchdogTimeout Timeout, in seconds; 0 to disable
* @return This Builder object for method chaining
*/
public Builder setWatchdogTimeout(int watchdogTimeout) {
this.watchdogTimeout = watchdogTimeout;
return this;
}
/**
* <p>
* Enable/disable reduced logcat output
* </p>
* <p>
* Note that this is a global setting
* </p>
*
* @param useMinimal true for reduced output, false for full output
* @return This Builder object for method chaining
*/
public Builder setMinimalLogging(boolean useMinimal) {
Debug.setLogTypeEnabled(Debug.LOG_COMMAND | Debug.LOG_OUTPUT, !useMinimal);
return this;
}
/**
* Construct a {@link Shell.Interactive} instance, and start the shell
*
* @return Interactive shell
*/
public Interactive open() {
return new Interactive(this, null);
}
/**
* Construct a {@link Shell.Interactive} instance, try to start the
* shell, and call onCommandResultListener to report success or failure
*
* @param onCommandResultListener Callback to return shell open status
* @return Interactive shell
*/
public Interactive open(OnCommandResultListener onCommandResultListener) {
return new Interactive(this, onCommandResultListener);
}
}
/**
* <p>
* An interactive shell - initially created with {@link Shell.Builder} -
* that executes blocks of commands you supply in the background, optionally
* calling callbacks as each block completes.
* </p>
* <p>
* STDERR output can be supplied as well, but due to compatibility with
* older Android versions, wantSTDERR is not implemented using
* redirectErrorStream, but rather appended to the output. STDOUT and STDERR
* are thus not guaranteed to be in the correct order in the output.
* </p>
* <p>
* Note as well that the close() and waitForIdle() methods will
* intentionally crash when run in debug mode from the main thread of the
* application. Any blocking call should be run from a background thread.
* </p>
* <p>
* When in debug mode, the code will also excessively log the commands
* passed to and the output returned from the shell.
* </p>
* <p>
* Though this function uses background threads to gobble STDOUT and STDERR
* so a deadlock does not occur if the shell produces massive output, the
* output is still stored in a List&lt;String&gt;, and as such doing
* something like <em>'ls -lR /'</em> will probably have you run out of
* memory when using a {@link Shell.OnCommandResultListener}. A work-around
* is to not supply this callback, but using (only)
* {@link Shell.Builder#setOnSTDOUTLineListener(OnLineListener)}. This way,
* an internal buffer will not be created and wasting your memory.
* </p>
* <h3>Callbacks, threads and handlers</h3>
* <p>
* On which thread the callbacks execute is dependent on your
* initialization. You can supply a custom Handler using
* {@link Shell.Builder#setHandler(Handler)} if needed. If you do not supply
* a custom Handler - unless you set
* {@link Shell.Builder#setAutoHandler(boolean)} to false - a Handler will
* be auto-created if the thread used for instantiation of the object has a
* Looper.
* </p>
* <p>
* If no Handler was supplied and it was also not auto-created, all
* callbacks will be called from either the STDOUT or STDERR gobbler
* threads. These are important threads that should be blocked as little as
* possible, as blocking them may in rare cases pause the native process or
* even create a deadlock.
* </p>
* <p>
* The main thread must certainly have a Looper, thus if you call
* {@link Shell.Builder#open()} from the main thread, a handler will (by
* default) be auto-created, and all the callbacks will be called on the
* main thread. While this is often convenient and easy to code with, you
* should be aware that if your callbacks are 'expensive' to execute, this
* may negatively impact UI performance.
* </p>
* <p>
* Background threads usually do <em>not</em> have a Looper, so calling
* {@link Shell.Builder#open()} from such a background thread will (by
* default) result in all the callbacks being executed in one of the gobbler
* threads. You will have to make sure the code you execute in these
* callbacks is thread-safe.
