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<div class="document" id="dfhack-lua-api">
<h1 class="title">DFHack Lua API</h1>
<div class="contents topic" id="contents">
<p class="topic-title first">Contents</p>
<ul class="simple">
<li><a class="reference internal" href="#df-data-structure-wrapper" id="id1">DF data structure wrapper</a><ul>
<li><a class="reference internal" href="#typed-object-references" id="id2">Typed object references</a><ul>
<li><a class="reference internal" href="#primitive-references" id="id3">Primitive references</a></li>
<li><a class="reference internal" href="#struct-references" id="id4">Struct references</a></li>
<li><a class="reference internal" href="#container-references" id="id5">Container references</a></li>
<li><a class="reference internal" href="#bitfield-references" id="id6">Bitfield references</a></li>
<li><a class="reference internal" href="#named-types" id="id7">Named types</a></li>
<li><a class="reference internal" href="#global-functions" id="id8">Global functions</a></li>
<li><a class="reference internal" href="#recursive-table-assignment" id="id9">Recursive table assignment</a></li>
<li><a class="reference internal" href="#dfhack-api" id="id10">DFHack API</a><ul>
<li><a class="reference internal" href="#native-utilities" id="id11">Native utilities</a><ul>
<li><a class="reference internal" href="#input-output" id="id12">Input &amp; Output</a></li>
<li><a class="reference internal" href="#exception-handling" id="id13">Exception handling</a></li>
<li><a class="reference internal" href="#miscellaneous" id="id14">Miscellaneous</a></li>
<li><a class="reference internal" href="#locking-and-finalization" id="id15">Locking and finalization</a></li>
<li><a class="reference internal" href="#persistent-configuration-storage" id="id16">Persistent configuration storage</a></li>
<li><a class="reference internal" href="#material-info-lookup" id="id17">Material info lookup</a></li>
<li><a class="reference internal" href="#c-function-wrappers" id="id18">C++ function wrappers</a><ul>
<li><a class="reference internal" href="#gui-module" id="id19">Gui module</a></li>
<li><a class="reference internal" href="#job-module" id="id20">Job module</a></li>
<li><a class="reference internal" href="#units-module" id="id21">Units module</a></li>
<li><a class="reference internal" href="#items-module" id="id22">Items module</a></li>
<li><a class="reference internal" href="#maps-module" id="id23">Maps module</a></li>
<li><a class="reference internal" href="#burrows-module" id="id24">Burrows module</a></li>
<li><a class="reference internal" href="#buildings-module" id="id25">Buildings module</a></li>
<li><a class="reference internal" href="#constructions-module" id="id26">Constructions module</a></li>
<li><a class="reference internal" href="#screen-api" id="id27">Screen API</a></li>
<li><a class="reference internal" href="#internal-api" id="id28">Internal API</a></li>
<li><a class="reference internal" href="#core-interpreter-context" id="id29">Core interpreter context</a><ul>
<li><a class="reference internal" href="#event-type" id="id30">Event type</a></li>
<li><a class="reference internal" href="#lua-modules" id="id31">Lua Modules</a><ul>
<li><a class="reference internal" href="#global-environment" id="id32">Global environment</a></li>
<li><a class="reference internal" href="#utils" id="id33">utils</a></li>
<li><a class="reference internal" href="#dumper" id="id34">dumper</a></li>
<li><a class="reference internal" href="#class" id="id35">class</a></li>
<li><a class="reference internal" href="#plugins" id="id36">Plugins</a><ul>
<li><a class="reference internal" href="#burrows" id="id37">burrows</a></li>
<li><a class="reference internal" href="#sort" id="id38">sort</a></li>
<li><a class="reference internal" href="#scripts" id="id39">Scripts</a></li>
<p>The current version of DFHack has extensive support for
the Lua scripting language, providing access to:</p>
<ol class="arabic simple">
<li>Raw data structures used by the game.</li>
<li>Many C++ functions for high-level access to these
structures, and interaction with dfhack itself.</li>
<li>Some functions exported by C++ plugins.</li>
<p>Lua code can be used both for writing scripts, which
are treated by DFHack command line prompt almost as
native C++ commands, and invoked by plugins written in c++.</p>
<p>This document describes native API available to Lua in detail.
It does not describe all of the utility functions
implemented by Lua files located in hack/lua/...</p>
<div class="section" id="df-data-structure-wrapper">
<h1><a class="toc-backref" href="#id1">DF data structure wrapper</a></h1>
<p>DF structures described by the xml files in library/xml are exported
to lua code as a tree of objects and functions under the <tt class="docutils literal">df</tt> global,
which broadly maps to the <tt class="docutils literal">df</tt> namespace in C++.</p>
<p><strong>WARNING</strong>: The wrapper provides almost raw access to the memory
of the game, so mistakes in manipulating objects are as likely to
crash the game as equivalent plain C++ code would be. E.g. NULL
pointer access is safely detected, but dangling pointers aren't.</p>
<p>Objects managed by the wrapper can be broadly classified into the following groups:</p>
<ol class="arabic">
<li><p class="first">Typed object pointers (references).</p>
<p>References represent objects in DF memory with a known type.</p>
<p>In addition to fields and methods defined by the wrapped type,
every reference has some built-in properties and methods.</p>
<li><p class="first">Untyped pointers</p>
<p>Represented as lightuserdata.</p>
<p>In assignment to a pointer NULL can be represented either as
<tt class="docutils literal">nil</tt>, or a NULL lightuserdata; reading a NULL pointer field
returns <tt class="docutils literal">nil</tt>.</p>
<li><p class="first">Named types</p>
<p>Objects in the <tt class="docutils literal">df</tt> tree that represent identity of struct, class,
enum and bitfield types. They host nested named types, static
methods, builtin properties &amp; methods, and, for enums and bitfields,
the bi-directional mapping between key names and values.</p>
<li><p class="first">The <tt class="docutils literal">global</tt> object</p>
<p><tt class="docutils literal"></tt> corresponds to the <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">df::global</span></tt> namespace, and
behaves as a mix between a named type and a reference, containing
both nested types and fields corresponding to global symbols.</p>
<p>In addition to the <tt class="docutils literal">global</tt> object and top-level types the <tt class="docutils literal">df</tt>
global also contains a few global builtin utility functions.</p>
<div class="section" id="typed-object-references">
<h2><a class="toc-backref" href="#id2">Typed object references</a></h2>
<p>The underlying primitive lua object is userdata with a metatable.
Every structured field access produces a new userdata instance.</p>
<p>All typed objects have the following built-in features:</p>
<li><p class="first"><tt class="docutils literal">ref1 == ref2</tt>, <tt class="docutils literal">tostring(ref)</tt></p>
<p>References implement equality by type &amp; pointer value, and string conversion.</p>
<li><p class="first"><tt class="docutils literal">pairs(ref)</tt></p>
<p>Returns an iterator for the sequence of actual C++ field names
and values. Fields are enumerated in memory order. Methods and
lua wrapper properties are not included in the iteration.</p>
<p><strong>WARNING</strong>: a few of the data structures (like ui_look_list)
contain unions with pointers to different types with vtables.
Using pairs on such structs is an almost sure way to crash with
an access violation.</p>
<li><p class="first"><tt class="docutils literal">ref._kind</tt></p>
<p>Returns one of: <tt class="docutils literal">primitive</tt>, <tt class="docutils literal">struct</tt>, <tt class="docutils literal">container</tt>,
or <tt class="docutils literal">bitfield</tt>, as appropriate for the referenced object.</p>
<li><p class="first"><tt class="docutils literal">ref._type</tt></p>
<p>Returns the named type object or a string that represents
the referenced object type.</p>
<li><p class="first"><tt class="docutils literal">ref:sizeof()</tt></p>
<p>Returns <em>size, address</em></p>
<li><p class="first"><tt class="docutils literal">ref:new()</tt></p>
<p>Allocates a new instance of the same type, and copies data
from the current object.</p>
<li><p class="first"><tt class="docutils literal">ref:delete()</tt></p>
<p>Destroys the object with the C++ <tt class="docutils literal">delete</tt> operator.
