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// Written in the D programming language.

/**
* Signals and Slots are an implementation of the Observer Pattern.
* Essentially, when a Signal is emitted, a list of connected Observers
* (called slots) are called.
*
* There have been several D implementations of Signals and Slots.
* This version makes use of several new features in D, which make
* using it simpler and less error prone. In particular, it is no
* longer necessary to instrument the slots.
*
* References:
* $(LUCKY A Deeper Look at Signals and Slots)$(BR)
* $(LINK2 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Observer_pattern, Observer pattern)$(BR)
* $(LINK2 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Signals_and_slots, Wikipedia)$(BR)
* $(LINK2 http://boost.org/doc/html/$(SIGNALS).html, Boost Signals)$(BR)
* $(LINK2 http://doc.trolltech.com/4.1/signalsandslots.html, Qt)$(BR)
*
* There has been a great deal of discussion in the D newsgroups
* over this, and several implementations:
*
* $(LINK2 http://www.digitalmars.com/d/archives/digitalmars/D/announce/signal_slots_library_4825.html, signal slots library)$(BR)
* $(LINK2 http://www.digitalmars.com/d/archives/digitalmars/D/Signals_and_Slots_in_D_42387.html, Signals and Slots in D)$(BR)
* $(LINK2 http://www.digitalmars.com/d/archives/digitalmars/D/Dynamic_binding_--_Qt_s_Signals_and_Slots_vs_Objective-C_42260.html, Dynamic binding -- Qt's Signals and Slots vs Objective-C)$(BR)
* $(LINK2 http://www.digitalmars.com/d/archives/digitalmars/D/Dissecting_the_SS_42377.html, Dissecting the SS)$(BR)
* $(LINK2 http://www.digitalmars.com/d/archives/digitalmars/D/dwt/about_harmonia_454.html, about harmonia)$(BR)
* $(LINK2 http://www.digitalmars.com/d/archives/digitalmars/D/announce/1502.html, Another event handling module)$(BR)
* $(LINK2 http://www.digitalmars.com/d/archives/digitalmars/D/41825.html, Suggestion: signal/slot mechanism)$(BR)
* $(LINK2 http://www.digitalmars.com/d/archives/digitalmars/D/13251.html, Signals and slots?)$(BR)
* $(LINK2 http://www.digitalmars.com/d/archives/digitalmars/D/10714.html, Signals and slots ready for evaluation)$(BR)
* $(LINK2 http://www.digitalmars.com/d/archives/digitalmars/D/1393.html, Signals & Slots for Walter)$(BR)
* $(LINK2 http://www.digitalmars.com/d/archives/28456.html, Signal/Slot mechanism?)$(BR)
* $(LINK2 http://www.digitalmars.com/d/archives/19470.html, Modern Features?)$(BR)
* $(LINK2 http://www.digitalmars.com/d/archives/16592.html, Delegates vs interfaces)$(BR)
* $(LINK2 http://www.digitalmars.com/d/archives/16583.html, The importance of component programming (properties$(COMMA) signals and slots$(COMMA) etc))$(BR)
* $(LINK2 http://www.digitalmars.com/d/archives/16368.html, signals and slots)$(BR)
*
* Bugs:
* Slots can only be delegates formed from class objects or
* interfaces to class objects. If a delegate to something else
* is passed to connect(), such as a struct member function,
* a nested function or a COM interface, undefined behavior
* will result.
*
* Not safe for multiple threads operating on the same signals
* or slots.
* Macros:
* WIKI = Phobos/StdSignals
* SIGNALS=signals
*
* Copyright: Copyright Digital Mars 2000 - 2009.
* License: <a href="http://www.boost.org/LICENSE_1_0.txt">Boost License 1.0</a>.
* Authors: $(WEB digitalmars.com, Walter Bright)
* Source: $(PHOBOSSRC std/_signals.d)
*/
/* Copyright Digital Mars 2000 - 2009.
* Distributed under the Boost Software License, Version 1.0.
* (See accompanying file LICENSE_1_0.txt or copy at
* http://www.boost.org/LICENSE_1_0.txt)
*/
module std.signals;

import std.stdio;
import std.c.stdlib : calloc, realloc, free;
import core.exception : onOutOfMemoryError;

