KBpedia Knowledge Ontology (KKO)
The KBpedia Knowledge Ontology (KKO) is a foundational ontology for capturing the essential components (or 'primitives') of knowledge bases. It is an amalgam of six of the largest public knowledge bases available -- Wikipedia, DBpedia, Wikidata, GeoNames, OpenCyc and UMBEL. It is designed for mapping and interoperating diverse ontologies to one another. The ultimate objective of KKO is to provide an ontology that surfaces and organizes the features within knowledge bases most useful to machine learning, artificial intelligence, data interoperability and mapping, and fact tagging and extraction.
The design of the KBpedia Knowledge Ontology is informed by the semiotics (theory of signs) articulated by the 19th century American logician, Charles Sanders Peirce. The design is based on the triadic ideas of Firstness, Secondness and Thirdness that informed virtually all of Peirce's formulations in logic and philosophy.
Peirce's theory of signs reflects a continual process of the understanding of what a sign means evolving through truth-testing and community use and consensus. The ultimate basis of a sign resides in the idea or quality of something (a Firstness), which has a monadic relationship to itself; an object which is described or made evident in relation to these qualities through dyadic relationships (a Secondness); and then which is understood or perceived by an interpretant (a Thirdness), such as an intelligent human being. (Though in broadest terms, semiosis is not limited to human mediation, and may apply to other agents, such as artificial intelligence.) All signs embody all three of these triadic aspects.
Signs build upon signs -- such is the case with human languages and the concepts conveyed by them -- and ultimately are subject to logic and questioning, the results of which may cause the nature of the relationships between these aspects of signs to undergo revision and refinement. Semiosis is thus intimately related to logic and is itself a continuous process.
Words and language are themselves a Thirdness, which is the result of signmaking consensus. The semiotic or signmaking process builds from things as they are or may be to an ability to name and describe them though language -- and then ultimately to reason and argue over them leading to shared understandings, laws and complex notions of human concepts and worldviews. Each successive progression of signs involves this interplay of requisite Firstness, Secondness and Thirdness. This triadic nature of signs provides a coherent way to understand and organize the representation of knowledge at any level.