If destructor is not available, returns <em>false</em>.</p>
<p><strong>WARNING</strong>: the lua reference object remains as a dangling
pointer, like a raw C++ pointer would.</p>
<li><p class="first"><tt class="docutils literal">ref:assign(object)</tt></p>
<p>Assigns data from object to ref. Object must either be another
ref of a compatible type, or a lua table; in the latter case
special recursive assignment rules are applied.</p>
<li><p class="first"><tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">ref:_displace(index[,step])</span></tt></p>
<p>Returns a new reference with the pointer adjusted by index*step.
Step defaults to the natural object size.</p>
<div class="section" id="primitive-references">
<h3><a class="toc-backref" href="#id3">Primitive references</a></h3>
<p>References of the <em>_kind</em> <tt class="docutils literal">'primitive'</tt> are used for objects
that don't fit any of the other reference types. Such
references can only appear as a value of a pointer field,
or as a result of calling the <tt class="docutils literal">_field()</tt> method.</p>
<p>They behave as structs with one field <tt class="docutils literal">value</tt> of the right type.</p>
<p>To make working with numeric buffers easier, they also allow
numeric indices. Note that other than excluding negative values
no bound checking is performed, since buffer length is not available.
Index 0 is equivalent to the <tt class="docutils literal">value</tt> field.</p>
<div class="section" id="struct-references">
<h3><a class="toc-backref" href="#id4">Struct references</a></h3>
<p>Struct references are used for class and struct objects.</p>
<p>They implement the following features:</p>
<li><p class="first"><tt class="docutils literal">ref.field</tt>, <tt class="docutils literal">ref.field = value</tt></p>
<p>Valid fields of the structure may be accessed by subscript.</p>
<p>Primitive typed fields, i.e. numbers &amp; strings, are converted
to/from matching lua values. The value of a pointer is a reference
to the target, or nil/NULL. Complex types are represented by
a reference to the field within the structure; unless recursive
lua table assignment is used, such fields can only be read.</p>
<p><strong>NOTE:</strong> In case of inheritance, <em>superclass</em> fields have precedence
over the subclass, but fields shadowed in this way can still
be accessed as <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">ref['subclasstype.field']</span></tt>.
This shadowing order is necessary because vtable-based classes
are automatically exposed in their exact type, and the reverse
rule would make access to superclass fields unreliable.</p>
<li><p class="first"><tt class="docutils literal">ref._field(field)</tt></p>
<p>Returns a reference to a valid field. That is, unlike regular
subscript, it returns a reference to the field within the structure
even for primitive typed fields and pointers.</p>
<li><p class="first"><tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">ref:vmethod(args...)</span></tt></p>
<p>Named virtual methods are also exposed, subject to the same
shadowing rules.</p>
<li><p class="first"><tt class="docutils literal">pairs(ref)</tt></p>
<p>Enumerates all real fields (but not methods) in memory
(= declaration) order.</p>
<div class="section" id="container-references">
<h3><a class="toc-backref" href="#id5">Container references</a></h3>
<p>Containers represent vectors and arrays, possibly resizable.</p>
<p>A container field can associate an enum to the container
reference, which allows accessing elements using string keys
instead of numerical indices.</p>
<p>Implemented features:</p>
<li><p class="first"><tt class="docutils literal">ref._enum</tt></p>
<p>If the container has an associated enum, returns the matching
named type object.</p>
<li><p class="first"><tt class="docutils literal">#ref</tt></p>
<p>Returns the <em>length</em> of the container.</p>
<li><p class="first"><tt class="docutils literal">ref[index]</tt></p>
<p>Accesses the container element, using either a <em>0-based</em> numerical
index, or, if an enum is associated, a valid enum key string.</p>
<p>Accessing an invalid index is an error, but some container types
may return a default value, or auto-resize instead for convenience.
Currently this relaxed mode is implemented by df-flagarray aka BitArray.</p>
<li><p class="first"><tt class="docutils literal">ref._field(index)</tt></p>
<p>Like with structs, returns a pointer to the array element, if possible.
Flag and bit arrays cannot return such pointer, so it fails with an error.</p>
<li><p class="first"><tt class="docutils literal">pairs(ref)</tt>, <tt class="docutils literal">ipairs(ref)</tt></p>
<p>If the container has no associated enum, both behave identically,
iterating over numerical indices in order. Otherwise, ipairs still
uses numbers, while pairs tries to substitute enum keys whenever
<li><p class="first"><tt class="docutils literal">ref:resize(new_size)</tt></p>
<p>Resizes the container if supported, or fails with an error.</p>
<li><p class="first"><tt class="docutils literal">ref:insert(index,item)</tt></p>
<p>Inserts a new item at the specified index. To add at the end,
use <tt class="docutils literal">#ref</tt>, or just <tt class="docutils literal">'#'</tt> as index.</p>
<li><p class="first"><tt class="docutils literal">ref:erase(index)</tt></p>
<p>Removes the element at the given valid index.</p>
<div class="section" id="bitfield-references">
<h3><a class="toc-backref" href="#id6">Bitfield references</a></h3>
<p>Bitfields behave like special fixed-size containers.
Consider them to be something in between structs and
fixed-size vectors.</p>
<p>The <tt class="docutils literal">_enum</tt> property points to the bitfield type.
Numerical indices correspond to the shift value,
and if a subfield occupies multiple bits, the
<tt class="docutils literal">ipairs</tt> order would have a gap.</p>
<p>Since currently there is no API to allocate a bitfield
object fully in GC-managed lua heap, consider using the
lua table assignment feature outlined below in order to
pass bitfield values to dfhack API functions that need
them, e.g. <tt class="docutils literal">matinfo:matches{metal=true}</tt>.</p>
<div class="section" id="named-types">
<h2><a class="toc-backref" href="#id7">Named types</a></h2>
<p>Named types are exposed in the <tt class="docutils literal">df</tt> tree with names identical
to the C++ version, except for the <tt class="docutils literal">::</tt> vs <tt class="docutils literal">.</tt> difference.</p>
<p>All types and the global object have the following features:</p>
<li><p class="first"><tt class="docutils literal">type._kind</tt></p>
<p>Evaluates to one of <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">struct-type</span></tt>, <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">class-type</span></tt>, <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">enum-type</span></tt>,
<tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">bitfield-type</span></tt> or <tt class="docutils literal">global</tt>.</p>
<li><p class="first"><tt class="docutils literal">type._identity</tt></p>
<p>Contains a lightuserdata pointing to the underlying
DFHack::type_instance object.</p>
<p>Types excluding the global object also support:</p>
<li><p class="first"><tt class="docutils literal">type:sizeof()</tt></p>
<p>Returns the size of an object of the type.</p>
<li><p class="first"><tt class="docutils literal">type:new()</tt></p>
<p>Creates a new instance of an object of the type.</p>
<li><p class="first"><tt class="docutils literal">type:is_instance(object)</tt></p>
<p>Returns true if object is same or subclass type, or a reference
to an object of same or subclass type. It is permissible to pass
nil, NULL or non-wrapper value as object; in this case the
method returns nil.</p>
<p>In addition to this, enum and bitfield types contain a
bi-directional mapping between key strings and values, and
also map <tt class="docutils literal">_first_item</tt> and <tt class="docutils literal">_last_item</tt> to the min and
max values.</p>
<p>Struct and class types with instance-vector attribute in the
xml have a <tt class="docutils literal">type.find(key)</tt> function that wraps the find
method provided in C++.</p>
<div class="section" id="global-functions">
<h2><a class="toc-backref" href="#id8">Global functions</a></h2>
<p>The <tt class="docutils literal">df</tt> table itself contains the following functions and values:</p>
<li><p class="first"><tt class="docutils literal">NULL</tt>, <tt class="docutils literal">df.NULL</tt></p>
<p>Contains the NULL lightuserdata.</p>
<li><p class="first"><tt class="docutils literal">df.isnull(obj)</tt></p>
<p>Evaluates to true if obj is nil or NULL; false otherwise.</p>
<li><p class="first"><tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">df.isvalid(obj[,allow_null])</span></tt></p>
<p>For supported objects returns one of <tt class="docutils literal">type</tt>, <tt class="docutils literal">voidptr</tt>, <tt class="docutils literal">ref</tt>.</p>
<p>If <em>allow_null</em> is true, and obj is nil or NULL, returns <tt class="docutils literal">null</tt>.</p>
<p>Otherwise returns <em>nil</em>.</p>
<li><p class="first"><tt class="docutils literal">df.sizeof(obj)</tt></p>
<p>For types and refs identical to <tt class="docutils literal">obj:sizeof()</tt>.
