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Loop tags

The most complicated tag you can use in templates is the [loop] tag. The advantage is that this tag is also very powerful. Using the [loop] tag you can mark code to repeat on document level, for example to repeat an article. In this case you could make a newsletter with ten articles just as easily as a newsletter with one article. It's also possible to nest these tags. A simple example looks like this:

[loop name="example"]
    Code to repeat
[/loop]

This example is not really useful yet. The real usefulness of the [loop] tag shows best if you add more tags within the loop, for example to make several paragraphs with a text box and an image each:

[loop name="myloop"]
    <div>
        <table>
            <tr>
                <td>[text name="mytext"]</td>
                <td>[image name="myimage"]</td>
            </tr>
        </table>
    </div>
[/loop]

The document makers are able to choose how many iterations of the loop should be placed in that specific document. Zero is of course a valid value, as you might not always need to add this content, and doesn't show anything in the template when used. This way you can add conditional content.

Copernica recommends naming all tags you use in a document with a name attribute. This will ensure that your documents remain intact when you change the order of the tags or decide to add a new one to add more content. In the case of the [loop] block this name can even be used for scripting and if statements, which we will discuss later.

Minimum and maximum values

The user is usually free to determine the amount of iterations, but it is possible to add a minimum or maximum amount of iterations in the template as well. This can be achieved by using the min and max attributes, as shown below:

[loop name="example" min="1" max="5"]
    ...
[/loop]

Both attributes are completely optional.

Start and end code

Using the begin and end code it is possible to add code to the start and end of the loop respectively. This code is only used when there is at least one iteration, making it invisible when the block is not used.

[loop name="example" begin="<table>" end="</table>"]
    <tr>
        <td>[text]</td>
    </tr>
[/loop]

The following simple example contains a table with a variable amount of rows, but you can add any HTML code, such as a class to handle layuout.

Template variables

Template variables can be used to make even more powerful loops. They are similar to personalization variables, but only contain information about the state of the loop. The following variables are available:

  • [$loop.naamvanloop.index] - total iterations
  • [$loop.naamvanloop.iteration] - current iteration
  • [$loop.naamvanloop.first] - boolean value to indicate first iteration
  • [$loop.naamvanloop.last] - boolean value to indicate last iteration

You can use these loops to add some more detail to the loop, for example to improve the layout:

[loop name="myloop"]
    <p>
        [text name="mytext"]
    </p>
    [if !$loop.myloop.last]
        <hr/>
    [/if]
[/loop]

In the example above you see a loop of paragraphs. The amount of paragraphs that will be used can be determined at the document level. After each paragraph a horizontal line is drawn to separate it from the paragraph below. However, the if loop specifies that this is not done for the last iteration, such that there is no line under the last paragraph.

Template variables are also available in nested loops, but require the name of the first loop, like this:

[$loop.firstloop.innerloop.index]

Inside the template maker Copernica uses the Smarty engine of PHP for reading the templates. Instead of the standard Smarty curly braces we use square brackets, although all of these are regular Smarty functions. This means that you can use all tricks and possibilities Smart offers as long as you use the square brackets instead. More information about Smarty is available here.

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