example hang in the retarget code with ARM Embedded 4.8
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Retargeting Newlib-nano

This is a simple test case of retargeting newlib nano which doesn't seem to work now works. The issue was that "Hello World!" did not include a newline (\n) so the stdio buffer didn't flush, and the _write_r function was too lenient about strings (it isn't null terminated so you have to stop after you've printed len characters)

The goal here was to build a program using both the ARM embedded GCC project and the libopencm3 project together. My test hardware is the STM32F4-Butterfly board which has an STM32F407G on it and connects to the host system with ST-LINK V2. I'm using OpenOCD to load the software into the Butterfly. All running on a Ubuntu 12.04LTS system with both libopencm3 and the GCC Embedded toolchain installed.

The source for the example comes from the GCC Embedded samples directory. It is called 'retarget' in that directory. I've copied over gcc.ld and modified it to have FLASH and RAM at 0x08000000, and 0x20000000 respectively. I've copied over makefile.conf and modified it to select for the Cortex M4 and identify where the sources are (it picks up the startup code from there)

Diffs of my makefile.conf and the original:

st-retarget$ diff makefile.conf ~/gcc-arm-none-eabi-4_8-2014q1/share/gcc-arm-none-eabi/samples/src/makefile.conf 
< BASE=/home/cmcmanis/gcc-arm-none-eabi-4_8-2014q1/share/gcc-arm-none-eabi/samples
> BASE=../..

The Makefile was altered in some important ways;

  • Pull in the modified makefile.conf from the current directory.
  • Compile source with -mfloat-abi=hard -mfpu=fpv4-sp-d16
  • Compile the source with -g so that I could see where it was stuck in gdb
  • Link in libopencm3_stm32f4
  • Identify the include file path for the libopencm3 include files.

Diffs of my Makefile and the original:

st-retarget$ diff Makefile ~/gcc-arm-none-eabi-4_8-2014q1/share/gcc-arm-none-eabi/samples/src/retarget/Makefile                   
< include makefile.conf                                                                             
> include ../makefile.conf                                                                          
< CFLAGS+= -I../../libopencm3/include -DSTM32F4                                                     
< CFLAGS+= -mfloat-abi=hard -mfpu=fpv4-sp-d16                                                       
< CFLAGS+= -g                                                                                       
< LDSCRIPTS=-L. -L$(BASE)/ldscripts -T gcc.ld -L../../libopencm3/lib -lopencm3_stm32f4              
> LDSCRIPTS=-L. -L$(BASE)/ldscripts -T gcc.ld

If you look at retarget.c you will see that in retarget_init() I call my modified _write function to verify that its working as expected.

What happens?

When I compile this code, it compiles and links with no errors. When I run it the serial line prints "UART OK\n" and then it hangs. If I break into gdb it is hung on the printf() line. Presumably it is hung inside printf but the library isn't compiled -g so I can't tell.