For lightuserdata returns <em>nil, address</em></p>
<li><p class="first"><tt class="docutils literal"></tt>, <tt class="docutils literal">df.delete(obj)</tt>, <tt class="docutils literal">df.assign(obj, obj2)</tt></p>
<p>Equivalent to using the matching methods of obj.</p>
<li><p class="first"><tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">df._displace(obj,index[,step])</span></tt></p>
<p>For refs equivalent to the method, but also works with
lightuserdata (step is mandatory then).</p>
<li><p class="first"><tt class="docutils literal">df.is_instance(type,obj)</tt></p>
<p>Equivalent to the method, but also allows a reference as proxy for its type.</p>
<li><p class="first"><tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">[,count])</span></tt></p>
<p>Allocate a new instance, or an array of built-in types.
The <tt class="docutils literal">ptype</tt> argument is a string from the following list:
<tt class="docutils literal">string</tt>, <tt class="docutils literal">int8_t</tt>, <tt class="docutils literal">uint8_t</tt>, <tt class="docutils literal">int16_t</tt>, <tt class="docutils literal">uint16_t</tt>,
<tt class="docutils literal">int32_t</tt>, <tt class="docutils literal">uint32_t</tt>, <tt class="docutils literal">int64_t</tt>, <tt class="docutils literal">uint64_t</tt>, <tt class="docutils literal">bool</tt>,
<tt class="docutils literal">float</tt>, <tt class="docutils literal">double</tt>. All of these except <tt class="docutils literal">string</tt> can be
used with the count argument to allocate an array.</p>
<li><p class="first"><tt class="docutils literal">df.reinterpret_cast(type,ptr)</tt></p>
<p>Converts ptr to a ref of specified type. The type may be anything
acceptable to <tt class="docutils literal">df.is_instance</tt>. Ptr may be <em>nil</em>, a ref,
a lightuserdata, or a number.</p>
<p>Returns <em>nil</em> if NULL, or a ref.</p>
<div class="section" id="recursive-table-assignment">
<h2><a class="toc-backref" href="#id9">Recursive table assignment</a></h2>
<p>Recursive assignment is invoked when a lua table is assigned
to a C++ object or field, i.e. one of:</p>
<ul class="simple">
<li><tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">ref:assign{...}</span></tt></li>
<li><tt class="docutils literal">ref.field = <span class="pre">{...}</span></tt></li>
<p>The general mode of operation is that all fields of the table
are assigned to the fields of the target structure, roughly
emulating the following code:</p>
<pre class="literal-block">
function rec_assign(ref,table)
for key,value in pairs(table) do
ref[key] = value
<p>Since assigning a table to a field using = invokes the same
process, it is recursive.</p>
<p>There are however some variations to this process depending
on the type of the field being assigned to:</p>
<ol class="arabic">
<li><p class="first">If the table contains an <tt class="docutils literal">assign</tt> field, it is
applied first, using the <tt class="docutils literal">ref:assign(value)</tt> method.
It is never assigned as a usual field.</p>
<li><p class="first">When a table is assigned to a non-NULL pointer field
using the <tt class="docutils literal">ref.field = <span class="pre">{...}</span></tt> syntax, it is applied
to the target of the pointer instead.</p>
<p>If the pointer is NULL, the table is checked for a <tt class="docutils literal">new</tt> field:</p>
<ol class="loweralpha simple">
<li>If it is <em>nil</em> or <em>false</em>, assignment fails with an error.</li>
<li>If it is <em>true</em>, the pointer is initialized with a newly
allocated object of the declared target type of the pointer.</li>
<li>Otherwise, <tt class="docutils literal"></tt> must be a named type, or an
object of a type compatible with the pointer. The pointer
is initialized with the result of calling <tt class="docutils literal"></tt>.</li>
<p>After this auto-vivification process, assignment proceeds
as if the pointer wasn't NULL.</p>
<p>Obviously, the <tt class="docutils literal">new</tt> field inside the table is always skipped
during the actual per-field assignment processing.</p>
<li><p class="first">If the target of the assignment is a container, a separate
rule set is used:</p>
<ol class="loweralpha">
<li><p class="first">If the table contains neither <tt class="docutils literal">assign</tt> nor <tt class="docutils literal">resize</tt>
fields, it is interpreted as an ordinary <em>1-based</em> lua
array. The container is resized to the #-size of the
table, and elements are assigned in numeric order:</p>
<pre class="literal-block">
for i=1,#table do ref[i-1] = table[i] end
<li><p class="first">Otherwise, <tt class="docutils literal">resize</tt> must be <em>true</em>, <em>false</em>, or
an explicit number. If it is not false, the container
is resized. After that the usual struct-like 'pairs'
assignment is performed.</p>
<p>In case <tt class="docutils literal">resize</tt> is <em>true</em>, the size is computed
by scanning the table for the largest numeric key.</p>
<p>This means that in order to reassign only one element of
a container using this system, it is necessary to use:</p>
<pre class="literal-block">
{ resize=false, [idx]=value }
<p>Since nil inside a table is indistinguishable from missing key,
it is necessary to use <tt class="docutils literal">df.NULL</tt> as a null pointer value.</p>
<p>This system is intended as a way to define a nested object
tree using pure lua data structures, and then materialize it in
C++ memory in one go. Note that if pointer auto-vivification
is used, an error in the middle of the recursive walk would
not destroy any objects allocated in this way, so the user
should be prepared to catch the error and do the necessary
<div class="section" id="dfhack-api">
<h1><a class="toc-backref" href="#id10">DFHack API</a></h1>
<p>DFHack utility functions are placed in the <tt class="docutils literal">dfhack</tt> global tree.</p>
<div class="section" id="native-utilities">
<h2><a class="toc-backref" href="#id11">Native utilities</a></h2>
<div class="section" id="input-output">
<h3><a class="toc-backref" href="#id12">Input &amp; Output</a></h3>
<li><p class="first"><tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">dfhack.print(args...)</span></tt></p>
<p>Output tab-separated args as standard lua print would do,
but without a newline.</p>
<li><p class="first"><tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">print(args...)</span></tt>, <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">dfhack.println(args...)</span></tt></p>
<p>A replacement of the standard library print function that
works with DFHack output infrastructure.</p>
<li><p class="first"><tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">dfhack.printerr(args...)</span></tt></p>
<p>Same as println; intended for errors. Uses red color and logs to stderr.log.</p>
<li><p class="first"><tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">dfhack.color([color])</span></tt></p>
<p>Sets the current output color. If color is <em>nil</em> or <em>-1</em>, resets to default.
Returns the previous color value.</p>
<li><p class="first"><tt class="docutils literal">dfhack.is_interactive()</tt></p>
<p>Checks if the thread can access the interactive console and returns <em>true</em> or <em>false</em>.</p>
<li><p class="first"><tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">dfhack.lineedit([prompt[,history_filename]])</span></tt></p>
<p>If the thread owns the interactive console, shows a prompt
and returns the entered string. Otherwise returns <em>nil, error</em>.</p>
<p>Depending on the context, this function may actually yield the
running coroutine and let the C++ code release the core suspend
lock. Using an explicit <tt class="docutils literal">dfhack.with_suspend</tt> will prevent
this, forcing the function to block on input with lock held.</p>
<li><p class="first"><tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">dfhack.interpreter([prompt[,history_filename[,env]]])</span></tt></p>
<p>Starts an interactive lua interpreter, using the specified prompt
string, global environment and command-line history file.</p>
<p>If the interactive console is not accessible, returns <em>nil, error</em>.</p>
<div class="section" id="exception-handling">
<h3><a class="toc-backref" href="#id13">Exception handling</a></h3>
<li><p class="first"><tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">dfhack.error(msg[,level[,verbose]])</span></tt></p>
<p>Throws a dfhack exception object with location and stack trace.