* </p>
*/
public static class Interactive {
private final Handler handler;
private final boolean autoHandler;
private final String shell;
private final boolean wantSTDERR;
private final List<Command> commands;
private final Map<String, String> environment;
private final OnLineListener onSTDOUTLineListener;
private final OnLineListener onSTDERRLineListener;
private int watchdogTimeout;
private Process process = null;
private DataOutputStream STDIN = null;
private StreamGobbler STDOUT = null;
private StreamGobbler STDERR = null;
private ScheduledThreadPoolExecutor watchdog = null;
private volatile boolean running = false;
private volatile boolean idle = true; // read/write only synchronized
private volatile boolean closed = true;
private volatile int callbacks = 0;
private volatile int watchdogCount;
private final Object idleSync = new Object();
private final Object callbackSync = new Object();
private volatile int lastExitCode = 0;
private volatile String lastMarkerSTDOUT = null;
private volatile String lastMarkerSTDERR = null;
private volatile Command command = null;
private volatile List<String> buffer = null;
/**
* The only way to create an instance: Shell.Builder::open()
*
* @param builder Builder class to take values from
*/
private Interactive(final Builder builder,
final OnCommandResultListener onCommandResultListener) {
autoHandler = builder.autoHandler;
shell = builder.shell;
wantSTDERR = builder.wantSTDERR;
commands = builder.commands;
environment = builder.environment;
onSTDOUTLineListener = builder.onSTDOUTLineListener;
onSTDERRLineListener = builder.onSTDERRLineListener;
watchdogTimeout = builder.watchdogTimeout;
// If a looper is available, we offload the callbacks from the
// gobbling threads
// to whichever thread created us. Would normally do this in open(),
// but then we could not declare handler as final
if ((Looper.myLooper() != null) && (builder.handler == null) && autoHandler) {
handler = new Handler();
} else {
handler = builder.handler;
}
if (onCommandResultListener != null) {
// Allow up to 60 seconds for SuperSU/Superuser dialog, then enable
// the user-specified timeout for all subsequent operations
watchdogTimeout = 60;
commands.add(0, new Command(Shell.availableTestCommands, 0, new OnCommandResultListener() {
public void onCommandResult(int commandCode, int exitCode, List<String> output) {
if ((exitCode == OnCommandResultListener.SHELL_RUNNING) &&
!Shell.parseAvailableResult(output, Shell.SU.isSU(shell))) {
// shell is up, but it's brain-damaged
exitCode = OnCommandResultListener.SHELL_WRONG_UID;
}
watchdogTimeout = builder.watchdogTimeout;
onCommandResultListener.onCommandResult(0, exitCode, output);
}
}, null));
}
if (!open() && (onCommandResultListener != null)) {
onCommandResultListener.onCommandResult(0,
OnCommandResultListener.SHELL_EXEC_FAILED, null);
}
}
@Override
protected void finalize() throws Throwable {
if (!closed && Debug.getSanityChecksEnabledEffective()) {
// waste of resources
Debug.log(ShellNotClosedException.EXCEPTION_NOT_CLOSED);
throw new ShellNotClosedException();
}
super.finalize();
}
/**
* Add a command to execute
*
* @param command Command to execute
*/
public void addCommand(String command) {
addCommand(command, 0, (OnCommandResultListener) null);
}
/**
* <p>
* Add a command to execute, with a callback to be called on completion
* </p>
* <p>
* The thread on which the callback executes is dependent on various
* factors, see {@link Shell.Interactive} for further details
* </p>
*
* @param command Command to execute
* @param code User-defined value passed back to the callback
* @param onCommandResultListener Callback to be called on completion
*/
public void addCommand(String command, int code,
OnCommandResultListener onCommandResultListener) {
addCommand(new String[]{
command
}, code, onCommandResultListener);
}
/**
* <p>
* Add a command to execute, with a callback. This callback gobbles the
* output line by line without buffering it and also returns the result
* code on completion.