// Special function for internal use only.
// Use of this is where the slot had better be a delegate
// to an object or an interface that is part of an object.
extern (C) Object _d_toObject(void* p);

// Used in place of Object.notifyRegister and Object.notifyUnRegister.
alias DisposeEvt = void delegate(Object);
extern (C) void rt_attachDisposeEvent( Object obj, DisposeEvt evt );
extern (C) void rt_detachDisposeEvent( Object obj, DisposeEvt evt );
//debug=signal;

/************************
* Mixin to create a signal within a class object.
*
* Different signals can be added to a class by naming the mixins.
*
* Example:
---
import std.signals;
import std.stdio;

class Observer
{ // our slot
void watch(string msg, int i)
{
writefln("Observed msg '%s' and value %s", msg, i);
}
}

class Foo
{
int value() { return _value; }

int value(int v)
{
if (v != _value)
{ _value = v;
// call all the connected slots with the two parameters
emit("setting new value", v);
}
return v;
}

// Mix in all the code we need to make Foo into a signal
mixin Signal!(string, int);

private :
int _value;
}

void main()
{
Foo a = new Foo;
Observer o = new Observer;

a.value = 3; // should not call o.watch()
a.connect(&o.watch); // o.watch is the slot
a.value = 4; // should call o.watch()
a.disconnect(&o.watch); // o.watch is no longer a slot
a.value = 5; // so should not call o.watch()
a.connect(&o.watch); // connect again
a.value = 6; // should call o.watch()
destroy(o); // destroying o should automatically disconnect it
a.value = 7; // should not call o.watch()
}
---
* which should print:
* <pre>
* Observed msg 'setting new value' and value 4
* Observed msg 'setting new value' and value 6
* </pre>
*
*/

mixin template Signal(T1...)
{
    static import std.c.stdlib;
    static import core.exception;
    /***
* A slot is implemented as a delegate.
* The slot_t is the type of the delegate.
* The delegate must be to an instance of a class or an interface
* to a class instance.
* Delegates to struct instances or nested functions must not be
* used as slots.
*/
    alias slot_t = void delegate(T1);

    /***
* Call each of the connected slots, passing the argument(s) i to them.
*/
    final void emit( T1 i )
    {
        foreach (slot; slots[0 .. slots_idx])
        { if (slot)
                slot(i);
        }
    }

    /***
* Add a slot to the list of slots to be called when emit() is called.
*/
    final void connect(slot_t slot)
    {
        /* Do this:
* slots ~= slot;
* but use malloc() and friends instead
*/
        auto len = slots.length;
        if (slots_idx == len)
        {
            if (slots.length == 0)
            {
                len = 4;
                auto p = std.c.stdlib.calloc(slot_t.sizeof, len);
                if (!p)
                    core.exception.onOutOfMemoryError();
                slots = (cast(slot_t*)p)[0 .. len];
            }
            else
            {
                len = len * 2 + 4;
                auto p = std.c.stdlib.realloc(slots.ptr, slot_t.sizeof * len);
                if (!p)
                    core.exception.onOutOfMemoryError();
                slots = (cast(slot_t*)p)[0 .. len];
                slots[slots_idx + 1 .. $] = null;
            }
        }
        slots[slots_idx++] = slot;

     L1:
        Object o = _d_toObject(slot.ptr);
        rt_attachDisposeEvent(o, &unhook);
    }

    /***
* Remove a slot from the list of slots to be called when emit() is called.
*/
    final void disconnect(slot_t slot)
    {
        debug (signal) writefln("Signal.disconnect(slot)");
        for (size_t i = 0; i < slots_idx; )
        {
            if (slots[i] == slot)
            { slots_idx--;
                slots[i] = slots[slots_idx];
                slots[slots_idx] = null; // not strictly necessary

                Object o = _d_toObject(slot.ptr);
                rt_detachDisposeEvent(o, &unhook);
            }
            else
                i++;
        }
    }

    /* **
* Special function called when o is destroyed.
* It causes any slots dependent on o to be removed from the list
* of slots to be called by emit().
*/
    final void unhook(Object o)
    {
        debug (signal) writefln("Signal.unhook(o = %s)", cast(void*)o);
        for (size_t i = 0; i < slots_idx; )
        {
            if (_d_toObject(slots[i].ptr) is o)
            { slots_idx--;
                slots[i] = slots[slots_idx];
                slots[slots_idx] = null; // not strictly necessary
            }
            else
                i++;
        }
    }

