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The GDC D Compiler

Buildkite Cirrus CI Bugzilla Issues License

GDC is the GCC-based D language compiler, integrating the open source DMDFE D front end with GCC as the backend. The GNU D Compiler (GDC) project was originally started by David Friedman in 2004 until early 2007 when he disappeared from the D scene, and was no longer able to maintain GDC. Following a revival attempt in 2008, GDC is now under the lead of Iain Buclaw who has been steering the project since 2009 with the assistance of its contributors, without them the project would not have been nearly as successful as it has been.

Documentation on GDC is available from the wiki. Any bugs or issues found with using GDC should be reported at the GCC bugzilla site with the bug component set to d. For help with GDC, the D.gnu mailing list is the place to go with questions or problems. There's also a GDC IRC channel at #d.gdc on FreeNode. Any questions which are related to the D language, but not directly to the GDC compiler, can be asked in the D forums. You can find more information about D, including example code, API documentation, tutorials and these forums at the main D website.

Building GDC

Stable GDC releases for production usage should be obtained by downloading stable GCC sources from the GCC downloads site. For the latest experimental development version, simply download a GCC snapshot or checkout the GCC Git repository. Most GDC development directly targets the GCC Git repository, so the latest GDC version is always available in the GCC Git. Do not use the ci/mainline branch in this repository, as it is rebased regularly and contains exclusively CI related changes.

During certain development phases (e.g. when GCC is in a feature freeze) larger GDC changes may be staged to the devel/gdc branch. This branch is rebased irregularly, do not rely on the commit ids to be stable.

If you need to clone this repo for some reason, you may want to do a shallow clone using the --depth 1 --no-single-branch git options, as this repository is large. To compile GDC, add --enable-languages=d to the GCC configure flags and start building.

Using GDC

Usage information can be found at ...

Contributing to GDC

Starting with GCC 9.0.0, GDC has been merged into upstream GCC and all GDC development now follows the usual GCC development process. Changes to GDC and related code can therefore be submitted to the gcc-patches mailing list for review.

It is possible to directly post patches to the mailing list and not to use this repository at all. We however recommend using this repository to make use of the CI checks and the github review workflow.

Submitting Changes

To submit changes to GDC, simply fork this repository, create a new feature branch based on the ci/mainline branch, then open a pull request against the mainline branch. We recommend using full clones for development, allthough using shallow clones should also be possible. In code:

# Initial one time setup:
# For repository on github, then clone your fork
git clone git@github.com:[you]/gcc.git
cd gcc
# Add the gdc repository as a remote
git remote add gdc git@github.com:D-Programming-GDC/gcc.git

# Do this for every patch:
# Fetch latest upstream changes
git remote update
# Base a new branch on gdc/mainline
git checkout gdc/ci/mainline
git checkout -b pr12345
# Make changes, commit
git commit [...]
git push origin pr12345:pr12345
# Open a pull request on github, target branch: mainline

Opening a pull request will automatically trigger our CI and test your changes on various machines.

Changelogs

The GCC project requires keeping changes in the Changelog files. GCC ships a script which can generate Changelog templates for us if we feed it a diff:

git diff gdc/ci/mainline | ./contrib/mklog

Note: The above command generates the diff between gdc/ci/mainline and your local branch. If gdc/ci/mainline was updated and you did a git remote update, gdc/mainline may have changes which are not yet in your branch. In that case, rebase onto gdc/mainline first.

The command outputs something like this:

ChangeLog:

2019-02-03  Johannes Pfau  <johannespfau@example.com>

	* test.d: New file.

gcc/d/ChangeLog:

2019-02-03  Johannes Pfau  <johannespfau@example.com>

	* dfile.txt: New file.

libphobos/ChangeLog:

2019-02-03  Johannes Pfau  <johannespfau@example.com>

	* phobosfile.txt: New file.

The ChangeLog:, libphobos/ChangeLog: part gives the file into which the following changes need to be added. Complete the changelog text and use the existing entries in the files for reference or see the GCC and GNU documentation. Also make sure to adhere to the line length limit of 80 characters. Then make the changelog somehow available for review: Either commit the files, or preferable, just copy and paste the edited text output of mklog into your pull request description.

Getting Changes Into GCC Git

After changes have been reviewed on github, they have to be pushed into the GCC Git. Pull requests will not get merged into this repository. The following steps can be handled by GDC maintainers, although it is possible to perform these by yourself as well.

Sumbitting to the gcc-patches Mailing List

Once the review and CI have passed on the github pull request page, the changes need to be submitted to the gcc-patches mailing list. This can easily be done using git send-email:

  1. You might want to squash the commits. Each commit will become one email/patch so it might make sense to combine commits here.
  2. The changelog should preferrably be pasted into the email text, so do not include commits modifying the changelog files.
  3. If you had to regenerate any autogenerated files (e.g. configure from configure.ac) you may keep these changes out of the patch for simplified review. The generated files should still be present in the changelog.

You'll have to configure git send-email once after you checked out the repository:

git config sendemail.to gcc-patches@gcc.gnu.org

If you never used git send-email before, you'll also have to setup the SMTP settings once. See here for details.

Now to send the patches:

# Check which commits will be sent:
git log gdc/ci/mainline..
# Check the complete diff which will be sent:
git diff gdc/ci/mainline..
# Dry run to verify everything again
git send-email gdc/ci/mainline --annotate --dry-run
# Send the patches
git send-email gdc/ci/mainline --annotate

If you send multiple patches and want to write an introduction email, use the --compose argument for git send-email. You can also generate patch files like this:

git format-patch gdc/ci/mainline..
# Edit the *.patch files, add messages etc.
# Now send the patches
git send-email *.patch --dry-run
git send-email *.patch
Pushing Changes to Git

This section is only relevant for GDC maintainers with GCC Git write access. There are certain rules when pushing to Git, usually you're only allowed to push after the patches have been reviewed on the mailing list. Refer to the GCC documentation for details.

Repository Information

This repository is a fork of the GCC git mirror.

Directory Structure

All code branches contain the complete GCC tree. D sources are in gcc/d for the compiler and in libphobos for the runtime library. Changes to files in gcc/d/dmd or libphobos should be submitted to the upstream dlang repositories first if possible. Refer to gcc/d/README.gcc for more details.

Branches

Branches in this repository are organized in the following way:

  • CI branches: The ci/mainline branch and release branches ci/gcc-* are based on the same branches in the upstream GCC git repository. The only changes compared to the upstream branches are CI-related setup commits. CI branches are updated automatically to be kept in sync with upstream and are rebased onto the upstream changes. These branches are effectively readonly: We never merge into the branches in this repository. The CI related changes make it possible to run CI based tests for any PR based on these branches, which is their sole purpose.
  • The devel/gdc branch: If GCC is in a late development stage this branch can accumulate changes for the GCC release after the next one. It is essentially used to allow periodic merges from upstream DMD when GCC development is frozen. Changes in the GCC mainline branch are manually merged into this branch. When GCC enters stage 1 development again, this branch will be rebased and pushed to upstream mainline. After that, the branch in this repository will be rebased to mainline.
  • Backport branches: The gcc-*-bp branches contain D frontend and library feature updates for released GCC versions. Regression fixes should target the main gcc-*-branch branches instead, according to GCC rules.

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