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BLS Signature Scheme Specificiation

This document describes an instantiation of the BLS Signature Scheme as it will be used in the Chia blockchain. It still a draft and subject to change.

The curve used is BLS12-381 as described here. This spec is based off of zkcrypto/pairing spec, described in that link. The aggregation used is based on Boneh, Drijvers, Neven, with additional aggregation of aggregates, and signature division.

Multiplicative notation is used for all groups. G1 is used for public keys, and G2 is used for signatures. There are several other small differences with the rust pairing spec.


# BLS parameter, used to generate other parameters
x = -0xd201000000010000

# 381 bit prime defining the field Fq. q = (x - 1)2 ((x4 - x2 + 1) / 3) + x
q = 0x1a0111ea397fe69a4b1ba7b6434bacd764774b84f38512bf6730d2a0f6b0f6241eabfffeb153ffffb9feffffffffaaab

# Elliptic curve, G1 is the r-order subgroup of points on this curve
E: y^2 = x^3 + 4

# Twist of E, x and y are elements of Fq^2. G2 is the r-order subgroup of points this curve
"E'": y^2 = x^3 + 4(i+1)

# Generator for G1, consisting of x and y coordinates
gx = (0x17F1D3A73197D7942695638C4FA9AC0FC3688C4F9774B905A14E3A3F171BAC586C55E83FF97A1AEFFB3AF00ADB22C6BB)
gy = (0x08B3F481E3AAA0F1A09E30ED741D8AE4FCF5E095D5D00AF600DB18CB2C04B3EDD03CC744A2888AE40CAA232946C5E7E1)

# Generator for G2, consisting of x and y coordinates
g2x = (0x24aa2b2f08f0a91260805272dc51051c6e47ad4fa403b02b4510b647ae3d1770bac0326a805bbefd48056c8c121bdb8, 0x13e02b6052719f607dacd3a088274f65596bd0d09920b61ab5da61bbdc7f5049334cf11213945d57e5ac7d055d042b7e)
g2y =
(0xce5d527727d6e118cc9cdc6da2e351aadfd9baa8cbdd3a76d429a695160d12c923ac9cc3baca289e193548608b82801, 0x606c4a02ea734cc32acd2b02bc28b99cb3e287e85a763af267492ab572e99ab3f370d275cec1da1aaa9075ff05f79be)

# Order of G1, G2, and GT. r = (x4 - x2 + 1)
r = n = 0x73eda753299d7d483339d80809a1d80553bda402fffe5bfeffffffff00000001

# Cofactor by which to multiply points to map them to G1. (on to the r-torsion). h = (x - 1)2 / 3
h = 0x396C8C005555E1568C00AAAB0000AAAB

# Embedding degree of curve
k = 12

# Extension towers
Fq2: Fq(u) / (u2 - β) where β = -1.
Fq6: Fq2(v) / (v3 - ξ) where ξ = u + 1
Fq12: Fq6(w) / (w2 - γ) where γ = v


Pairing operation e

Performs an ate pairing between p and q, up to x.

  • input: g1 element p, g2 element q
  • output: Fq12 element


Shallue and van de Woestijne encoding of a field element to a curve point. Used for Fouque-Tibouchi hashing: 0 maps to the point at infinity.

  • input: Fq element
  • output: G1 or G2 element


Endormophism used to speed up cofactor multiplications in hashG2.

  • input: G1 element p
  • output: G2 element p2
# Twist is map from E -> E'
# Untwist is map From E' -> E
# Described in page 4 of "Efficient hash maps to G2 on BLS curves" by Budroni and Pintore.
return twist(qPowerFrobenius(untwist(p)))


Hash function with 256 bit outputs.

  • input: message m
  • output: 256 bit bytearray
return SHA256(m)


Hash function with 512 bit outputs.

  • input: message m
  • output: 512 bit bytearray
# 0 or 1 bytes are appended to each input
return hash256(m + 0) + hash256(m + 1)


Maps any string to a deterministic random point in G1.

  • input: message m
  • output: G1 element
h <- hash256(m)
t0 <- hash512(h + b"G1_0") % q
t1 <- hash512(h + b"G1_1") % q

p <- swEncode(t0) * swEncode(t1)

# Map to the r-torsion by raising to cofactor power
return p ^ h


Maps any string to a deterministic random point in G2.

