Based on EdgeCase's fantastic Ruby koans, the goal of the F# koans is to teach you F# through testing.
When you first run the koans, you'll be presented with a runtime error and a stack trace indicating where the error occured. Your goal is to make the error go away. As you fix each error, you should learn something about the F# language and functional programming in general.
Your journey towards F# enlightenment starts in the AboutAsserts.fs file. These koans will be very simple, so don't overthink them! As you progress through more koans, more and more F# syntax will be introduced which will allow you to solve more complicated problems and use more advanced techniques.
The F# Koans are currently target Visual Studio 2010. The koans should also work with Visual Studio 2008, comand line Mono, and monodevelop. Instructions for those configurations are still //TODO for the time being.
NOTE: nuget (http://nuget.codeplex.com/) is required to properly resolve dependencies.
After installing the Powerpack (http://fsharppowerpack.codeplex.com/), open the Visual Studio project, right click on the "FSharpKoans" project in the solution explorer and select "Set as StartUp Project".
You'll want to turn off User-unhandled Exceptions. Go to Debug|Exceptions and uncheck the User-unhandled box from the Common Language Runtime Exceptions item.
You can now run the Koans by selecting Debug|Start Debugging (defaults to f5).