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A brief tutorial illustrating how to wrap static framework classes (e.g. File, Directory, etc.) to improve testability.
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Improve Testability by Wrapping Static Classes

Certain parts of the .NET framework are exposed as static classes, for example File, Directory, and Path. Because static classes cannot be mocked, it is very difficult to test classes that use static classes. Furthermore, some classes may have external side effects or dependencies, for example File.ReadAllText requires an actual physical file to reside at the specified location or the call will fail. This complicates our testing code by requiring us to create a file in a known location for the test, and then clean up afterwards. This also violates the "Test in Isolation" rule because the test now has a dependency on an actual underlying filesystem.

This post will demonstrate a clean, relatively low-effort way to improve testability for classes that consume static classes.

GitHub Repository

The project is hosted in a GitHub Repository containing two branches:

  • difficult-to-test: This branch directly uses System.Io.File to read a file and illustrates a couple of common challenges when testing code that consumes static classes
  • with-framework-wrappers: This branch introduces a simple wrapper to encapsulate calls to System.Io.File and improve testability

Solution Overview

The solution is a simple example, consisting of two projects:

  • Tdd.FrameworkWrappers.Lib: The implementation under test. It contains a single class, FileReader, which reads a file from storage and returns its contents as a string.
  • Tdd.FrameworkWrappers.Lib.Tests: NUnit tests for the Tdd.FrameworkWrappers.Lib project.

Walkthrough: difficult-to-test branch

We'll start by cloning the difficult-to-test branch and opening the solution.

If we take a look at FileReader.cs, we can see that its ReadText method simply delegates to System.Io.File.ReadAllText and returns its result.

Things get more convoluted, however, when we dig into FileReaderTests.cs. The direct usage of System.Io.File complicates our testing in a few ways:

  • We cannot verify the interaction between FileReader and System.Io.File because static classes cannot be mocked
  • We need to add pre-and-post test methods to create and clean up a test file on the system. This in itself can be problematic since reading/writing/deleting files can be error-prone (i.e. IoExceptions), so our test could conceivably fail for reasons outside the bounds of the test.

Wrappers to the Rescue!

We can solve this testability issue by wrapping System.Io.File in another, non-static class that we control. By doing so, we can expose an IFile interface (so we can mock and support dependency injection). The IFile interface is implemented by FileImpl, which would be the concrete type injected into instances of FileReader by our IoC container.

So without further ado, let's dig in!

Walkthrough: with-framework-wrappers branch

Now let's clone the with-framework-wrappers branch and open the solution.

We'll start in the same place as before, in FileReader.cs. Note that there is now a constructor that takes an IFile and ILogger instance, and that the ReadText method now invokes IFile.ReadAllText instead of File.ReadAllText.

You'll also notice that there is a new FrameworkWrappers folder, so let's dig into that. FrameworkWrappers contains IFile and its implementation, FileImpl. Looking at the interface, we see that it exposes a ReadAllText method whose signature matches that of System.Io.File.ReadAllText. Moving on to FileImpl, we see that it's doing exactly what FileReader was doing before: Simply delegating the call to System.Io.File.ReadAllText and returning the result.

If we now move on to the tests, we'll see some more changes, specifically:

  • The CreateTestFile and CleanupTestFile methods are gone because we no longer have to write to a filesystem in order to execute this test (e.g. we have removed the test's dependency on the underlying filesystem)
  • SetUp has been modified to instantiate a Mock<IFile> and Mock<ILogger> and inject them into the FileReader under test
  • ReadText_WhenFileExists_ReturnsFileContents is substantially simplified
  • ReadText_Always_PerformsExpectedWork can now be implemented - because we're using a mock, we can verify that the ReadText method does, in fact, call the ReadAllText method on IFile with the expected arguments.
  • We can also now test 'sad' flows, e.g. "Does FileReader react appropriately if an exception is thrown by IFileReader.ReadAllText?" ReadText_WhenIoExceptionThrown_PerformsExpectedWork illustrates this new capability
  • Test cases are parameterized using TestCaseSourceAttribute. This isn't really specific to testing with Framework Wrappers, but it's just a way to reduce duplication.

You may notice that there is no corresponding FileImplTests in the test project, this is normal for pure wrappers, e.g. classes that simply delegate calls to an external class (e.g. a Microsoft library) without adding any logic. The reasoning behind this is the expectation that Microsoft (or the third-party vendor) would be responsible for testing their own libraries, so testing the wrapper would be redundant.


So in a nutshell, what we did here was improve testability by adding a thin layer of indirection around the System.Io.File class, enabling us to introduce an interface (for DI and Mocking), implemented by a class we control. The end result is that we can effectively test our FileReader class in complete isolation from external dependencies.

I tend to follow this pattern almost any time I need to consume a static class, for example File, Directory, Path, ConfigurationManager, etc. I've also used a variation of this pattern with WPF applications, wrapping non-WPF-friendly UI components in an Attached Behavior to facilitate communications between ViewModels and legacy UI components.

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