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Tcases for OpenAPI: From REST-ful to Test-ful

Contents

Using OpenAPI to model your API?

If you are developing REST-ful APIs, you probably know about the OpenAPI Specification. The OpenAPI Specification (OAS) defines a standard, programming language-agnostic interface description for REST APIs, which allows both humans and computers to discover and understand the capabilities of a service. An OpenAPI definition describes an API's services and is represented in either YAML or JSON formats.

You probably know that modeling your API with an OpenAPI definition has many benefits. There are lots of tools that can use an OpenAPI definition to generate interactive documentation, code stubs (for either the client or the server), and test mocks. But did you know you can also generate test cases for your API directly from your OpenAPI definition? You do now.

Then use Tcases to generate your API test cases

Consider the standard example for an OpenAPI (Version 3) definition: the Pet Store API. This defines all of the requests and responses for an API to access the resources of the Swagger Pet Store.

Suppose you wanted to test this API. What test cases would you need? To find out, run the following command. (Note: Some setup required.)

tcases-api petstore-expanded.yaml

OK, so what just happened? Take a look at the tcases-api.log file, and you'll see something like this:

13:06:15.991 INFO  o.c.tcases.openapi.ApiCommand - Reading API definition from ./petstore-expanded.yaml
13:06:16.300 INFO  o.c.tcases.openapi.ApiCommand - Writing results to ././petstore-expanded-Requests-Test.json
...
13:06:16.374 INFO  o.c.t.generator.TupleGenerator - FunctionInputDef[GET_pets]: Completed 11 test cases
...
13:06:16.397 INFO  o.c.t.generator.TupleGenerator - FunctionInputDef[POST_pets]: Completed 12 test cases
...
13:06:16.403 INFO  o.c.t.generator.TupleGenerator - FunctionInputDef[GET_pets-id]: Completed 6 test cases
...
13:06:16.407 INFO  o.c.t.generator.TupleGenerator - FunctionInputDef[DELETE_pets-id]: Completed 6 test cases

Nice! A total of 35 test cases were generated for the 4 requests in this API. To review them, take a look at the petstore-expanded-Requests-Test.json file, and you'll see something like what's shown below.

It's telling you that, for starters, you should have a test case for the GET /pets request that supplies two query parameters, setting the tags parameter to an empty array and the limit parameter to a negative 32-bit integer. For this particular test case, because tags is empty, other aspects of this array are irrelevant and are designated as "not applicable" (NA). For a complete explanation of this JSON format for tests case definitions, see Tcases: The JSON Guide.

{
  "system": "Swagger-Petstore",
  "has": {
    "server": "http://petstore.swagger.io/api",
    "version": "1.0.0"
  },
  "GET_pets": {
    "has": {
      "server": "http://petstore.swagger.io/api",
      "version": "1.0.0"
    },
    "testCases": [
      {
        "id": 0,
        "has": {
          "server": "http://petstore.swagger.io/api",
          "version": "1.0.0",
          "properties": "limit,limitValue,tags,tagsValue"
        },
        "query": {
        "tags.Defined": {
            "has": {
              "explode": "true",
              "style": "form"
            },
            "value": "Yes"
          },
          "tags.Type": {
            "value": "array"
          },
          "tags.Items.Size": {
            "value": "0"
          },
          "tags.Items.Contains.Type": {
            "NA": true
          },
          "tags.Items.Contains.Value.Length": {
            "NA": true
          },
          "tags.Items.Unique": {
            "NA": true
          },
          "limit.Defined": {
            "has": {
              "style": "form"
            },
            "value": "Yes"
          },
          "limit.Type": {
            "value": "integer"
          },
          "limit.Value": {
            "has": {
              "format": "int32"
            },
            "value": "< 0"
          }
        }
      },
      ...
    ]
  },
  "POST_pets": {
    "has": {
      "server": "http://petstore.swagger.io/api",
      "version": "1.0.0"
    },
    "testCases": [
      ...
    ]
  },
  "GET_pets-id": {
    "has": {
      "server": "http://petstore.swagger.io/api",
      "version": "1.0.0"
    },
    "testCases": [
      ...
    ]
  },
  "DELETE_pets-id": {
    "has": {
      "server": "http://petstore.swagger.io/api",
      "version": "1.0.0"
    },
    "testCases": [
      ...
    ]
  }
}

How do you run generated API test cases?