The verbose parameter controls whether the trace is printed by default.</p>
<li><p class="first"><tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">qerror(msg[,level])</span></tt></p>
<p>Calls <tt class="docutils literal">dfhack.error()</tt> with <tt class="docutils literal">verbose</tt> being <em>false</em>. Intended to
be used for user-caused errors in scripts, where stack traces are not
<li><p class="first"><tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">dfhack.pcall(f[,args...])</span></tt></p>
<p>Invokes f via xpcall, using an error function that attaches
a stack trace to the error. The same function is used by SafeCall
in C++, and dfhack.safecall.</p>
<li><p class="first"><tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">safecall(f[,args...])</span></tt>, <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">dfhack.safecall(f[,args...])</span></tt></p>
<p>Just like pcall, but also prints the error using printerr before
returning. Intended as a convenience function.</p>
<li><p class="first"><tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">dfhack.saferesume(coroutine[,args...])</span></tt></p>
<p>Compares to coroutine.resume like dfhack.safecall vs pcall.</p>
<li><p class="first"><tt class="docutils literal">dfhack.exception</tt></p>
<p>Metatable of error objects used by dfhack. The objects have the
following properties:</p>
<dl class="docutils">
<dt><tt class="docutils literal">err.where</tt></dt>
<dd><p class="first last">The location prefix string, or <em>nil</em>.</p>
<dt><tt class="docutils literal">err.message</tt></dt>
<dd><p class="first last">The base message string.</p>
<dt><tt class="docutils literal">err.stacktrace</tt></dt>
<dd><p class="first last">The stack trace string, or <em>nil</em>.</p>
<dt><tt class="docutils literal">err.cause</tt></dt>
<dd><p class="first last">A different exception object, or <em>nil</em>.</p>
<dt><tt class="docutils literal">err.thread</tt></dt>
<dd><p class="first last">The coroutine that has thrown the exception.</p>
<dt><tt class="docutils literal">err.verbose</tt></dt>
<dd><p class="first last">Boolean, or <em>nil</em>; specifies if where and stacktrace should be printed.</p>
<dt><tt class="docutils literal">tostring(err)</tt>, or <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">err:tostring([verbose])</span></tt></dt>
<dd><p class="first last">Converts the exception to string.</p>
<li><p class="first"><tt class="docutils literal">dfhack.exception.verbose</tt></p>
<p>The default value of the <tt class="docutils literal">verbose</tt> argument of <tt class="docutils literal">err:tostring()</tt>.</p>
<div class="section" id="miscellaneous">
<h3><a class="toc-backref" href="#id14">Miscellaneous</a></h3>
<li><p class="first"><tt class="docutils literal">dfhack.VERSION</tt></p>
<p>DFHack version string constant.</p>
<li><p class="first"><tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">dfhack.curry(func,args...)</span></tt>, or <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">curry(func,args...)</span></tt></p>
<p>Returns a closure that invokes the function with args combined
both from the curry call and the closure call itself. I.e.
<tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">curry(func,a,b)(c,d)</span></tt> equals <tt class="docutils literal">func(a,b,c,d)</tt>.</p>
<div class="section" id="locking-and-finalization">
<h3><a class="toc-backref" href="#id15">Locking and finalization</a></h3>
<li><p class="first"><tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">dfhack.with_suspend(f[,args...])</span></tt></p>
<p>Calls <tt class="docutils literal">f</tt> with arguments after grabbing the DF core suspend lock.
Suspending is necessary for accessing a consistent state of DF memory.</p>
<p>Returned values and errors are propagated through after releasing
the lock. It is safe to nest suspends.</p>
<p>Every thread is allowed only one suspend per DF frame, so it is best
to group operations together in one big critical section. A plugin
can choose to run all lua code inside a C++-side suspend lock.</p>
<li><p class="first"><tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">dfhack.call_with_finalizer(num_cleanup_args,always,cleanup_fn[,cleanup_args...],fn[,args...])</span></tt></p>
<p>Invokes <tt class="docutils literal">fn</tt> with <tt class="docutils literal">args</tt>, and after it returns or throws an
error calls <tt class="docutils literal">cleanup_fn</tt> with <tt class="docutils literal">cleanup_args</tt>. Any return values from
<tt class="docutils literal">fn</tt> are propagated, and errors are re-thrown.</p>
<p>The <tt class="docutils literal">num_cleanup_args</tt> integer specifies the number of <tt class="docutils literal">cleanup_args</tt>,
and the <tt class="docutils literal">always</tt> boolean specifies if cleanup should be called in any case,
or only in case of an error.</p>
<li><p class="first"><tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">dfhack.with_finalize(cleanup_fn,fn[,args...])</span></tt></p>
<p>Calls <tt class="docutils literal">fn</tt> with arguments, then finalizes with <tt class="docutils literal">cleanup_fn</tt>.
Implemented using <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">call_with_finalizer(0,true,...)</span></tt>.</p>
<li><p class="first"><tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">dfhack.with_onerror(cleanup_fn,fn[,args...])</span></tt></p>
<p>Calls <tt class="docutils literal">fn</tt> with arguments, then finalizes with <tt class="docutils literal">cleanup_fn</tt> on any thrown error.
Implemented using <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">call_with_finalizer(0,false,...)</span></tt>.</p>
<li><p class="first"><tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">dfhack.with_temp_object(obj,fn[,args...])</span></tt></p>
<p>Calls <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">fn(obj,args...)</span></tt>, then finalizes with <tt class="docutils literal">obj:delete()</tt>.</p>
<div class="section" id="persistent-configuration-storage">
<h3><a class="toc-backref" href="#id16">Persistent configuration storage</a></h3>
<p>This api is intended for storing configuration options in the world itself.
It probably should be restricted to data that is world-dependent.</p>
<p>Entries are identified by a string <tt class="docutils literal">key</tt>, but it is also possible to manage
multiple entries with the same key; their identity is determined by <tt class="docutils literal">entry_id</tt>.
Every entry has a mutable string <tt class="docutils literal">value</tt>, and an array of 7 mutable <tt class="docutils literal">ints</tt>.</p>
<li><p class="first"><tt class="docutils literal">dfhack.persistent.get(key)</tt>, <tt class="docutils literal">entry:get()</tt></p>
<p>Retrieves a persistent config record with the given string key,
or refreshes an already retrieved entry. If there are multiple
entries with the same key, it is undefined which one is retrieved
by the first version of the call.</p>
<p>Returns entry, or <em>nil</em> if not found.</p>
<li><p class="first"><tt class="docutils literal">dfhack.persistent.delete(key)</tt>, <tt class="docutils literal">entry:delete()</tt></p>
<p>Removes an existing entry. Returns <em>true</em> if succeeded.</p>
<li><p class="first"><tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">dfhack.persistent.get_all(key[,match_prefix])</span></tt></p>
<p>Retrieves all entries with the same key, or starting with key..'/'.
Calling <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">get_all('',true)</span></tt> will match all entries.</p>
<p>If none found, returns nil; otherwise returns an array of entries.</p>
<li><p class="first"><tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">{key=str1,</span> <span class="pre">...}[,new])</span></tt>, <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">entry:save([new])</span></tt></p>
<p>Saves changes in an entry, or creates a new one. Passing true as
new forces creation of a new entry even if one already exists;
otherwise the existing one is simply updated.
Returns <em>entry, did_create_new</em></p>
<p>Since the data is hidden in data structures owned by the DF world,
and automatically stored in the save game, these save and retrieval
functions can just copy values in memory without doing any actual I/O.