  • input: message m
  • output: G2 element
h <- hash256(m)
t00 <- hash512(h + b"G2_0_c0") % q
t01 <- hash512(h + b"G2_0_c1") % q
t10 <- hash512(h + b"G2_1_c0") % q
t11 <- hash512(h + b"G2_1_c1") % q

t0 <- Fq2(t00, t01)
t1 <- Fq2(t10, t11)

p <- swEncode(t0) * swEncode(t1)

# Map to the r-torsion by raising to cofactor power
# Described in page 11 of "Efficient hash maps to G2 on BLS curves" by Budroni and Pintore.
x <- abs(x)
return p ^ (x^2 + x - 1) - psi(p ^ (x + 1)) + psi(psi(p ^ 2))


Maps a set of public keys into a list of m values.

  • input: G1 elements pks, number of outputs m
  • output: n 256bit integers T
pkHash <- hash256(pk.serialize() for pk in sorted pks)
return [(hash256(fourBytes(i) + pkHash) % n) for i in range(m)]



Creates a public/private keypair, using a seed s. Private keys are 255 bit integers, and public keys are G1 elements.

  • input: random seed s
  • output: field element in Zq, G1 element
# Perform an HMAC using hash256, and the following string as the key
sk <- hmac256(s, b"BLS private key seed") mod n
pk <- g1 ^ sk


Signs a message m with private key sk.

  • input: bytes m, Zq element sk
  • output: G2 element σ
σ <- hashG2(m) ^ sk


Verifies that a signature is valid, for a collection of public keys, messages, and exponents (aggInfo).

  • input:
    • G2 element σ
    • map((bytes m, G1 pk) -> Zn exponent) aggInfo
  • output: bool
if aggInfo is empty: return false
pks = []
ms = []
for each distinct messsageHash m in aggInfo:
    pkAgg <- 1
    for each pk grouped with m:
        pkAgg *= pk ^ aggInfo[(m, pk)]
return 1 == e(g1 ^ (q-1), σ) * prod e(pks[i], ms[i])


Aggregates multiple aggregate signatures into one signature. This also takes in an aggregationInfo object for each signature, and aggregates these into one. Simple or secure aggregation is used, depending on whether messages are all distinct or not.

  • input:
    • list of G2 elements: signatures
    • list of map((bytes m, G1 pk) -> Zn exponent) aggInfo
  • output:
    • G2 element σagg
    • map((bytes m, G1 pk) -> Zn exponent) newAggInfo
messageHashes <- [i.messageHashes for i in aggInfo]
publicKeys <- [i.pks for i in aggInfo]

collidingMessages <- messages that appear in more than one messageHashes list

if colidingMessages is empty:
    # If all messages are distinct, use simple aggregation
    sigAgg <- product([sig for sig in signatures])
    newAggInfo <- mergeInfos(aggInfo)
    return sigAgg, newAggInfo

collidingSigs <- signatures that contain collidingMessages
nonCollidingSigs <- remaining signatures
sortKeys <- all (message, publicKey) pairs in colliding groups

sort(sort_keys) # Sort first by message, then by pk
sortedPublicKeys <- [k[1] for k in sortKeys]
Ts <- hashPks(sortedPublicKeys, len(collidingSigs))

sigAgg <- product(collidingSigs[i] ^ Ts[i] for i in collidingSigs) * product(sig for sig in nonCollidingSigs)
newAggInfo = mergeInfos(aggInfos)
return (sigAgg, newAggInfo)


Divides one signature by a list of other signatures. This removes them from the dividend signature, so that verifying the resulting signature, does not verify any of the divisor signatures. This is useful for optimizing the verification speed of an aggregate signature.

  • input:
    • Divident signature: dividendSig
    • map((bytes m, G1 pk) -> Zn exponent) dividendAggInfo
    • Divisor signatures: divisorSigs
    • list of map((bytes m, G1 pk) -> Zn exponent) divisorsAggInfo
  • output:
    • G2 element σagg
    • map((bytes m, G1 pk) -> Zn exponent) newAggInfo
messageHashesToRemove <- []
pubKeysToRemove <- []
prod <- 1 # Point at infinity
for divisorSig, i in enumerate(divisorSigs):
    for j in range(len(divisorsAggInfo[i].keys)):
        divisor <- divisorsAggInfo[i][j]
        assert(j in dividendAggInfo[i])
        dividend <- dividendAggInfo[i][j]
        if j == 0:
            quotient <- divided / divisor in Fq
            assert((divided / divisor in Fq) == quotient)
    prod <- prod * -divisorSig
aggSig <- dividendSig * prod
newAggInfo <- dividendAggInfo
newAggInfo.remove((messageHashesToRemove[i], pubKeysToRemove[i] for i in range(len(messageHashesToRemove)))
return (aggSig, newAggInfo)