Ideally, Tcases for OpenAPI would produce a test program that you could immediately run. Ideally, this test program would execute all API requests against an actual API server, applying a comprehensive set of request input data and automatically verifying the expected responses. Bam! Job done!

But is this even possible? Yes, it is -- mostly. For details, see Running API Test Cases.

Why Tcases for OpenAPI?

Want high confidence in your API?

Tcases is a tool that generates test cases for 100% coverage of the input space of your system. In other words, when applied to your OpenAPI definition, the test cases generated by Tcases provide 100% coverage of the input space of each API request. If you want tests that will give you high confidence in your API, that's a pretty good way to go.

But what is the "input space" for a request? And what exactly does this coverage mean? 100% of what?

Good questions. And to fully understand the answers, you need to know more about how Tcases models system inputs and how Tcases measures coverage. But here's the short answer: for every request, these test cases ensure that every key variation in the value for every input parameter is used at least once. That includes not only valid values, which are expected to produce a successful result, but also invalid values, which are expected to produce some kind of failure response.

Why is this kind of "each-choice" coverage helpful? Because it is quite likely to expose most of the defects that may be lurking in your API. In fact, if you measure how well these tests cover the code used to implement API requests, you are likely to find that they cover more than 75% of the branches in the code.

Want high confidence in your OpenAPI definition?

An OpenAPI definition for your API can be a tricky thing to get right. But Tcases for OpenAPI can help. It will tell you about any elements in your definition that don't comply with the OAS (Version 3) standard. But that's not all. It will also warn you about elements in your definition that, while technically compliant, may actually be inconsistent or superfluous or may not behave as you expected. In effect, Tcases for OpenAPI gives you a semantic linter for your API definition.

But that's not all. Even when your OpenAPI definition is valid, consistent, and correct it still may not describe how your API actually works! And Tcases for OpenAPI can help show you when this happens. The Pet Store example shown above is a good illustration. For the GET /pets request, Tcases for OpenAPI suggests a test case in which the limit parameter is a negative integer. That's weird. Just guessing, but isn't it likely that negative values for limit are not really meaningful? But the definition didn't say that! Could it be that there's a missing minimum keyword in the schema for the limit parameter? Thank you, Tcases for OpenAPI!

It can be hard to avoid unconscious assumptions about your API and how it will be used by its clients. That can lead to a faulty OpenAPI definition that is either too tight or too loose, when compared with the actual behavior of your API and its clients. But Tcases for OpenAPI makes no such assumptions. It relentlessly covers the input space that your OpenAPI definition actually defines. If you find that some of these test cases are surprising, you may find an opportunity to make your OpenAPI definition even better.

How does it work?

Your OpenAPI definition defines rules for all the data that flows to and from the API server. Most of these rules are represented by the schema that describe each data item. By default, Tcases for OpenAPI uses these schema definitions to compose a model of the input space of your API -- a model of all the forms of data that could be accepted. From this input model, Tcases can generate a set of test cases, including not only cases of valid data but also cases of data that do not match the schema and are expected to produce an error response.

Alternatively, Tcases for OpenAPI can create an input model from a different source: the examples defined in your OpenAPI definition. Every request parameter, content object, or schema can list at least one example data item. From these, Tcases for OpenAPI can assemble a different set of test cases, using only example data. Examples are presumed to be valid data, so no failure cases are generated from this input model. When example data is not defined explicitly, it can often be automatically derived. But when no example data can be found, request inputs are generated using the default input model source (i.e. based on schema definitions) You can choose an example-based input model from the command line, using the -X option, or with the Tcases Maven Plugin, using the -Dsource=examples option.

So which source should you use for your test cases? Schemas or examples? The answer, of course, is both. Each source has complementary advantages and disadvantages. With example data, you can make sure that your tests cover specific "happy path" cases. However, creating these examples, which are not strictly required, is extra work and the resulting test cases produce minimal coverage of valid cases only. On the other hand, by generating test cases from the schemas, you can get complete coverage of both valid and error cases automatically, although the generated test inputs are synthetic and not completely realistic.