However, currently every entry has a 180+-byte dead-weight overhead.</p>
<div class="section" id="material-info-lookup">
<h3><a class="toc-backref" href="#id17">Material info lookup</a></h3>
<p>A material info record has fields:</p>
<li><p class="first"><tt class="docutils literal">type</tt>, <tt class="docutils literal">index</tt>, <tt class="docutils literal">material</tt></p>
<p>DF material code pair, and a reference to the material object.</p>
<li><p class="first"><tt class="docutils literal">mode</tt></p>
<p>One of <tt class="docutils literal">'builtin'</tt>, <tt class="docutils literal">'inorganic'</tt>, <tt class="docutils literal">'plant'</tt>, <tt class="docutils literal">'creature'</tt>.</p>
<li><p class="first"><tt class="docutils literal">inorganic</tt>, <tt class="docutils literal">plant</tt>, <tt class="docutils literal">creature</tt></p>
<p>If the material is of the matching type, contains a reference to the raw object.</p>
<li><p class="first"><tt class="docutils literal">figure</tt></p>
<p>For a specific creature material contains a ref to the historical figure.</p>
<li><p class="first"><tt class="docutils literal">dfhack.matinfo.decode(type,index)</tt></p>
<p>Looks up material info for the given number pair; if not found, returs <em>nil</em>.</p>
<li><p class="first"><tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">....decode(matinfo)</span></tt>, <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">....decode(item)</span></tt>, <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">....decode(obj)</span></tt></p>
<p>Uses <tt class="docutils literal">matinfo.type</tt>/<tt class="docutils literal">matinfo.index</tt>, item getter vmethods,
or <tt class="docutils literal">obj.mat_type</tt>/<tt class="docutils literal">obj.mat_index</tt> to get the code pair.</p>
<li><p class="first"><tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">dfhack.matinfo.find(token[,token...])</span></tt></p>
<p>Looks up material by a token string, or a pre-split string token sequence.</p>
<li><p class="first"><tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">dfhack.matinfo.getToken(...)</span></tt>, <tt class="docutils literal">info:getToken()</tt></p>
<p>Applies <tt class="docutils literal">decode</tt> and constructs a string token.</p>
<li><p class="first"><tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">info:toString([temperature[,named]])</span></tt></p>
<p>Returns the human-readable name at the given temperature.</p>
<li><p class="first"><tt class="docutils literal">info:getCraftClass()</tt></p>
<p>Returns the classification used for craft skills.</p>
<li><p class="first"><tt class="docutils literal">info:matches(obj)</tt></p>
<p>Checks if the material matches job_material_category or job_item.
Accept dfhack_material_category auto-assign table.</p>
<div class="section" id="c-function-wrappers">
<h2><a class="toc-backref" href="#id18">C++ function wrappers</a></h2>
<p>Thin wrappers around C++ functions, similar to the ones for virtual methods.
One notable difference is that these explicit wrappers allow argument count
adjustment according to the usual lua rules, so trailing false/nil arguments
can be omitted.</p>
<li><p class="first"><tt class="docutils literal">dfhack.getOSType()</tt></p>
<p>Returns the OS type string from <tt class="docutils literal">symbols.xml</tt>.</p>
<li><p class="first"><tt class="docutils literal">dfhack.getDFVersion()</tt></p>
<p>Returns the DF version string from <tt class="docutils literal">symbols.xml</tt>.</p>
<li><p class="first"><tt class="docutils literal">dfhack.getDFPath()</tt></p>
<p>Returns the DF directory path.</p>
<li><p class="first"><tt class="docutils literal">dfhack.getHackPath()</tt></p>
<p>Returns the dfhack directory path, i.e. <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">&quot;.../df/hack/&quot;</span></tt>.</p>
<li><p class="first"><tt class="docutils literal">dfhack.getTickCount()</tt></p>
<p>Returns the tick count in ms, exactly as DF ui uses.</p>
<li><p class="first"><tt class="docutils literal">dfhack.isWorldLoaded()</tt></p>
<p>Checks if the world is loaded.</p>
<li><p class="first"><tt class="docutils literal">dfhack.isMapLoaded()</tt></p>
<p>Checks if the world and map are loaded.</p>
<li><p class="first"><tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">dfhack.TranslateName(name[,in_english,only_last_name])</span></tt></p>
<p>Convert a language_name or only the last name part to string.</p>
<div class="section" id="gui-module">
<h3><a class="toc-backref" href="#id19">Gui module</a></h3>
<li><p class="first"><tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">dfhack.gui.getCurViewscreen([skip_dismissed])</span></tt></p>
<p>Returns the topmost viewscreen. If <tt class="docutils literal">skip_dismissed</tt> is <em>true</em>,
ignores screens already marked to be removed.</p>
<li><p class="first"><tt class="docutils literal">dfhack.gui.getFocusString(viewscreen)</tt></p>
<p>Returns a string representation of the current focus position
in the ui. The string has a &quot;screen/foo/bar/baz...&quot; format.</p>
<li><p class="first"><tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">dfhack.gui.getCurFocus([skip_dismissed])</span></tt></p>
<p>Returns the focus string of the current viewscreen.</p>
<li><p class="first"><tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">dfhack.gui.getSelectedWorkshopJob([silent])</span></tt></p>
<p>When a job is selected in <em>'q'</em> mode, returns the job, else
prints error unless silent and returns <em>nil</em>.</p>
<li><p class="first"><tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">dfhack.gui.getSelectedJob([silent])</span></tt></p>
<p>Returns the job selected in a workshop or unit/jobs screen.</p>
<li><p class="first"><tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">dfhack.gui.getSelectedUnit([silent])</span></tt></p>
<p>Returns the unit selected via <em>'v'</em>, <em>'k'</em>, unit/jobs, or
a full-screen item view of a cage or suchlike.</p>
<li><p class="first"><tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">dfhack.gui.getSelectedItem([silent])</span></tt></p>
<p>Returns the item selected via <em>'v'</em> -&gt;inventory, <em>'k'</em>, <em>'t'</em>, or
a full-screen item view of a container. Note that in the
last case, the highlighted <em>contained item</em> is returned, not
the container itself.</p>
<li><p class="first"><tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">dfhack.gui.getSelectedBuilding([silent])</span></tt></p>
<p>Returns the building selected via <em>'q'</em>, <em>'t'</em>, <em>'k'</em> or <em>'i'</em>.</p>
<li><p class="first"><tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">dfhack.gui.showAnnouncement(text,color[,is_bright])</span></tt></p>
<p>Adds a regular announcement with given text, color, and brightness.