Prepend Method

In order to not have to keep around aggregation info when aggregating, an alternative is to force proof of possession of the pulic key, and aggregate using the simple aggregation scheme (the aggregation tree is flat, and no exponents are used). We can do this by prepending the public key to the message hash:

prepend_m = hash256(pk + hash256(m)))

These prepend signatures are incompatible with normal aggregate signatures, and can only be aggregated with other prepend signatures. In the serialization, the second bit of the signature is set to 1 iff the signature is a prepend signature.


private key (32 bytes): Big endian integer.

pubkey (48 bytes): 381 bit affine x coordinate, encoded into 48 big-endian bytes. Since we have 3 bits left over in the beginning, the first bit is set to 1 iff y coordinate is the lexicographically largest of the two valid ys. The public key fingerprint is the first 4 bytes of hash256(serialize(pubkey)).

signature (96 bytes): Two 381 bit integers (affine x coordinate), encoded into two 48 big-endian byte arrays. Since we have 3 bits left over in the beginning, the first bit is set to 1 iff the y coordinate is the lexicographically largest of the two valid ys. (The term with the i is compared first, i.e 3i + 1 > 2i + 7). The second bit is set to 1 iff the signature was generated using the prepend method, and should be verified using the prepend method.

HD keys

HD (Hierarchical Deterministic) keys allow deriving many public and private keys from one seed, and even deriving public keys from other public keys.

HD keys follow Bitcoin's BIP32 specification, with the following differences:

  • The HMAC key to generate a master private key used is not "Bitcoin seed" it is "BLS HD seed".
  • The master secret key is generated mod n from the master seed, since not all 32 byte sequences are valid BLS private keys
  • Instead of SHA512(input), do hash512(input) as defined above.
  • Mod n for the output of key derivation.
  • ID of a key is hash256(pk) instead of HASH160(pk)
  • Serialization of extended public key is 93 bytes, since BLS public keys are longer

Test vectors


  • keygen([1,2,3,4,5])
    • sk1: 0x022fb42c08c12de3a6af053880199806532e79515f94e83461612101f9412f9e
    • pk1 fingerprint: 0x26d53247
  • keygen([1,2,3,4,5,6])
    • pk2 fingerprint: 0x289bb56e
  • sign([7,8,9], sk1)
    • sig1: 0x93eb2e1cb5efcfb31f2c08b235e8203a67265bc6a13d9f0ab77727293b74a357ff0459ac210dc851fcb8a60cb7d393a419915cfcf83908ddbeac32039aaa3e8fea82efcb3ba4f740f20c76df5e97109b57370ae32d9b70d256a98942e5806065
  • sign([7,8,9], sk2)
    • sig2: 0x975b5daa64b915be19b5ac6d47bc1c2fc832d2fb8ca3e95c4805d8216f95cf2bdbb36cc23645f52040e381550727db420b523b57d494959e0e8c0c6060c46cf173872897f14d43b2ac2aec52fc7b46c02c5699ff7a10beba24d3ced4e89c821e
  • verify(sig1, AggregationInfo(pk1, [7,8,9]))
    • true
  • verify(sig2, AggregationInfo(pk2, [7,8,9]))
    • true


  • aggregate([sig1, sig2])
    • aggSig: 0x0a638495c1403b25be391ed44c0ab013390026b5892c796a85ede46310ff7d0e0671f86ebe0e8f56bee80f28eb6d999c0a418c5fc52debac8fc338784cd32b76338d629dc2b4045a5833a357809795ef55ee3e9bee532edfc1d9c443bf5bc658
  • verify(aggSig2, mergeInfos(sig1.aggInfo, sig2.aggInfo))
    • true
  • verify(sig1, AggregationInfo(pk2, [7,8,9]))
    • false
  • sig3 = sign([1,2,3], sk1)
  • sig4 = sign([1,2,3,4], sk1)
  • sig5 = sign([1,2], sk2)
  • aggregate([sig3, sig4, sig5])
    • aggSig2: 0x8b11daf73cd05f2fe27809b74a7b4c65b1bb79cc1066bdf839d96b97e073c1a635d2ec048e0801b4a208118fdbbb63a516bab8755cc8d850862eeaa099540cd83621ff9db97b4ada857ef54c50715486217bd2ecb4517e05ab49380c041e159b
  • verify(aggSig2, mergeInfos(sig3.aggInfo, sig4.aggInfo, sig5.aggInfo))
    • true
  • sig1 = sk1.sign([1,2,3,40])
  • sig2 = sk2.sign([5,6,70,201])
  • sig3 = sk2.sign([1,2,3,40])
  • sig4 = sk1.sign([9,10,11,12,13])
  • sig5 = sk1.sign([1,2,3,40])
  • sig6 = sk1.sign([15,63,244,92,0,1])
  • sigL = aggregate([sig1, sig2])
  • sigR = aggregate([sig3, sig4, sig5])
  • verify(sigL)
    • true
  • verify(sigR)
    • true
  • aggregate([sigL, sigR, sig6])
    • sigFinal: 0x07969958fbf82e65bd13ba0749990764cac81cf10d923af9fdd2723f1e3910c3fdb874a67f9d511bb7e4920f8c01232b12e2fb5e64a7c2d177a475dab5c3729ca1f580301ccdef809c57a8846890265d195b694fa414a2a3aa55c32837fddd80
  • verify(sigFinal)
    • true