Is your OpenAPI definition an input model? No, it's two!

There are two sides to your API: the requests and their responses. Both are defined in an OpenAPI definition. But which side is the "input space"? It depends on your perspective. For the API server, requests are the inputs and responses are the outputs. For an API client, it's the other way around: input to the client comes from the responses to requests that are sent out to the server.

Accordingly, Tcases for OpenAPI generates tests cases for each side separately. Run Tcases for OpenAPI from the server perspective and it will generate test cases that cover inputs to the server from request parameters. Run Tcases for OpenAPI from the client perspective and it will generate test cases that cover inputs to the client from request responses. For complete testing, both perspectives are needed. Why? Because, based on the OpenAPI definition alone, there is no guarantee that 100% coverage of one side will produce 100% coverage of the other.

Running Tcases for OpenAPI from the command line

You can run Tcases for OpenAPI directly from your shell command line. It's an easy way to examine your OpenAPI definition and to investigate the tests that it generates. If you use bash or a similar UNIX shell, you can run the tcases-api command. Or if you are using a Windows command line, you can run Tcases for OpenAPI with the tcases-api.bat command file, using exactly the same syntax.

tcases-api is included in the Tcases binary distribution file. For instructions on how to download and install it, see Tcases: The Complete Guide. After installation, you can find OpenAPI examples in the docs/examples/openapi subdirectory.

For details about the interface to the tcases-api command (and the tcases-api.bat command, too), see the Javadoc for the ApiCommand.Options class. To get help at the command line, run tcases-api -help.

Examples:

# Generate tests for requests defined in 'my-api.json'. Write results to 'my-api-Request-Tests.json'.
tcases-api my-api.json
# Generate tests for responses defined in 'my-api.json'. Write results to 'otherDir/someTests.json'.
tcases-api -C -f someTests.json -o otherDir my-api.json
# Generate tests for requests defined in the definition read from standard input. (JSON format assumed!)
# Write results to standard output, unless an input modelling condition is found.
# (See 'Test case generation tips'.)
tcases-api -S -c fail < my-api.json
# Generate tests for requests, using example data defined in 'my-api.json'. Write results to 'my-api-Request-Tests.json'.
# (See 'OpenAPI tips, For example test cases'.)
tcases-api -X my-api.json

Running Tcases for OpenAPI using Maven

You can also run Tcases for OpenAPI with the Tcases Maven Plugin, using the tcases:api goal.

To get started, add the following to your Maven project POM.

...
<build>
    <plugins>
        <plugin>
            <groupId>org.cornutum.tcases</groupId>
            <artifactId>tcases-maven-plugin</artifactId>
            <version>...</version>
        </plugin>
        ...
    </plugins>
    ...
</build>
...

Then run the tcases:api goal.

Using the plugin has the advantage that you can process multiple OpenAPI definitions with a single command. Also, tcases:api automatically generates tests for both requests and responses.

Some examples:

# Generate tests for requests and responses defined by all OpenAPI definitions of the 
# form ${basedir}/src/test/tcases/openapi/**/my-api.(json,yaml). Write results to
# ${basedir}/target/tcases/openapi.
mvn tcases:api -Dproject=my-api
# Generate an HTML report of tests for requests and responses for each
# OpenAPI definition found in ${basedir}/src/test/tcases/openapi. Report a failure if
# any input modelling condition is found.
mvn tcases:api -Dhtml=true -DonModellingCondition=fail
# Generate tests for requests, using example data defined by my-api.(json,yaml).
# (See 'OpenAPI tips, For example test cases'.)
mvn tcases:api -Dproject=my-api -Dsource=examples

Semantic linting with Tcases for OpenAPI

Tcases for OpenAPI works by constructing a model of the "input space" for API requests or responses. In other words, a representation of all possible valid inputs to your API. As a result, Tcases for OpenAPI can detect when an API definition that is syntactically valid nevertheless defines an input space that is semantically flawed. For example, it may define a schema that is inconsistent and can never by validated by any instance. Or it may contain elements that are intended to have some effect but actually are superfluous and have no effect at all.