The is_bright boolean actually seems to invert the brightness.</p>
<li><p class="first"><tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">dfhack.gui.showZoomAnnouncement(type,pos,text,color[,is_bright])</span></tt></p>
<p>Like above, but also specifies a position you can zoom to from the announcement menu.</p>
<li><p class="first"><tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">dfhack.gui.showPopupAnnouncement(text,color[,is_bright])</span></tt></p>
<p>Pops up a titan-style modal announcement window.</p>
<li><p class="first"><tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">dfhack.gui.showAutoAnnouncement(type,pos,text,color[,is_bright])</span></tt></p>
<p>Uses the type to look up options from announcements.txt, and calls the
above operations accordingly. If enabled, pauses and zooms to position.</p>
<div class="section" id="job-module">
<h3><a class="toc-backref" href="#id20">Job module</a></h3>
<li><p class="first"><tt class="docutils literal">dfhack.job.cloneJobStruct(job)</tt></p>
<p>Creates a deep copy of the given job.</p>
<li><p class="first"><tt class="docutils literal">dfhack.job.printJobDetails(job)</tt></p>
<p>Prints info about the job.</p>
<li><p class="first"><tt class="docutils literal">dfhack.job.printItemDetails(jobitem,idx)</tt></p>
<p>Prints info about the job item.</p>
<li><p class="first"><tt class="docutils literal">dfhack.job.getHolder(job)</tt></p>
<p>Returns the building holding the job.</p>
<li><p class="first"><tt class="docutils literal">dfhack.job.getWorker(job)</tt></p>
<p>Returns the unit performing the job.</p>
<li><p class="first"><tt class="docutils literal">dfhack.job.checkBuildingsNow()</tt></p>
<p>Instructs the game to check buildings for jobs next frame and assign workers.</p>
<li><p class="first"><tt class="docutils literal">dfhack.job.checkDesignationsNow()</tt></p>
<p>Instructs the game to check designations for jobs next frame and assign workers.</p>
<li><p class="first"><tt class="docutils literal">dfhack.job.is_equal(job1,job2)</tt></p>
<p>Compares important fields in the job and nested item structures.</p>
<li><p class="first"><tt class="docutils literal">dfhack.job.is_item_equal(job_item1,job_item2)</tt></p>
<p>Compares important fields in the job item structures.</p>
<li><p class="first"><tt class="docutils literal">dfhack.job.listNewlyCreated(first_id)</tt></p>
<p>Returns the current value of <tt class="docutils literal"></tt>, and
if there are any jobs with <tt class="docutils literal">first_id &lt;= id &lt; job_next_id</tt>,
a lua list containing them.</p>
<div class="section" id="units-module">
<h3><a class="toc-backref" href="#id21">Units module</a></h3>
<li><p class="first"><tt class="docutils literal">dfhack.units.getPosition(unit)</tt></p>
<p>Returns true <em>x,y,z</em> of the unit, or <em>nil</em> if invalid; may be not equal to unit.pos if caged.</p>
<li><p class="first"><tt class="docutils literal">dfhack.units.getContainer(unit)</tt></p>
<p>Returns the container (cage) item or <em>nil</em>.</p>
<li><p class="first"><tt class="docutils literal">dfhack.units.setNickname(unit,nick)</tt></p>
<p>Sets the unit's nickname properly.</p>
<li><p class="first"><tt class="docutils literal">dfhack.units.getVisibleName(unit)</tt></p>
<p>Returns the language_name object visible in game, accounting for false identities.</p>
<li><p class="first"><tt class="docutils literal">dfhack.units.getIdentity(unit)</tt></p>
<p>Returns the false identity of the unit if it has one, or <em>nil</em>.</p>
<li><p class="first"><tt class="docutils literal">dfhack.units.getNemesis(unit)</tt></p>
<p>Returns the nemesis record of the unit if it has one, or <em>nil</em>.</p>
<li><p class="first"><tt class="docutils literal">dfhack.units.isHidingCurse(unit)</tt></p>
<p>Checks if the unit hides improved attributes from its curse.</p>
<li><p class="first"><tt class="docutils literal">dfhack.units.getPhysicalAttrValue(unit, attr_type)</tt></p>
<li><p class="first"><tt class="docutils literal">dfhack.units.getMentalAttrValue(unit, attr_type)</tt></p>
<p>Computes the effective attribute value, including curse effect.</p>
<li><p class="first"><tt class="docutils literal">dfhack.units.isCrazed(unit)</tt></p>
<li><p class="first"><tt class="docutils literal">dfhack.units.isOpposedToLife(unit)</tt></p>
<li><p class="first"><tt class="docutils literal">dfhack.units.hasExtravision(unit)</tt></p>
<li><p class="first"><tt class="docutils literal">dfhack.units.isBloodsucker(unit)</tt></p>
<p>Simple checks of caste attributes that can be modified by curses.</p>
<li><p class="first"><tt class="docutils literal">dfhack.units.getMiscTrait(unit, type[, create])</tt></p>
<p>Finds (or creates if requested) a misc trait object with the given id.</p>
<li><p class="first"><tt class="docutils literal">dfhack.units.isDead(unit)</tt></p>
<p>The unit is completely dead and passive, or a ghost.</p>
<li><p class="first"><tt class="docutils literal">dfhack.units.isAlive(unit)</tt></p>
<p>The unit isn't dead or undead.</p>
<li><p class="first"><tt class="docutils literal">dfhack.units.isSane(unit)</tt></p>
<p>The unit is capable of rational action, i.e. not dead, insane, zombie, or active werewolf.</p>
<li><p class="first"><tt class="docutils literal">dfhack.units.isDwarf(unit)</tt></p>
<p>The unit is of the correct race of the fortress.</p>
<li><p class="first"><tt class="docutils literal">dfhack.units.isCitizen(unit)</tt></p>
<p>The unit is an alive sane citizen of the fortress; wraps the
same checks the game uses to decide game-over by extinction.</p>
<li><p class="first"><tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">dfhack.units.getAge(unit[,true_age])</span></tt></p>
<p>Returns the age of the unit in years as a floating-point value.
If <tt class="docutils literal">true_age</tt> is true, ignores false identities.</p>
<li><p class="first"><tt class="docutils literal">dfhack.units.getNominalSkill(unit, skill[, use_rust])</tt></p>
<p>Retrieves the nominal skill level for the given unit. If <tt class="docutils literal">use_rust</tt>
is <em>true</em>, subtracts the rust penalty.</p>
<li><p class="first"><tt class="docutils literal">dfhack.units.getEffectiveSkill(unit, skill)</tt></p>
<p>Computes the effective rating for the given skill, taking into account exhaustion, pain etc.</p>
<li><p class="first"><tt class="docutils literal">dfhack.units.computeMovementSpeed(unit)</tt></p>
<p>Computes number of frames * 100 it takes the unit to move in its current state of mind and body.</p>
<li><p class="first"><tt class="docutils literal">dfhack.units.getNoblePositions(unit)</tt></p>
<p>Returns a list of tables describing noble position assignments, or <em>nil</em>.
Every table has fields <tt class="docutils literal">entity</tt>, <tt class="docutils literal">assignment</tt> and <tt class="docutils literal">position</tt>.</p>
<li><p class="first"><tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">dfhack.units.getProfessionName(unit[,ignore_noble,plural])</span></tt></p>
<p>Retrieves the profession name using custom profession, noble assignments
or raws. The <tt class="docutils literal">ignore_noble</tt> boolean disables the use of noble positions.</p>
<li><p class="first"><tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">dfhack.units.getCasteProfessionName(race,caste,prof_id[,plural])</span></tt></p>
<p>Retrieves the profession name for the given race/caste using raws.</p>
<li><p class="first"><tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">dfhack.units.getProfessionColor(unit[,ignore_noble])</span></tt></p>
<p>Retrieves the color associated with the profession, using noble assignments
or raws. The <tt class="docutils literal">ignore_noble</tt> boolean disables the use of noble positions.</p>
<li><p class="first"><tt class="docutils literal">dfhack.units.getCasteProfessionColor(race,caste,prof_id)</tt></p>
<p>Retrieves the profession color for the given race/caste using raws.</p>
<div class="section" id="items-module">
<h3><a class="toc-backref" href="#id22">Items module</a></h3>
<li><p class="first"><tt class="docutils literal">dfhack.items.getPosition(item)</tt></p>
<p>Returns true <em>x,y,z</em> of the item, or <em>nil</em> if invalid; may be not equal to item.pos if in inventory.</p>
<li><p class="first"><tt class="docutils literal">dfhack.items.getDescription(item, type[, decorate])</tt></p>
<p>Returns the string description of the item, as produced by the getItemDescription
method. If decorate is true, also adds markings for quality and improvements.</p>
<li><p class="first"><tt class="docutils literal">dfhack.items.getGeneralRef(item, type)</tt></p>
<p>Searches for a general_ref with the given type.</p>
<li><p class="first"><tt class="docutils literal">dfhack.items.getSpecificRef(item, type)</tt></p>
<p>Searches for a specific_ref with the given type.</p>
<li><p class="first"><tt class="docutils literal">dfhack.items.getOwner(item)</tt></p>
<p>Returns the owner unit or <em>nil</em>.</p>
<li><p class="first"><tt class="docutils literal">dfhack.items.setOwner(item,unit)</tt></p>
<p>Replaces the owner of the item. If unit is <em>nil</em>, removes ownership.