* </p>
* <p>
* The thread on which the callback executes is dependent on various
* factors, see {@link Shell.Interactive} for further details
* </p>
*
* @param command Command to execute
* @param code User-defined value passed back to the callback
* @param onCommandLineListener Callback
*/
public void addCommand(String command, int code, OnCommandLineListener onCommandLineListener) {
addCommand(new String[]{
command
}, code, onCommandLineListener);
}
/**
* Add commands to execute
*
* @param commands Commands to execute
*/
public void addCommand(List<String> commands) {
addCommand(commands, 0, (OnCommandResultListener) null);
}
/**
* <p>
* Add commands to execute, with a callback to be called on completion
* (of all commands)
* </p>
* <p>
* The thread on which the callback executes is dependent on various
* factors, see {@link Shell.Interactive} for further details
* </p>
*
* @param commands Commands to execute
* @param code User-defined value passed back to the callback
* @param onCommandResultListener Callback to be called on completion
* (of all commands)
*/
public void addCommand(List<String> commands, int code,
OnCommandResultListener onCommandResultListener) {
addCommand(commands.toArray(new String[commands.size()]), code, onCommandResultListener);
}
/**
* <p>
* Add commands to execute, with a callback. This callback gobbles the
* output line by line without buffering it and also returns the result
* code on completion.
* </p>
* <p>
* The thread on which the callback executes is dependent on various
* factors, see {@link Shell.Interactive} for further details
* </p>
*
* @param commands Commands to execute
* @param code User-defined value passed back to the callback
* @param onCommandLineListener Callback
*/
public void addCommand(List<String> commands, int code,
OnCommandLineListener onCommandLineListener) {
addCommand(commands.toArray(new String[commands.size()]), code, onCommandLineListener);
}
/**
* Add commands to execute
*
* @param commands Commands to execute
*/
public void addCommand(String[] commands) {
addCommand(commands, 0, (OnCommandResultListener) null);
}
/**
* <p>
* Add commands to execute, with a callback to be called on completion
* (of all commands)
* </p>
* <p>
* The thread on which the callback executes is dependent on various
* factors, see {@link Shell.Interactive} for further details
* </p>
*
* @param commands Commands to execute
* @param code User-defined value passed back to the callback
* @param onCommandResultListener Callback to be called on completion
* (of all commands)
*/
public synchronized void addCommand(String[] commands, int code,
OnCommandResultListener onCommandResultListener) {
this.commands.add(new Command(commands, code, onCommandResultListener, null));
runNextCommand();
}
/**
* <p>
* Add commands to execute, with a callback. This callback gobbles the
* output line by line without buffering it and also returns the result
* code on completion.
* </p>
* <p>
* The thread on which the callback executes is dependent on various
* factors, see {@link Shell.Interactive} for further details
* </p>
*
* @param commands Commands to execute
* @param code User-defined value passed back to the callback
* @param onCommandLineListener Callback
*/
public synchronized void addCommand(String[] commands, int code,
OnCommandLineListener onCommandLineListener) {
this.commands.add(new Command(commands, code, null, onCommandLineListener));
runNextCommand();
}
/**
* Run the next command if any and if ready, signals idle state if no
* commands left
*/
private void runNextCommand() {
runNextCommand(true);
}
/**
* Called from a ScheduledThreadPoolExecutor timer thread every second
* when there is an outstanding command
*/
private synchronized void handleWatchdog() {
final int exitCode;
if (watchdog == null)
return;
if (watchdogTimeout == 0)
return;
if (!isRunning()) {
exitCode = OnCommandResultListener.SHELL_DIED;
Debug.log(String.format("[%s%%] SHELL_DIED", shell.toUpperCase(Locale.ENGLISH)));
} else if (watchdogCount++ < watchdogTimeout) {
return;
} else {
exitCode = OnCommandResultListener.WATCHDOG_EXIT;
Debug.log(String.format("[%s%%] WATCHDOG_EXIT", shell.toUpperCase(Locale.ENGLISH)));
}
postCallback(command, exitCode, buffer);
// prevent multiple callbacks for the same command
command = null;
buffer = null;
idle = true;
watchdog.shutdown();
watchdog = null;
kill();
}
/**
* Start the periodic timer when a command is submitted
*/
private void startWatchdog() {
if (watchdogTimeout == 0) {
return;
}
watchdogCount = 0;
watchdog = new ScheduledThreadPoolExecutor(1);
watchdog.scheduleAtFixedRate(new Runnable() {
@Override
public void run() {
handleWatchdog();
}
}, 1, 1, TimeUnit.SECONDS);
}
/**
* Disable the watchdog timer upon command completion
*/
private void stopWatchdog() {
if (watchdog != null) {
watchdog.shutdownNow();
watchdog = null;
}
}
/**
* Run the next command if any and if ready
*
* @param notifyIdle signals idle state if no commands left ?