Such semantic flaws are referred to as "input modelling conditions". In most cases, Tcases for OpenAPI can automatically adjust the input space to remove the condition and continue to generate test cases using the modified input space model. In addition, Tcases for OpenAPI will report all input modelling conditions by writing a log message (or by some other method, depending on how you want to handle input modelling conditions). But to be sure your API definition is working as you intended, you need to take a close look at all conditions reported and fix them.

For example, try running the following commands.

cd ${tcases-release-dir}
cd docs/examples/openapi
tcases-api -l stdout api-error.json

You'll see something like the following messages logged to standard output.

...
16:20:10.612 INFO  o.c.tcases.openapi.ApiCommand - Reading API definition from ./api-error.json
16:20:10.840 ERROR o.c.tcases.openapi.InputModeller - Object,/object,POST,param0: minProperties=5 exceeds the total number of properties. Ignoring infeasible minProperties.
16:20:10.857 INFO  o.c.tcases.openapi.ApiCommand - Writing results to ././api-error-Requests-Test.json
...

Why? The schema for param0 contains an infeasible minProperties assertion -- it's impossible for any valid instance to define more that four properties. Tcases for OpenAPI continued to generate test cases that allow at most four properties. But is that really what was intended? Someone needs to fix this API definition, either by removing the infeasible assertion or by making other changes to make it correct.

Some less serious conditions may deserve only a warning. For example, try running the following commands.

cd ${tcases-release-dir}
cd docs/examples/openapi
tcases-api -l stdout api-warn.json

You'll see something like the following messages logged to standard output.

...
17:22:49.304 INFO  o.c.tcases.openapi.ApiCommand - Reading API definition from ./api-warn.json
17:22:49.549 WARN  o.c.tcases.openapi.InputModeller - AllOf,/allOf,POST,param0,allOf[0],anyOf[2]: Ignoring this schema -- not applicable when only instance types=[string] can be valid.
17:22:49.587 WARN  o.c.tcases.openapi.InputModeller - AllOf,/allOf,POST,param0,allOf[0],oneOf[0]: Ignoring this schema -- not applicable when only instance types=[string] can be valid.
17:22:49.592 INFO  o.c.tcases.openapi.ApiCommand - Writing results to ././api-warn-Requests-Test.json
...

Why? The schema for param0 will validate only instances of type string. But it also specifies anyOf and oneOf assertions that include alternative schemas of a different type. These alternative schemas are superfluous -- they can never be validated. Maybe that's OK. Or maybe someone made a mistake!

Transforming generated test cases

The test case definitions generated by Tcases for Open API are not directly executable. Their purpose is to specify and guide the construction of actual tests. But because test case definitions can appear in a well-defined format, it's possible transform them into a more concrete form. Here are some of the options possible.

  • JUnit/TestNG: Use the -J option of the tcases-api command (or if using Maven, the junit parameter of the tcases:api goal). This transforms test cases into Java source code for JUnit/TestNG test methods. For details, see Tcases: The Complete Guide.

  • HTML: Use the -H option of the tcases-api command (or if using Maven, the html parameter of the tcases:api goal). This transforms test cases into browser-friendly HTML report. For details, see Tcases: The Complete Guide.

  • Custom XSLT transform: Use the -x, -p, and -f options of the tcases-api command (or if using Maven, the transformDef, transformParams, and transformOutFile parameters of the tcases:api goal). This generates test cases in the form of an XML document, which is then transformed by the specified XSLT transform. If you want to see what test cases look like in XML, apply the following command to your OpenAPI definition:

    tcases-api -I < my-api.json | tcases -T json -f my-api-Test.xml
    

Using the Java API for Tcases for OpenAPI

You can also run Tcases for OpenAPI by integrating it into your own Java application. If you are processing OpenAPI specs in the form of files or IO streams, you can use the methods of the TcasesOpenApiIO class to generate input and test models from either the server or client perspective. These methods are based on lower-level classes like TcasesOpenApi, which operate directly with the Java API for OpenAPI. In turn, both classes are based on the Tcases Core API for manipulating system and test models.

Your Java application can even produce executable tests, using the TestWriter API for Tcases for OpenAPI.

