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High precision redis based rate limiter
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README.md

ExcessFlow Build Status Code Climate Gem Version

ExcessFlow is a high precision Redis based rate limiter; it means that even with hundreds and even thousands requests coming in all at once it will not allow an occasional request slip over limit (causing potential race conditions or unwanted extra invocations of your code).

Can be used with any Ruby or Ruby on Rails project. Can be used in any distributed environment without any additional setup.

How it works

Once a request comes in ExcessFlow will setup a global mutex using Redis. Once mutex is set up it will sort out your request's limits and see if it can be fulfilled or you are over your quota. In either case mutex will be released and ExcessFlow will continue either with execution of your code or return an ExcessFlow::FailedExecution as a result.

This global mutex ensures that only one check for a limit can be active at a time thus eliminating race conditions.

Installation

Add the following line to your Gemfile:

gem 'excess_flow'

And run bundle from your shell.

To install gem manually run from your shell:

gem install excess_flow

Requirements

Only requirement to run this gem is Redis. Other than that it is not dependant on any other framework or system.

Configration

The only thing you need to set up is URL of your Redis server. You can do this by either setting EXCESS_FLOW_REDIS_URL environment variable or by executing following code during runtime. For Ruby on Rails create config/initializers/excess_flow.rb file and put the following code in there:

ExcessFlow.configure do |configuration|
  configuration.redis_url = <REDIS_URL>
end

There are two ways to configure ExcessFlow: using environment variables or invoking configuration block during runtime.

Following settings are supported:

Variable Method Settings
EXCESS_FLOW_CONNECTION_POOL connection_pool Redis connection pool size to share amongst the fibers or threads in your Ruby. Defaults to 100.
EXCESS_FLOW_CONNECTION_TIMEOUT connection_timeout How long to wait for a connection from connection pool to become available (in seconds). Defaults to 3.
EXCESS_FLOW_REDIS_URL redis_url URL of your Redis server that will be used for caching. Defaults to redis://localhost:6379/1.
EXCESS_FLOW_REDIS_SENTINELS sentinels (optional) Comma separated list of Sentinels IPs for Redis. Defaults to nil. Example value: 8.8.8.8:42,8.8.4.4:42.

Usage

To rate limit your request simply wrap your code into throttle block:

ExcessFlow.throttle(key: 'meaning_of_life', limit: 42, ttl: 42) do
  21 + 21
end

This returns a ExcessFlow::RateLimitedExecutionResult class that wraps result of execution of your code. If you need to know if request was within limit call success? method on it. If you need to get access to result call result method.

execution = ExcessFlow.throttle(key: 'meaning_of_life', limit: 42, ttl: 42) do
  21 + 21
end
=> #<ExcessFlow::RateLimitedExecutionResult:0x00005588c4c084e0 @result="42">

execution.success?
=> true

execution.result
=> 42

If execution of your code was rate limited then ExcessFlow::RateLimitedExecutionResult will hold ExcessFlow::FailedExecution as a result and success? method will return false.

execution = ExcessFlow.throttle(key: 'meaning_of_life', limit: 0, ttl: 42) do
  21 + 21
end
=> #<ExcessFlow::RateLimitedExecutionResult:0x00005588c4c084e0
@result="#<ExcessFlow::FailedExecution:0x00005588c4c30350>">

execution.success?
=> false

execution.result
=> #<ExcessFlow::FailedExecution:0x00005588c4c30350>

throttle method accepts 4 named arguments:

Argument Meaning
key Name of window in which to keep requests that should be limited.
ttl Time in seconds for which to keep a window open.
limit Number of requests allowed to be done within single unique window.
strategy (optional) Rate limiting strategy to use. Defaults to :fixed_window. Available options are :fixed_window and :sliding_window.

Rate limiting strategies

Currently there are two strategies available: :fixed_window and :sliding_window. If in doubt and don't know which one to use start with :fixed_window as it is more lightweight and will guarantee you better performance.

:fixed_window

Fixed window strategy allows you to make N requests in a O period of time. After O time passes counter is re-set allowing you to make another N requests.

Think about a bucket that you can fill with pebbles. Once full you can no longer add pebbles to it and has to wait for someone to come and empty it for you so you can start filling it with pebbles again. Catch is that that someone comes every O minutes to empty it.

:sliding_window

Sliding window strategy allows you to make N requests in a O period of time where O is tracked for each request individually.

Think about bucket with pebbles again. This time someone is sitting right next to you as you fill it and tracks time at which you put each individual pebble in. Once O minutes is passed they remove the pebble out of bucket.

Development

After checking out the repo, run bin/setup to install dependencies. Then, run rspec to run the tests. You can also run bin/console for an interactive prompt that will allow you to experiment.

To install this gem onto your local machine, run bundle exec rake install. To release a new version, update the version number in version.rb, and then run bundle exec rake release, which will create a git tag for the version, push git commits and tags, and push the .gem file to rubygems.org.

Contributing

Bug reports and pull requests are welcome on GitHub at https://github.com/ConvertKit/excess_flow. This project is intended to be a safe, welcoming space for collaboration, and contributors are expected to adhere to the Contributor Covenant code of conduct.

License

The gem is available as open source under the terms of the Apache License Version 2.0.

Code of Conduct

Everyone interacting in the ExcessFlow project’s codebases, issue trackers, chat rooms and mailing lists is expected to follow the code of conduct.

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