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# $Id: README.firmware,v 1.6 2003/09/30 07:05:56 obi Exp $
# This document describes the binary firmware (so called microcode) which
# is needed to have a functional MPEG2 chipset in a dbox2.
# Copyright (C) 2002-2003 Andreas Oberritter <>
# Permission is granted to copy, distribute and/or modify this document
# under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1.2
# or any later version published by the Free Software Foundation;
# with no Invariant Sections, no Front-Cover Texts, and no Back-Cover Texts.
# A copy of the license is included in common-licenses/FDL-1.2
# This document is distributed in the hope that it will be useful,
# but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of

Some drivers need to load binary firmware for the chips to operate.

Those are:
- avia_av (mpeg decoder, C-Cube AViA500/AViA600, "avia500.ux, avia600.ux")
- avia_gt (transport demux, C-Cube AViA-GTX/AViA-eNX, "ucode.bin")
- cam     (conditional access module, BetaResearch SEC, "cam-alpha.bin")

There are lots of different firmware versions available, but not every
difference is known. In fact, almost only the version numbers are known to be
different. See below for more about firmware versions.

Unfortunately, there is no official download location for them and - due to
unknown license terms - we can not provide these binaries next to the driver

However, there are several ways to get the firmware.

You can use the microcode extraction utility "ucodex" to recursively scan
directories for firmware. You can get it from CVS and build it by using the
commands listed below. You must have openssl development headers installed on
your system to succeed. "ucodex" has been tested on Linux and FreeBSD, but it
should work on any platform which has a c-compiler and openssl.

   cvs -z3 co hostapps
   cd hostapps
   cd ucodex
   make install

Syntax for execution is one of:
ucodex <filename>
ucodex <directory>


1. If you own a dbox2 which still has its original operating system or if you
   own a backup of it, then you can extract alle three files from it. See for details. This is the only way to get the cam
   firmware. Ensure that you have the latest and greatest version by doing a
   software update via cable or satellite before extracting. The current
   software version (2.01) contains the following firmware versions:
   avia500v110, avia600v022, cam_01_02_05[DEF], ucode_B107

2. Some other dvb receivers are equipped with the same mpeg chipset as the
   various versions of the dbox2. Some of them offer the possibility to perform
   software updates using a serial interface. For those, manufacturers provide
   updates to be downloaded via internet. Examples are:

   (avia500v093, ucode_0014)
   (avia600vb017, ucode_0014)
   (avia500v093, avia600vb028, ucode_001A)
   (avia500v093, avia600vb022, ucode_001A)

   These links are dead at the moment, but they are still on their web site,
   so maybe they will be working again in the future.

   You can still get the files from -> Downloads ->
   Micronik -> Firmware. Newer versions, at least up to 1.52a, contain the
   same microcodes as 1.33 does.

   (avia500v083, ucode_0014)
   (avia500v083, ucode_0013)

   There are some receivers which also use the AViA mpeg chipset. I do not
   remember which of them use it and my extraction utility fails. Detailed
   information and bugfixes are welcome.


   You can extract the zip or exe archives using "unzip". Usually they
   contain files with the extesion bin or hex. Just run "ucodex" to extract
   the firmware from them.

Supported firmware status:
   All versions are known to work, but some show strange effects when using
   AC-3 audio output. Using the latest versions (avia500v110, avia600vb028)
   is recommended.

   ucode_0013, ucode_0014:
   Known to work and hardware section filtering is supported.
   Special thanks go to PentaMedia ( for providing a GPL
   driver for the GTX chipset including almost no source code. They use ucode
   version 0014 which is therefore now built into our driver, too. It is used
   if no other firmware is provided on the filesystem.

   ucode_001A, ucode_B102, ucode_B107, ucode_B121:
   Known to work but hardware section filtering is not supported by the driver.

   All other ucode versions are currently not supported by the driver. Bugfixes
   and documentation are always welcome.

   All known firmware versions are supported by the driver. However, command
   handling is done in userspace, thus userspace applications might need to
   change some bits depending on the used firmware version.
   Version strings usually have one of three suffixes: D, E or F.
   Each suffix matches special series of smart cards:

   cam_xx_yy_zzD: betacrypt D .... .... ... Z,
                  Nagravision K02

   cam_xx_yy_zzE: betacrypt C .... .... ... Z,
                  Nagravision A02,
                  Nagravision S02,
                  Nagravision P02

   cam_xx_yy_zzF: betacrypt F .... .... ... Z

betacrypt is a trademark of BetaResearch GmbH Germany. Nagravision is a
trademark of Kudelski S.A. Switzerland. The names of actual companies and
products mentioned herein may be the trademarks of their respective owners.


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