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Martijn Otto
Latest commit 7c34c21 Jun 6, 2016

README.md

This directory contains a number of examples that show how to use the PHP-CPP library.

To run an example, there are a couple of steps that need to be taken. The first step is compiling and installing the PHPCPP library. This is done by running 'make' and then 'make install' in the main directory.

The second step is to compile the C++ code of an example and make it into an extension usable by PHP. This is done by running 'make' and 'make install' in an Example directory. Do make sure you've edited the Makefile according to your own specific directories.

The following examples are available:

Extension

The first example does nothing - it only shows how to create your
own extension. This means your extension will be listed in the 
output of "phpinfo()", and it is included in the array returned 
by theget_loaded_modules() function.

There are no functions or classes defined by this first example
extension.

FunctionVoid

This second example shows how to add a function to the extension 
and call that function from the PHP code. Adding a function to 
your extension means that you can call it anywhere from the PHP 
code.

Furthermore, it is possible to associate your C++ function with 
another name. This other name is then used in PHP to call the C++ 
function, rather than the original C++ function name.

Functions and/or classes defined in this example.
    - void my_function_void() Named as my_void_function()

FunctionReturnValue

The third example shows how to return a value from C++ to PHP. 
Virtually any type of value can be returned to PHP from C++.
The returned value must be returned as Php::Value object, rather 
than a native C/C++ type. This Php::Value class takes care of
converting native values into values usable in your PHP code.

Because a Php::Value is always returned, there is no need to specify
the return type of the function when adding it to your extension.

Functions and/or classes defined in this example.
    - Php::Value my_return_value_function()

FunctionNoParameters

The fourth example is a combination of the second and third example.
This example illustrates how to call a function without parameters.
The function is added to your extension, and can then be called from
your PHP script.

The function returns a Php::Value to show that the call succeeded.

Functions and/or classes defined in this example.
    - Php::Value my_no_parameters_function()

FunctionWithParameters

The fifth example is an example to show how several different types
of parameters can used for functions. There are two ways to pass a 
parameter, by value(Php::ByVal) and by reference(Php::ByRef). Each 
take two parameters of their own. The first being the parameter name,
and the second the parameter type.

Furthermore, parameters are always stored in the Php::Parameters 
object. This object is basicly an array which hold all the parameters,
in order.

The first option being the undefined parameters. With undefined 
parameters, we can pass any and as many parameters as we want to 
the function. 

The second option is defining each parameter when adding the function
to your extension. In this case we have added two Php::numericType
parameters to the function. In 'type.h' you can find all avaiable
types, however not every type has been implemented yet.

The third option is passing a reference of a variable. Meaning when
it is altered in the C++ code, its value will also change in the PHP
code. This can achieved by using Php:ByRef, rather than Php::ByVal.

The fourth option is passing an array as parameter. The array 
parameter will be accessible from the N-1 index of the 
Php::Parameters object, where is the argument number of the array
when passing it to the function.

The fifth and final option is passing an object. An object can be 
passed in the same way as any other data type, except for that 
you must specify what the class is of the object. This can be done
by passing a string with the class name as the second parameter to 
Php::ByVal or Php::ByRef.

Functions and/or classes defined in this example.
    1. void my_with_undefined_parameters_function(Php::Parameters &params)
    2. Php::Value my_with_defined_parameters_function(Php::Parameters &params)
    3. void my_with_defined_parameters_reference_function(Php::Parameters &params)
    4. void my_with_defined_array_parameters_function(Php::Parameters &params)
    5. void my_with_defined_object_parameters_function(Php::Parameters &params)

Globals

Global PHP variables can be used accessed from your C++ code. You
can do this by accessing the Php::values array, which more or less
behaves the same as the $_GLOBALS array does in PHP.

Functions and/or classes defined in this example.
    1. void process_globals()

Exceptions

The sixth example is composed of two parts, the throw exception and 
the catch exception examples. The requirements of the catch example,
passing a callback as a parameter, have not yet been implemented. 

The throw example is there to show that an exception thrown in
a C++ function can be caught and handled in your PHP script. The 
exception thrown is a Php::Exception.

The catch example shows that when a PHP function is passed as a 
callback, and is capable of throwing a (PHP) exception, that it
can be caught as Php::Exception and then handled in the C++ code. 
However, the passing of a function as a callback has not yet been 
implemented. It would need to be implemented for this specific 
example to work.

Functions and/or classes defined in this example.
    - void my_catch_exception_function(Php::Parameters &params)
    - void my_throw_exception_function()

PHP function calls

The seventh example shows how to pass a callable PHP function as
a parameter. As can be seen in the example, there are several ways 
of passing a PHP function to the C++ function. When a function is 
passed, it is possible to use the () operator on the parameter, with 
the correct amount of parameters for the callable PHP function.

When using the wrong amount, or when trying to use the () operator
on a non-callable type, you will get PHP errors rather than 
segmentation faults or other kinds of C++ errors.

Functions and/or classes defined in this example.
    - Php::Value call_php_function(Php::Parameters &params)