    /* **
* There can be multiple destructors inserted by mixins.
*/
    ~this()
    {
        /* **
* When this object is destroyed, need to let every slot
* know that this object is destroyed so they are not left
* with dangling references to it.
*/
        if (slots)
        {
            foreach (slot; slots[0 .. slots_idx])
            {
                if (slot)
                { Object o = _d_toObject(slot.ptr);
                    rt_detachDisposeEvent(o, &unhook);
                }
            }
            std.c.stdlib.free(slots.ptr);
            slots = null;
        }
    }

  private:
    slot_t[] slots; // the slots to call from emit()
    size_t slots_idx; // used length of slots[]
}

// A function whose sole purpose is to get this module linked in
// so the unittest will run.
void linkin() { }

unittest
{
    class Observer
    {
        void watch(string msg, int i)
        {
            //writefln("Observed msg '%s' and value %s", msg, i);
            captured_value = i;
            captured_msg = msg;
        }

        int captured_value;
        string captured_msg;
    }

    class Foo
    {
        @property int value() { return _value; }

        @property int value(int v)
        {
            if (v != _value)
            { _value = v;
                emit("setting new value", v);
            }
            return v;
        }

        mixin Signal!(string, int);

      private:
        int _value;
    }

    Foo a = new Foo;
    Observer o = new Observer;

    // check initial condition
    assert(o.captured_value == 0);
    assert(o.captured_msg == "");

    // set a value while no observation is in place
    a.value = 3;
    assert(o.captured_value == 0);
    assert(o.captured_msg == "");

    // connect the watcher and trigger it
    a.connect(&o.watch);
    a.value = 4;
    assert(o.captured_value == 4);
    assert(o.captured_msg == "setting new value");

    // disconnect the watcher and make sure it doesn't trigger
    a.disconnect(&o.watch);
    a.value = 5;
    assert(o.captured_value == 4);
    assert(o.captured_msg == "setting new value");

    // reconnect the watcher and make sure it triggers
    a.connect(&o.watch);
    a.value = 6;
    assert(o.captured_value == 6);
    assert(o.captured_msg == "setting new value");

    // destroy the underlying object and make sure it doesn't cause
    // a crash or other problems
    destroy(o);
    a.value = 7;
}

unittest {
    class Observer
    {
        int i;
        long l;
        string str;

        void watchInt(string str, int i)
        {
            this.str = str;
            this.i = i;
        }

        void watchLong(string str, long l)
        {
            this.str = str;
            this.l = l;
        }
    }

    class Bar
    {
        @property void value1(int v) { s1.emit("str1", v); }
        @property void value2(int v) { s2.emit("str2", v); }
        @property void value3(long v) { s3.emit("str3", v); }

        mixin Signal!(string, int) s1;
        mixin Signal!(string, int) s2;
        mixin Signal!(string, long) s3;
    }

    void test(T)(T a) {
        auto o1 = new Observer;
        auto o2 = new Observer;
        auto o3 = new Observer;

        // connect the watcher and trigger it
        a.s1.connect(&o1.watchInt);
        a.s2.connect(&o2.watchInt);
        a.s3.connect(&o3.watchLong);

        assert(!o1.i && !o1.l && !o1.str);
        assert(!o2.i && !o2.l && !o2.str);
        assert(!o3.i && !o3.l && !o3.str);

        a.value1 = 11;
        assert(o1.i == 11 && !o1.l && o1.str == "str1");
        assert(!o2.i && !o2.l && !o2.str);
        assert(!o3.i && !o3.l && !o3.str);
        o1.i = -11; o1.str = "x1";

        a.value2 = 12;
        assert(o1.i == -11 && !o1.l && o1.str == "x1");
        assert(o2.i == 12 && !o2.l && o2.str == "str2");
        assert(!o3.i && !o3.l && !o3.str);
        o2.i = -12; o2.str = "x2";

        a.value3 = 13;
        assert(o1.i == -11 && !o1.l && o1.str == "x1");
        assert(o2.i == -12 && !o1.l && o2.str == "x2");
        assert(!o3.i && o3.l == 13 && o3.str == "str3");
        o3.l = -13; o3.str = "x3";

