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Proof of Vulnerability (POV) in CFE

The DARPA CGC FAQ (see https://cgc.darpa.mil/documents.aspx) in question 29, details POV methods for CFE. Two methods for demonstrating a POV are detailed, "Method 1", and "Method 2" hereafter referred to as Type 1 and Type 2 POVs respectively.

A Type 1 POV requires execution of the remote CB/RB to fault at an instruction pointer location negotiated with the CFE Competition Framework with the requirement that one additional general purpose register also contains a second value negotiated with the CFE Competition Framework. This negotiation process is described below.

A Type 2 POV is required to read a specific number of bytes dictated by the Competition Framework from anywhere within a memory range specified by the Competition Framework. The bytes retrieved by the POV are then submitted to the Competition Framework for verification against the known expected values. Type 2 negotiation is described below.

Type 1 POV Negotiation

Type 1 Negotiation in CGC Binary Style POVs

File descriptor 3 shall be used to carry out POV type negotiations. A Type 1 POV shall demonstrate control over a remote CB/RB's instruction pointer and one additional general purpose register to a degree of precision negotiated with the competition framework. A successful Type 1 POV must result in the target binary faulting at the negotiated instruction pointer address with one additional general purpose register containing the second negotiated value.

A Type 1 negotiation is initiated by the POV by first transmitting, on file descriptor 3, the 32-bit, little endian value: 1, then transmitting 3, 32-bit, little-endian integers. The first of these three integers is known as the "ipmask" and is used to specify a mask of 32 bits that the POV asserts it can control in the CB/RB's instruction pointer. In order to be considered valid, at least 20 bits in the mask must be set to 1. An invalid mask will result in a failed POV attempt. A valid mask will cause the competition infrastructure to return 20 (or more as specified by the provided mask) bits that must appear verbatim in the instruction pointer at the moment the remote binary terminates in a faulting state. This negotiated value may be obtained by the POV by receiving the first available 32-bit, little endian integer value from file descriptor 3.

The second, 32-bit, little endian integer transmitted by the POV during a Type 1 negotiation is known as the "regmask" and is used to specify a mask of at least 20 bits that the POV asserts it can control in one of the remote CB/RB's general purpose registers. An invalid mask will result in a failed POV attempt. A valid mask will cause the competition infrastructure to return 20 (or more as specif ed by the provided mask) bits that must appear verbatim in the general purpose register specified during the Type 1 negotiation at the time the challenge/replacement binary faults at the negotiated instruction pointer location. This negotiated value may be obtained by the POV by receiving the second available 32-bit, little endian integer value from file descriptor 3.

The third, 32-bit, little endian integer transmitted by the POV during a Type 1 negotiation is known as the "regnum" and is used to specify the general purpose register that will contain the negotiated register value at the time of the CB/RB fault. The following register mapping shall be used to select one of eight general purpose registers:

0 - eax 1 - ecx 2 - edx 3 - ebx 4 - esp 5 - ebp 6 - esi 7 - edi

It is the responsibility of the POV to incorporate the negotiated eip and general purpose values into the content that is exchanged with the remote CB/RB in order to cause the remote CB/RB to fault in the state negotiated with the competition framework.

Type 1 Negotiation in XML Style POVs

All POVs used during CFE shall be in the form of CGC binaries, however to assist with the transition from CQE to CFE, an XML specification for CFE POVs has been created by extending the CQE POV XML dtd to allow for POV type negotiations. All XML style POVs shall be converted to C source code utilizing the pov-xml2c utility after which they shall be compiled to CGC binaries representing the final executable form of the POV. The libpov library exists for the sole purpose of supporting this conversion process.

The specific XML elements responsible for Type 1 POV negotiation are the , , , , and elements. These elements specify the required components of a Type 1 POV negotiation as detailed above. An example of such a negotiation follows:

0xBABABABA 0xD5D5D5D5 7

Within the remaining replay elements, the negotiated instruction pointer value may be referred using the variable TYPE1_IP, and the negotiated general purpose register value may be referred to using the variable TYPE1_REG.

Type 2 POV Negotiation

Type 2 Negotiation in CGC Binary Style POVs

File descriptor 3 shall be used to carry out POV type negotiations. A Type 2 POV shall demonstrate the ability to read the contents of arbitrary memory locations within the challenge/replacement binary as dictated by a negotiation with the competition framework.

For each attempt at a Type 2 POV, the competition infrastructure shall create a private region within the remote CB/RB that is the subject of the POV. The competition infrastructure shall populate this region with random, secret flag data.

A Type 2 negotiation is initiated by the POV by transmitting, on file descriptor 3, the 32-bit little endian value: 2. The competition framework shall respond with 3, 32-bit, little-endian integers specifying details about the private memory region and the amount of information to be obtained by the POV.

The first of these three integers is known as the "type2_addr" value and specifies the base address of the private memory region. The second integer transmitted to the POV is known as the "type2_size" value and specifies the size of the the private memory region. The private memory region shall span a contiguous block within the CB/RB memory space as defined by the address range type2_addr (inclusive) to (type2_addr + type2_size) (exclusive). The third integer transmitted to the POV is known as the "type2_length" value and represents the number of contiguous bytes that the POV must obtain from any location within the private memory region.

A Type 2 POV demonstrates its success by transmitting the "type2_length" bytes it has obtained from the CB/RB binary to the competition framework on file descriptor 3. The competition framework will then judge the correctness of the submission and score the POV accordingly.

Type 2 Negotiation in XML Style POVs

All POVs used during CFE shall be in the form of CGC binaries, however to assist with the transition from CQE to CFE, an XML specification for CFE POVs has been created by extending the CQE POV XML dtd to allow for POV type negotiations. All XML style POVs shall be converted to C source code utilizing the pov-xml2c utility after which they shall be compiled to CGC binaries representing the final executable form of the POV. The libpov library exists for the sole purpose of supporting this conversion process.

The specific XML elements responsible for Type 2 POV negotiation are the , , and elements. These elements specify the required components of a Type 2 POV negotiation as detailed above. An example of such a negotiation follows:

MY_TYPE2_DATA

Following the negotiate element, the negotiated type2_addr, type2_size, and type2_length values may be referred using the variables TYPE2_ADDR, TYPE2_SIZE, and TYPE2_LENGTH respectively.

The POV should assign the required secret flag data into the variable TYPE2_VALUE (or any other variable that is then referenced in a element.

SEE ALSO

For information regarding submitting a CB, see submitting-a-cb.md
For information regarding testing a CB, see testing-a-cb.md
For information regarding debugging a CB, see debugging-a-cb.md
For information regarding building a CB, see building-a-cb.md
For information regarding XML markup for CFE POVs, see cfe-pov-markup-spec.txt