*/
private void runNextCommand(boolean notifyIdle) {
// must always be called from a synchronized method
boolean running = isRunning();
if (!running)
idle = true;
if (running && idle && (commands.size() > 0)) {
Command command = commands.get(0);
commands.remove(0);
buffer = null;
lastExitCode = 0;
lastMarkerSTDOUT = null;
lastMarkerSTDERR = null;
if (command.commands.length > 0) {
try {
if (command.onCommandResultListener != null) {
// no reason to store the output if we don't have an
// OnCommandResultListener
// user should catch the output with an
// OnLineListener in this case
buffer = Collections.synchronizedList(new ArrayList<String>());
}
idle = false;
this.command = command;
startWatchdog();
for (String write : command.commands) {
Debug.logCommand(String.format("[%s+] %s",
shell.toUpperCase(Locale.ENGLISH), write));
STDIN.write((write + "\n").getBytes("UTF-8"));
}
STDIN.write(("echo " + command.marker + " $?\n").getBytes("UTF-8"));
STDIN.write(("echo " + command.marker + " >&2\n").getBytes("UTF-8"));
STDIN.flush();
} catch (IOException e) {
// STDIN might have closed
}
} else {
runNextCommand(false);
}
} else if (!running) {
// our shell died for unknown reasons - abort all submissions
while (commands.size() > 0) {
postCallback(commands.remove(0), OnCommandResultListener.SHELL_DIED, null);
}
}
if (idle && notifyIdle) {
synchronized (idleSync) {
idleSync.notifyAll();
}
}
}
/**
* Processes a STDOUT/STDERR line containing an end/exitCode marker
*/
private synchronized void processMarker() {
if (command.marker.equals(lastMarkerSTDOUT)
&& (command.marker.equals(lastMarkerSTDERR))) {
postCallback(command, lastExitCode, buffer);
stopWatchdog();
command = null;
buffer = null;
idle = true;
runNextCommand();
}
}
/**
* Process a normal STDOUT/STDERR line
*
* @param line Line to process
* @param listener Callback to call or null
*/
private synchronized void processLine(String line, OnLineListener listener) {
if (listener != null) {
if (handler != null) {
final String fLine = line;
final OnLineListener fListener = listener;
startCallback();
handler.post(new Runnable() {
@Override
public void run() {
try {
fListener.onLine(fLine);
} finally {
endCallback();
}
}
});
} else {
listener.onLine(line);
}
}
}
/**
* Add line to internal buffer
*
* @param line Line to add
*/
private synchronized void addBuffer(String line) {
if (buffer != null) {
buffer.add(line);
}
}
/**
* Increase callback counter
*/
private void startCallback() {
synchronized (callbackSync) {
callbacks++;
}
}
/**
* Schedule a callback to run on the appropriate thread
*/
private void postCallback(final Command fCommand, final int fExitCode,
final List<String> fOutput) {
if (fCommand.onCommandResultListener == null && fCommand.onCommandLineListener == null) {
return;
}
if (handler == null) {
if (fCommand.onCommandResultListener != null)
fCommand.onCommandResultListener.onCommandResult(fCommand.code, fExitCode,
fOutput);
if (fCommand.onCommandLineListener != null)
fCommand.onCommandLineListener.onCommandResult(fCommand.code, fExitCode);
return;
}
startCallback();
handler.post(new Runnable() {
@Override
public void run() {
try {
if (fCommand.onCommandResultListener != null)
fCommand.onCommandResultListener.onCommandResult(fCommand.code,
fExitCode, fOutput);
if (fCommand.onCommandLineListener != null)
fCommand.onCommandLineListener
.onCommandResult(fCommand.code, fExitCode);
} finally {
endCallback();
}
}
});
}
/**
* Decrease callback counter, signals callback complete state when
* dropped to 0
*/
private void endCallback() {
synchronized (callbackSync) {
callbacks--;
if (callbacks == 0) {
callbackSync.notifyAll();
}
}
}
/**
* Internal call that launches the shell, starts gobbling, and starts
* executing commands. See {@link Shell.Interactive}
*
* @return Opened successfully ?
