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#!/usr/bin/env python
# David Jones, 2010-08-05, revised 2014-06-05
# Zonal Temperatures
# A simple computation of global average temperature anomaly via zonal
# averages.
""" [--input ghcnm.dat] [--zones 20]
import math
import os
import re
import sys
import ghcn
from data import valid, MISSING
import series
parent_dir = os.path.join(os.path.dirname(__file__), '..')
parent_dir = os.path.abspath(parent_dir)
base_year = 1880
combine_overlap = 20
# Maximum length of any input series.
max_series_length = 0
def run(**key):
import glob
name = key.get('input', 'v3')
if name == 'v3':
input_dir = os.path.join(parent_dir, 'input')
dat_glob = os.path.join(input_dir, 'ghcnm.v3.*/ghcnm*.dat')
v3dat = sorted(glob.glob(dat_glob))[-1]
v3dat = name
input =,
N = int(key.get('zones', 20))
global_annual_series, zonal_annual_series = zontem(input, N)
# Pick an output file name, which starts with
# "Zontem" and is followed by the GHCN-M filename
# with a different file extension.
basename = os.path.basename(v3dat)
basename = re.sub(r'[.]dat$', '', basename)
basename = 'Zontem-' + basename
output_dir = os.path.join(parent_dir, 'output')
csv_filename = os.path.join(output_dir, basename + '.csv')
with open(csv_filename, 'w') as csv_file:
csv_save(csv_file, global_annual_series, zonal_annual_series)
sys.stdout.write(csv_filename + '\n')
def zontem(input, n_zones):
zones = split(input, n_zones)
zonal_average = map(combine_stations, zones)
global_average = combine_stations(zonal_average)
global_annual_average = annual_anomaly(global_average.series)
zonal_annual_average = [
annual_anomaly(zonal.series) for zonal in zonal_average]
return global_annual_average, zonal_annual_average
def split(stations, N=20):
Split a series of stations into `N` equal area latitudinal zones.
global max_series_length
# one list for each zone
zone = [[] for _ in range(N)]
for station in stations:
max_series_length = max(max_series_length, len(station.series))
# Calculate Z, distance from equatorial plane (normalised).
z = math.sin(math.radians(station.latitude))
i = int(math.floor((z+1.0)/2*N))
# Fix Zone of hypothetical North Pole station.
i = min(i, N-1)
sys.stderr.write('\rReading station data. Zone %2d: %4d records' % (i, len(zone[i])))
return zone
def combine_stations(stations):
Takes a list of stations (each with a .series attribute), and
combine them into one new Station.
# Number of months in fixed length record.
M = max_series_length
# Make sure all the records are the same length, namely *M*.
combined = [MISSING]*M
if len(stations) == 0:
return combined
def good_months(station):
count = 0
for v in station.series:
if v != MISSING:
count += 1
return count
stations = iter(sorted(stations, key=good_months, reverse=True))
first_station =
combined[:len(first_station.series)] = first_station.series
combined_weight = [valid(v) for v in combined]
log("LONGEST %s %s" % (, "1"*12))
for i,station in enumerate(stations):
new = [MISSING]*len(combined)
new[:len(station.series)] = station.series
months_combined = series.combine(combined, combined_weight,
new, 1.0,
sys.stderr.write('\r%d' % i)
months_used = ''.join(
"01"[months_combined[i] > 0] for i in range(12))
log("COMBINE %s %s" % (, months_used))
import ghcn
return ghcn.Station(series=combined, id="NEW")
def annual_anomaly(monthly):
Take a monthly series and convert to annual anomaly. All months
(Jan to Dec) are required to be present to compute an anomaly
# Convert to monthly anomalies...
means, anoms = series.monthly_anomalies(monthly)
result = []
# Then take 12 months at a time and annualise.
for year in zip(*anoms):
if all(valid(month) for month in year):
# All months valid
return result
def csv_save(out, global_series, zonal_series):
Save the global annual series and N zonal annual series,
as a CSV file.
import csv
csvfile = csv.writer(out)
header = ["Year", "Global Temperature Anomaly (K)"]
for i in range(len(zonal_series)):
header.append("Zone %d" % i)
for i, values in enumerate(zip(global_series, *zonal_series)):
row = [base_year + i]
# `values` has 1 value the global series, and one for each zone.
for v in values:
def format1(val):
if not valid(val):
return ''
return "{: 7.3f}".format(val)
log_file = None
def log(message):
global log_file
if not log_file:
except OSError:
log_file = open(os.path.join("log", "zontem.log"), 'w')
log_file.write(message + '\n')
def usage(out):
out.write(__doc__.strip() + '\n')
def main(argv=None):
import getopt
if argv is None:
argv = sys.argv
opts,arg = getopt.getopt(argv[1:], '',
['help', 'input=', 'zones='])
if arg:
return 2
key = {}
for opt,v in opts:
if opt == '--help':
return usage(sys.stdout)
key[opt[2:]] = v
if __name__ == '__main__':