OpenAPI tips

To use Tcases for OpenAPI effectively, there are some things to keep in mind when you're building your OpenAPI definition.

  1. Use Version 3. Tcases for OpenAPI is based on the specification for OpenAPI Version 3.0.2. Earlier Version 2.X specs are not supported.

  2. Some security schemes not supported. Tcases for OpenAPI currently supports the following request security schemes -- other schemes are ignored.

    • API key
    • HTTP Basic authentication
    • HTTP Bearer authentication
  3. Avoid type-ambiguous schemas. A schema that does not define a type keyword can validate multiple types of instances. But Tcases for OpenAPI expects you to be more explicit about which instance types are valid. Here's how to do that.

    • Define the type keyword. Such a schema will validate only instances of the specified type.

    • Or define schema keywords that apply to only a single instance type. Tcases for OpenAPI will assume that this schema is intended to validate only instances of the implied type. For example, a schema that defines only the minLength keyword has an implied type of string, and Tcases for OpenAPI will handle this schema as if type: "string" was defined.

    • Or define only generic schema keywords. For example, keywords like nullable, allOf, oneOf, etc. are generic -- they apply to any instance type.

    • But don't mix schema keyword types. Tcases for OpenAPI does not accept schema definitions that imply multiple types. For example, a minLength keyword, which implies type: "string", together with an items keyword, which implies type: "array", is not accepted. Although mixed-type schemas are allowed in OpenAPI, they imply a very large and complex input space. (Probably much more than was actually intended!) Fortunately, it's easy to avoid them. In cases where different types of values are actually expected, you can define this explicitly using the oneOf keyword.

  4. For example test cases, define example data judiciously. You can generate test cases using the examples defined in your OpenAPI definition. For best results, you should try to ensure that example data is defined for every input data item. Fortunately, there are lots of ways to do that.

    • You can do it explicitly at a high level, by defining the examples or example field for a request parameter or a content object.

    • You can do it explicitly at a lower level, by defining the example field of a schema.

    • For an object schema, you don't need a top-level example if example data is defined for each property schema.

    • Similarly, for an array schema, you don't need a top-level example if example data is defined for the items schema.

    • For a schema that uses enum to list valid data, no other examples are necessary.

    • For a boolean schema, only true and false are valid, so no other examples are necessary.

    • For a basic type schema (integer, number, or string), if no example is defined, the default data value is used instead.

    • What about a schema that is based on boolean combinations of sub-schemas (e.g. allOf, oneOf, etc.)? If no example is defined explicitly, can example data be assembled from the sub-schemas? Yes, but only under certain conditions. The basic rule is that example data can be assembled only if it is not required to satisfy two or more different sets of assertions. Therefore, example data can be assembled from sub-schemas only if:

      • there is no not assertion,
      • there is no allOf assertion,
      • there is either an anyOf or a oneOf assertion but not both,
      • and if anyOf or oneOf is specified, it is the only schema assertion.
    • When none of the sources of example data listed above are available, input values are defined using the default method (i.e. based on the schema definition). This fills in the gap in example data, but it may produce input values that are less suitable for "happy path" tests.

Test case generation tips

  1. Handle input modelling conditions. Tcases for OpenAPI reports conditions in your OpenAPI definition that will affect how test cases are generated. Warning conditions are reported with an explanation of the situation. Error conditions report elements in your definition that may need to be changed to generate tests correctly. By default, conditions are reported by writing log messages. By specifying a different ModelConditionNotifier, you can cause these conditions to throw an exception or to be completely ignored. You can do this at the command line using the -c option of the tcases-api command. You can even customize condition handling using your own implementation of the ModelConditionNotifier interface in the ModelOptions used by Tcases for OpenAPI.

  2. Handle "readOnly" and "writeOnly" properties. The OpenAPI standard defines how you can identify data object properties as "readOnly" or "writeOnly". Strict enforcement of "readOnly" or "writeOnly" properties is not required. But how your API handles these such properties will affect your test cases. By default, Tcases for OpenAPI generates tests assuming that optional "readOnly" and "writeOnly" restrictions are not enforced. But you can change the ModelOptions to assume strict enforcement when generating tests cases. You can do this at the command line with the -R and -W options of the tcases-api command.