Returns <em>false</em> in case of error.</p>
<li><p class="first"><tt class="docutils literal">dfhack.items.getContainer(item)</tt></p>
<p>Returns the container item or <em>nil</em>.</p>
<li><p class="first"><tt class="docutils literal">dfhack.items.getContainedItems(item)</tt></p>
<p>Returns a list of items contained in this one.</p>
<li><p class="first"><tt class="docutils literal">dfhack.items.moveToGround(item,pos)</tt></p>
<p>Move the item to the ground at position. Returns <em>false</em> if impossible.</p>
<li><p class="first"><tt class="docutils literal">dfhack.items.moveToContainer(item,container)</tt></p>
<p>Move the item to the container. Returns <em>false</em> if impossible.</p>
<li><p class="first"><tt class="docutils literal">dfhack.items.moveToBuilding(item,building,use_mode)</tt></p>
<p>Move the item to the building. Returns <em>false</em> if impossible.</p>
<li><p class="first"><tt class="docutils literal">dfhack.items.moveToInventory(item,unit,use_mode,body_part)</tt></p>
<p>Move the item to the unit inventory. Returns <em>false</em> if impossible.</p>
<li><p class="first"><tt class="docutils literal">dfhack.items.remove(item[, no_uncat])</tt></p>
<p>Removes the item, and marks it for garbage collection unless <tt class="docutils literal">no_uncat</tt> is true.</p>
<li><p class="first"><tt class="docutils literal">dfhack.items.makeProjectile(item)</tt></p>
<p>Turns the item into a projectile, and returns the new object, or <em>nil</em> if impossible.</p>
<div class="section" id="maps-module">
<h3><a class="toc-backref" href="#id23">Maps module</a></h3>
<li><p class="first"><tt class="docutils literal">dfhack.maps.getSize()</tt></p>
<p>Returns map size in blocks: <em>x, y, z</em></p>
<li><p class="first"><tt class="docutils literal">dfhack.maps.getTileSize()</tt></p>
<p>Returns map size in tiles: <em>x, y, z</em></p>
<li><p class="first"><tt class="docutils literal">dfhack.maps.getBlock(x,y,z)</tt></p>
<p>Returns a map block object for given x,y,z in local block coordinates.</p>
<li><p class="first"><tt class="docutils literal">dfhack.maps.isValidTilePos(coords)</tt>, or isValidTilePos(x,y,z)``</p>
<p>Checks if the given df::coord or x,y,z in local tile coordinates are valid.</p>
<li><p class="first"><tt class="docutils literal">dfhack.maps.getTileBlock(coords)</tt>, or <tt class="docutils literal">getTileBlock(x,y,z)</tt></p>
<p>Returns a map block object for given df::coord or x,y,z in local tile coordinates.</p>
<li><p class="first"><tt class="docutils literal">dfhack.maps.ensureTileBlock(coords)</tt>, or <tt class="docutils literal">ensureTileBlock(x,y,z)</tt></p>
<p>Like <tt class="docutils literal">getTileBlock</tt>, but if the block is not allocated, try creating it.</p>
<li><p class="first"><tt class="docutils literal">dfhack.maps.getRegionBiome(region_coord2d)</tt>, or <tt class="docutils literal">getRegionBiome(x,y)</tt></p>
<p>Returns the biome info struct for the given global map region.</p>
<li><p class="first"><tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">dfhack.maps.enableBlockUpdates(block[,flow,temperature])</span></tt></p>
<p>Enables updates for liquid flow or temperature, unless already active.</p>
<li><p class="first"><tt class="docutils literal">dfhack.maps.spawnFlow(pos,type,mat_type,mat_index,dimension)</tt></p>
<p>Spawns a new flow (i.e. steam/mist/dust/etc) at the given pos, and with
the given parameters. Returns it, or <em>nil</em> if unsuccessful.</p>
<li><p class="first"><tt class="docutils literal">dfhack.maps.getGlobalInitFeature(index)</tt></p>
<p>Returns the global feature object with the given index.</p>
<li><p class="first"><tt class="docutils literal">dfhack.maps.getLocalInitFeature(region_coord2d,index)</tt></p>
<p>Returns the local feature object with the given region coords and index.</p>
<li><p class="first"><tt class="docutils literal">dfhack.maps.getTileBiomeRgn(coords)</tt>, or <tt class="docutils literal">getTileBiomeRgn(x,y,z)</tt></p>
<p>Returns <em>x, y</em> for use with <tt class="docutils literal">getRegionBiome</tt>.</p>
<li><p class="first"><tt class="docutils literal">dfhack.maps.canWalkBetween(pos1, pos2)</tt></p>
<p>Checks if a dwarf may be able to walk between the two tiles,
using a pathfinding cache maintained by the game. Note that
this cache is only updated when the game is unpaused, and thus
can get out of date if doors are forbidden or unforbidden, or
tools like liquids or tiletypes are used. It also cannot possibly
take into account anything that depends on the actual units, like
burrows, or the presence of invaders.</p>
<div class="section" id="burrows-module">
<h3><a class="toc-backref" href="#id24">Burrows module</a></h3>
<li><p class="first"><tt class="docutils literal">dfhack.burrows.findByName(name)</tt></p>
<p>Returns the burrow pointer or <em>nil</em>.</p>
<li><p class="first"><tt class="docutils literal">dfhack.burrows.clearUnits(burrow)</tt></p>
<p>Removes all units from the burrow.</p>
<li><p class="first"><tt class="docutils literal">dfhack.burrows.isAssignedUnit(burrow,unit)</tt></p>
<p>Checks if the unit is in the burrow.</p>
<li><p class="first"><tt class="docutils literal">dfhack.burrows.setAssignedUnit(burrow,unit,enable)</tt></p>
<p>Adds or removes the unit from the burrow.</p>
<li><p class="first"><tt class="docutils literal">dfhack.burrows.clearTiles(burrow)</tt></p>
<p>Removes all tiles from the burrow.</p>
<li><p class="first"><tt class="docutils literal">dfhack.burrows.listBlocks(burrow)</tt></p>
<p>Returns a table of map block pointers.</p>
<li><p class="first"><tt class="docutils literal">dfhack.burrows.isAssignedTile(burrow,tile_coord)</tt></p>
<p>Checks if the tile is in burrow.</p>
<li><p class="first"><tt class="docutils literal">dfhack.burrows.setAssignedTile(burrow,tile_coord,enable)</tt></p>
<p>Adds or removes the tile from the burrow. Returns <em>false</em> if invalid coords.</p>
<li><p class="first"><tt class="docutils literal">dfhack.burrows.isAssignedBlockTile(burrow,block,x,y)</tt></p>
<p>Checks if the tile within the block is in burrow.</p>
<li><p class="first"><tt class="docutils literal">dfhack.burrows.setAssignedBlockTile(burrow,block,x,y,enable)</tt></p>
<p>Adds or removes the tile from the burrow. Returns <em>false</em> if invalid coords.</p>
<div class="section" id="buildings-module">
<h3><a class="toc-backref" href="#id25">Buildings module</a></h3>
<li><p class="first"><tt class="docutils literal">dfhack.buildings.setOwner(item,unit)</tt></p>
<p>Replaces the owner of the building. If unit is <em>nil</em>, removes ownership.
Returns <em>false</em> in case of error.</p>
<li><p class="first"><tt class="docutils literal">dfhack.buildings.getSize(building)</tt></p>
<p>Returns <em>width, height, centerx, centery</em>.</p>
<li><p class="first"><tt class="docutils literal">dfhack.buildings.findAtTile(pos)</tt>, or <tt class="docutils literal">findAtTile(x,y,z)</tt></p>
<p>Scans the buildings for the one located at the given tile.
Does not work on civzones. Warning: linear scan if the map
tile indicates there are buildings at it.</p>
<li><p class="first"><tt class="docutils literal">dfhack.buildings.findCivzonesAt(pos)</tt>, or <tt class="docutils literal">findCivzonesAt(x,y,z)</tt></p>
<p>Scans civzones, and returns a lua sequence of those that touch
the given tile, or <em>nil</em> if none.</p>
<li><p class="first"><tt class="docutils literal">dfhack.buildings.getCorrectSize(width, height, type, subtype, custom, direction)</tt></p>
<p>Computes correct dimensions for the specified building type and orientation,
using width and height for flexible dimensions.