        // disconnect the watchers and make sure it doesn't trigger
        a.s1.disconnect(&o1.watchInt);
        a.s2.disconnect(&o2.watchInt);
        a.s3.disconnect(&o3.watchLong);

        a.value1 = 21;
        a.value2 = 22;
        a.value3 = 23;
        assert(o1.i == -11 && !o1.l && o1.str == "x1");
        assert(o2.i == -12 && !o1.l && o2.str == "x2");
        assert(!o3.i && o3.l == -13 && o3.str == "x3");

        // reconnect the watcher and make sure it triggers
        a.s1.connect(&o1.watchInt);
        a.s2.connect(&o2.watchInt);
        a.s3.connect(&o3.watchLong);

        a.value1 = 31;
        a.value2 = 32;
        a.value3 = 33;
        assert(o1.i == 31 && !o1.l && o1.str == "str1");
        assert(o2.i == 32 && !o1.l && o2.str == "str2");
        assert(!o3.i && o3.l == 33 && o3.str == "str3");

        // destroy observers
        destroy(o1);
        destroy(o2);
        destroy(o3);
        a.value1 = 41;
        a.value2 = 42;
        a.value3 = 43;
    }

    test(new Bar);

    class BarDerived: Bar
    {
        @property void value4(int v) { s4.emit("str4", v); }
        @property void value5(int v) { s5.emit("str5", v); }
        @property void value6(long v) { s6.emit("str6", v); }

        mixin Signal!(string, int) s4;
        mixin Signal!(string, int) s5;
        mixin Signal!(string, long) s6;
    }

    auto a = new BarDerived;

    test!Bar(a);
    test!BarDerived(a);

    auto o4 = new Observer;
    auto o5 = new Observer;
    auto o6 = new Observer;

    // connect the watcher and trigger it
    a.s4.connect(&o4.watchInt);
    a.s5.connect(&o5.watchInt);
    a.s6.connect(&o6.watchLong);

    assert(!o4.i && !o4.l && !o4.str);
    assert(!o5.i && !o5.l && !o5.str);
    assert(!o6.i && !o6.l && !o6.str);

    a.value4 = 44;
    assert(o4.i == 44 && !o4.l && o4.str == "str4");
    assert(!o5.i && !o5.l && !o5.str);
    assert(!o6.i && !o6.l && !o6.str);
    o4.i = -44; o4.str = "x4";

    a.value5 = 45;
    assert(o4.i == -44 && !o4.l && o4.str == "x4");
    assert(o5.i == 45 && !o5.l && o5.str == "str5");
    assert(!o6.i && !o6.l && !o6.str);
    o5.i = -45; o5.str = "x5";

    a.value6 = 46;
    assert(o4.i == -44 && !o4.l && o4.str == "x4");
    assert(o5.i == -45 && !o4.l && o5.str == "x5");
    assert(!o6.i && o6.l == 46 && o6.str == "str6");
    o6.l = -46; o6.str = "x6";

    // disconnect the watchers and make sure it doesn't trigger
    a.s4.disconnect(&o4.watchInt);
    a.s5.disconnect(&o5.watchInt);
    a.s6.disconnect(&o6.watchLong);

    a.value4 = 54;
    a.value5 = 55;
    a.value6 = 56;
    assert(o4.i == -44 && !o4.l && o4.str == "x4");
    assert(o5.i == -45 && !o4.l && o5.str == "x5");
    assert(!o6.i && o6.l == -46 && o6.str == "x6");

    // reconnect the watcher and make sure it triggers
    a.s4.connect(&o4.watchInt);
    a.s5.connect(&o5.watchInt);
    a.s6.connect(&o6.watchLong);

    a.value4 = 64;
    a.value5 = 65;
    a.value6 = 66;
    assert(o4.i == 64 && !o4.l && o4.str == "str4");
    assert(o5.i == 65 && !o4.l && o5.str == "str5");
    assert(!o6.i && o6.l == 66 && o6.str == "str6");

    // destroy observers
    destroy(o4);
    destroy(o5);
    destroy(o6);
    a.value4 = 44;
    a.value5 = 45;
    a.value6 = 46;
}

version(none) // Disabled because of dmd @@@BUG5028@@@
unittest
{
    class A
    {
        mixin Signal!(string, int) s1;
    }

    class B : A
    {
        mixin Signal!(string, int) s2;
    }
}
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