*/
private synchronized boolean open() {
Debug.log(String.format("[%s%%] START", shell.toUpperCase(Locale.ENGLISH)));
try {
// setup our process, retrieve STDIN stream, and STDOUT/STDERR
// gobblers
if (environment.size() == 0) {
process = Runtime.getRuntime().exec(shell);
} else {
Map<String, String> newEnvironment = new HashMap<String, String>();
newEnvironment.putAll(System.getenv());
newEnvironment.putAll(environment);
int i = 0;
String[] env = new String[newEnvironment.size()];
for (Map.Entry<String, String> entry : newEnvironment.entrySet()) {
env[i] = entry.getKey() + "=" + entry.getValue();
i++;
}
process = Runtime.getRuntime().exec(shell, env);
}
STDIN = new DataOutputStream(process.getOutputStream());
STDOUT = new StreamGobbler(shell.toUpperCase(Locale.ENGLISH) + "-",
process.getInputStream(), new OnLineListener() {
@Override
public void onLine(String line) {
synchronized (Interactive.this) {
if (command == null) {
return;
}
String contentPart = line;
String markerPart = null;
int markerIndex = line.indexOf(command.marker);
if (markerIndex == 0) {
contentPart = null;
markerPart = line;
} else if (markerIndex > 0) {
contentPart = line.substring(0, markerIndex);
markerPart = line.substring(markerIndex);
}
if (contentPart != null) {
addBuffer(contentPart);
processLine(contentPart, onSTDOUTLineListener);
processLine(contentPart, command.onCommandLineListener);
}
if (markerPart != null) {
try {
lastExitCode = Integer.valueOf(
markerPart.substring(command.marker.length() + 1), 10);
} catch (Exception e) {
// this really shouldn't happen
e.printStackTrace();
}
lastMarkerSTDOUT = command.marker;
processMarker();
}
}
}
});
STDERR = new StreamGobbler(shell.toUpperCase(Locale.ENGLISH) + "*",
process.getErrorStream(), new OnLineListener() {
@Override
public void onLine(String line) {
synchronized (Interactive.this) {
if (command == null) {
return;
}
String contentPart = line;
int markerIndex = line.indexOf(command.marker);
if (markerIndex == 0) {
contentPart = null;
} else if (markerIndex > 0) {
contentPart = line.substring(0, markerIndex);
}
if (contentPart != null) {
if (wantSTDERR)
addBuffer(contentPart);
processLine(contentPart, onSTDERRLineListener);
}
if (markerIndex >= 0) {
lastMarkerSTDERR = command.marker;
processMarker();
}
}
}
});
// start gobbling and write our commands to the shell
STDOUT.start();
STDERR.start();
running = true;
closed = false;
runNextCommand();
return true;
} catch (IOException e) {
// shell probably not found
return false;
}
}
/**
* Close shell and clean up all resources. Call this when you are done
* with the shell. If the shell is not idle (all commands completed) you
* should not call this method from the main UI thread because it may
* block for a long time. This method will intentionally crash your app
* (if in debug mode) if you try to do this anyway.
*/
public void close() {
boolean _idle = isIdle(); // idle must be checked synchronized
synchronized (this) {
if (!running)
return;
running = false;
closed = true;
}
// This method should not be called from the main thread unless the
// shell is idle and can be cleaned up with (minimal) waiting. Only
// throw in debug mode.
if (!_idle && Debug.getSanityChecksEnabledEffective() && Debug.onMainThread()) {
Debug.log(ShellOnMainThreadException.EXCEPTION_NOT_IDLE);
throw new ShellOnMainThreadException(ShellOnMainThreadException.EXCEPTION_NOT_IDLE);
}
if (!_idle)
waitForIdle();
try {
try {
STDIN.write(("exit\n").getBytes("UTF-8"));
STDIN.flush();
} catch (IOException e) {
if (e.getMessage().contains("EPIPE") || e.getMessage().contains("Stream closed")) {
// we're not running a shell, the shell closed STDIN,
// the script already contained the exit command, etc.