Signature division

  • divide(sigFinal, [sig2, sig5, sig6])
    • quotient: 0x8ebc8a73a2291e689ce51769ff87e517be6089fd0627b2ce3cd2f0ee1ce134b39c4da40928954175014e9bbe623d845d0bdba8bfd2a85af9507ddf145579480132b676f027381314d983a63842fcc7bf5c8c088461e3ebb04dcf86b431d6238f
  • verify(quotient)
    • true
  • divide(quotient, [sig6])
    • throws due to not subset
  • divide(sigFinal, [sig1])
    • does not throw
  • divide(sig_final, [sigL])
    • throws due to not unique
  • sig7 = sign([9,10,11,12,13], sk2)
  • sig8 = sign([15,63,244,92,0,1], sk2)
  • sigFinal2 = aggregate([sigFinal, aggregate([sig7, sig8])])
  • divide(sigFinal2, aggregate([sig7, sig8]))
    • quotient2: 0x06af6930bd06838f2e4b00b62911fb290245cce503ccf5bfc2901459897731dd08fc4c56dbde75a11677ccfbfa61ab8b14735fddc66a02b7aeebb54ab9a41488f89f641d83d4515c4dd20dfcf28cbbccb1472c327f0780be3a90c005c58a47d3
  • verify(quotient2)
    • true

HD keys

  • esk = ExtendedPrivateKey([1, 50, 6, 244, 24, 199, 1, 25])
  • esk.publicKeyFigerprint
    • 0xa4700b27
  • esk.chainCode
    • 0xd8b12555b4cc5578951e4a7c80031e22019cc0dce168b3ed88115311b8feb1e3
  • esk77 = esk.privateChild(77 + 2^31)
  • esk77.publicKeyFingerprint
    • 0xa8063dcf
  • esk77.chainCode
    • 0xf2c8e4269bb3e54f8179a5c6976d92ca14c3260dd729981e9d15f53049fd698b
  • esk.privateChild(3).privateChild(17).publicKeyFingerprint
    • 0xff26a31f
  • esk.extendedPublicKey.publicChild(3).publicChild(17).publicKeyFingerprint
    • 0xff26a31f

Prepend Signatures

  • sign_prepend([7,8,9], sk1)
    • sig9: 0xd2135ad358405d9f2d4e68dc253d64b6049a821797817cffa5aa804086a8fb7b135175bb7183750e3aa19513db1552180f0b0ffd513c322f1c0c30a0a9c179f6e275e0109d4db7fa3e09694190947b17d890f3d58fe0b1866ec4d4f5a59b16ed
  • sign_prepend([10,11,12], sk2)
    • sig10: 0xcc58c982f9ee5817d4fbf22d529cfc6792b0fdcf2d2a8001686755868e10eb32b40e464e7fbfe30175a962f1972026f2087f0495ba6e293ac3cf271762cd6979b9413adc0ba7df153cf1f3faab6b893404c2e6d63351e48cd54e06e449965f08
  • aggregate([sig9, sig9, sig10])
    • prepend_agg: 0xc37077684e735e62e3f1fd17772a236b4115d4b581387733d3b97cab08b90918c7e91c23380c93e54be345544026f93505d41e6000392b82ab3c8af1b2e3954b0ef3f62c52fc89f99e646ff546881120396c449856428e672178e5e0e14ec894
  • verify_prepend(prepend_agg, [pk1, pk1, pk2], [[7,8,9],[7,8,9],[10,11,12]])
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