} else {
throw e;
}
}
// wait for our process to finish, while we gobble away in the
// background
process.waitFor();
// make sure our threads are done gobbling, our streams are
// closed, and the process is destroyed - while the latter two
// shouldn't be needed in theory, and may even produce warnings,
// in "normal" Java they are required for guaranteed cleanup of
// resources, so lets be safe and do this on Android as well
try {
STDIN.close();
} catch (IOException e) {
// STDIN going missing is no reason to abort
}
STDOUT.join();
STDERR.join();
stopWatchdog();
process.destroy();
} catch (IOException e) {
// various unforseen IO errors may still occur
} catch (InterruptedException e) {
// this should really be re-thrown
}
Debug.log(String.format("[%s%%] END", shell.toUpperCase(Locale.ENGLISH)));
}
/**
* Try to clean up as much as possible from a shell that's gotten itself
* wedged. Hopefully the StreamGobblers will croak on their own when the
* other side of the pipe is closed.
*/
public synchronized void kill() {
running = false;
closed = true;
try {
STDIN.close();
} catch (IOException e) {
// in case it was closed
}
try {
process.destroy();
} catch (Exception e) {
// in case it was already destroyed or can't be
}
idle = true;
synchronized (idleSync) {
idleSync.notifyAll();
}
}
/**
* Is our shell still running ?
*
* @return Shell running ?
*/
public boolean isRunning() {
if (process == null) {
return false;
}
try {
process.exitValue();
return false;
} catch (IllegalThreadStateException e) {
// if this is thrown, we're still running
}
return true;
}
/**
* Have all commands completed executing ?
*
* @return Shell idle ?
*/
public synchronized boolean isIdle() {
if (!isRunning()) {
idle = true;
synchronized (idleSync) {
idleSync.notifyAll();
}
}
return idle;
}
/**
* <p>
* Wait for idle state. As this is a blocking call, you should not call
* it from the main UI thread. If you do so and debug mode is enabled,
* this method will intentionally crash your app.
* </p>
* <p>
* If not interrupted, this method will not return until all commands
* have finished executing. Note that this does not necessarily mean
* that all the callbacks have fired yet.
* </p>
* <p>
* If no Handler is used, all callbacks will have been executed when
* this method returns. If a Handler is used, and this method is called
* from a different thread than associated with the Handler's Looper,
* all callbacks will have been executed when this method returns as
* well. If however a Handler is used but this method is called from the
* same thread as associated with the Handler's Looper, there is no way
* to know.
* </p>
* <p>
* In practice this means that in most simple cases all callbacks will
* have completed when this method returns, but if you actually depend
* on this behavior, you should make certain this is indeed the case.
* </p>
* <p>
* See {@link Shell.Interactive} for further details on threading and
* handlers
* </p>
*
* @return True if wait complete, false if wait interrupted
*/
public boolean waitForIdle() {
if (Debug.getSanityChecksEnabledEffective() && Debug.onMainThread()) {
Debug.log(ShellOnMainThreadException.EXCEPTION_WAIT_IDLE);
throw new ShellOnMainThreadException(ShellOnMainThreadException.EXCEPTION_WAIT_IDLE);
}
if (isRunning()) {
synchronized (idleSync) {
while (!idle) {
try {
idleSync.wait();
} catch (InterruptedException e) {
return false;
}
}
}
if ((handler != null) &&
(handler.getLooper() != null) &&
(handler.getLooper() != Looper.myLooper())) {
// If the callbacks are posted to a different thread than
// this one, we can wait until all callbacks have called
// before returning. If we don't use a Handler at all, the
// callbacks are already called before we get here. If we do
// use a Handler but we use the same Looper, waiting here
// would actually block the callbacks from being called
synchronized (callbackSync) {
while (callbacks > 0) {
try {
callbackSync.wait();
} catch (InterruptedException e) {
return false;
}
}
}
}
}
return true;
}
/**
* Are we using a Handler to post callbacks ?
*
* @return Handler used ?
*/
public boolean hasHandler() {
return (handler != null);
}
}
}