Returns <em>is_flexible, width, height, center_x, center_y</em>.</p>
<li><p class="first"><tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">dfhack.buildings.checkFreeTiles(pos,size[,extents,change_extents,allow_occupied])</span></tt></p>
<p>Checks if the rectangle defined by <tt class="docutils literal">pos</tt> and <tt class="docutils literal">size</tt>, and possibly extents,
can be used for placing a building. If <tt class="docutils literal">change_extents</tt> is true, bad tiles
are removed from extents. If <tt class="docutils literal">allow_occupied</tt>, the occupancy test is skipped.</p>
<li><p class="first"><tt class="docutils literal">dfhack.buildings.countExtentTiles(extents,defval)</tt></p>
<p>Returns the number of tiles included by extents, or defval.</p>
<li><p class="first"><tt class="docutils literal">dfhack.buildings.containsTile(building, x, y[, room])</tt></p>
<p>Checks if the building contains the specified tile, either directly, or as room.</p>
<li><p class="first"><tt class="docutils literal">dfhack.buildings.hasSupport(pos,size)</tt></p>
<p>Checks if a bridge constructed at specified position would have
support from terrain, and thus won't collapse if retracted.</p>
<p>Low-level building creation functions;</p>
<li><p class="first"><tt class="docutils literal">dfhack.buildings.allocInstance(pos, type, subtype, custom)</tt></p>
<p>Creates a new building instance of given type, subtype and custom type,
at specified position. Returns the object, or <em>nil</em> in case of an error.</p>
<li><p class="first"><tt class="docutils literal">dfhack.buildings.setSize(building, width, height, direction)</tt></p>
<p>Configures an object returned by <tt class="docutils literal">allocInstance</tt>, using specified
parameters wherever appropriate. If the building has fixed size along
any dimension, the corresponding input parameter will be ignored.
Returns <em>false</em> if the building cannot be placed, or <em>true, width,
height, rect_area, true_area</em>. Returned width and height are the
final values used by the building; true_area is less than rect_area
if any tiles were removed from designation.</p>
<li><p class="first"><tt class="docutils literal">dfhack.buildings.constructAbstract(building)</tt></p>
<p>Links a fully configured object created by <tt class="docutils literal">allocInstance</tt> into the
world. The object must be an abstract building, i.e. a stockpile or civzone.
Returns <em>true</em>, or <em>false</em> if impossible.</p>
<li><p class="first"><tt class="docutils literal">dfhack.buildings.constructWithItems(building, items)</tt></p>
<p>Links a fully configured object created by <tt class="docutils literal">allocInstance</tt> into the
world for construction, using a list of specific items as material.
Returns <em>true</em>, or <em>false</em> if impossible.</p>
<li><p class="first"><tt class="docutils literal">dfhack.buildings.constructWithFilters(building, job_items)</tt></p>
<p>Links a fully configured object created by <tt class="docutils literal">allocInstance</tt> into the
world for construction, using a list of job_item filters as inputs.
Returns <em>true</em>, or <em>false</em> if impossible. Filter objects are claimed
and possibly destroyed in any case.
Use a negative <tt class="docutils literal">quantity</tt> field value to auto-compute the amount
from the size of the building.</p>
<li><p class="first"><tt class="docutils literal">dfhack.buildings.deconstruct(building)</tt></p>
<p>Destroys the building, or queues a deconstruction job.
Returns <em>true</em> if the building was destroyed and deallocated immediately.</p>
<p>More high-level functions are implemented in lua and can be loaded by
<tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">require('dfhack.buildings')</span></tt>. See <tt class="docutils literal">hack/lua/dfhack/buildings.lua</tt>.</p>
<p>Among them are:</p>
<li><p class="first"><tt class="docutils literal">dfhack.buildings.getFiltersByType(argtable,type,subtype,custom)</tt></p>
<p>Returns a sequence of lua structures, describing input item filters
suitable for the specified building type, or <em>nil</em> if unknown or invalid.
The returned sequence is suitable for use as the <tt class="docutils literal">job_items</tt> argument
of <tt class="docutils literal">constructWithFilters</tt>.
Uses tables defined in <tt class="docutils literal">buildings.lua</tt>.</p>
<p>Argtable members <tt class="docutils literal">material</tt> (the default name), <tt class="docutils literal">bucket</tt>, <tt class="docutils literal">barrel</tt>,
<tt class="docutils literal">chain</tt>, <tt class="docutils literal">mechanism</tt>, <tt class="docutils literal">screw</tt>, <tt class="docutils literal">pipe</tt>, <tt class="docutils literal">anvil</tt>, <tt class="docutils literal">weapon</tt> are used to
augment the basic attributes with more detailed information if the
building has input items with the matching name (see the tables for naming details).
Note that it is impossible to <em>override</em> any properties this way, only supply those that
are not mentioned otherwise; one exception is that flags2.non_economic
is automatically cleared if an explicit material is specified.</p>
<li><p class="first"><tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">dfhack.buildings.constructBuilding{...}</span></tt></p>
<p>Creates a building in one call, using options contained
in the argument table. Returns the building, or <em>nil, error</em>.</p>
<p><strong>NOTE:</strong> Despite the name, unless the building is abstract,
the function creates it in an 'unconstructed' stage, with
a queued in-game job that will actually construct it. I.e.
the function replicates programmatically what can be done
through the construct building menu in the game ui, except
that it does less environment constraint checking.</p>
<p>The following options can be used:</p>
<li><p class="first"><tt class="docutils literal">pos = coordinates</tt>, or <tt class="docutils literal">x = <span class="pre">...,</span> y = <span class="pre">...,</span> z = ...</tt></p>
<p>Mandatory. Specifies the left upper corner of the building.</p>
<li><p class="first"><tt class="docutils literal">type = df.building_type.FOO, subtype = <span class="pre">...,</span> custom = ...</tt></p>
<p>Mandatory. Specifies the type of the building. Obviously, subtype
and custom are only expected if the type requires them.</p>
<li><p class="first"><tt class="docutils literal">fields = { ... }</tt></p>
<p>Initializes fields of the building object after creation with <tt class="docutils literal">df.assign</tt>.</p>
<li><p class="first"><tt class="docutils literal">width = <span class="pre">...,</span> height = <span class="pre">...,</span> direction = ...</tt></p>
<p>Sets size and orientation of the building. If it is
fixed-size, specified dimensions are ignored.</p>
<li><p class="first"><tt class="docutils literal">full_rectangle = true</tt></p>
<p>For buildings like stockpiles or farm plots that can normally
accomodate individual tile exclusion, forces an error if any
tiles within the specified width*height are obstructed.</p>
<li><p class="first"><tt class="docutils literal">items = { item, item ... }</tt>, or <tt class="docutils literal">filters = { <span class="pre">{...},</span> <span class="pre">{...}...</span> }</tt></p>
<p>Specifies explicit items or item filters to use in construction.
It is the job of the user to ensure they are correct for the building type.</p>
<li><p class="first"><tt class="docutils literal">abstract = true</tt></p>
<p>Specifies that the building is abstract and does not require construction.
Required for stockpiles and civzones; an error otherwise.</p>
<li><p class="first"><tt class="docutils literal">material = <span class="pre">{...},</span> mechanism = <span class="pre">{...},</span> ...</tt></p>
<p>If none of <tt class="docutils literal">items</tt>, <tt class="docutils literal">filter</tt>, or <tt class="docutils literal">abstract</tt> is used,
the function uses <tt class="docutils literal">getFiltersByType</tt> to compute the input
item filters, and passes the argument table through. If no filters
can be determined this way, <tt class="docutils literal">constructBuilding</tt> throws an error.</p>
<div class="section" id="constructions-module">
<h3><a class="toc-backref" href="#id26">Constructions module</a></h3>
<li><p class="first"><tt class="docutils literal">dfhack.constructions.designateNew(pos,type,item_type,mat_index)</tt></p>
<p>Designates a new construction at given position. If there already is
a planned but not completed construction there, changes its type.
Returns <em>true</em>, or <em>false</em> if obstructed.
Note that designated constructions are technically buildings.</p>
<li><p class="first"><tt class="docutils literal">dfhack.constructions.designateRemove(pos)</tt>, or <tt class="docutils literal">designateRemove(x,y,z)</tt></p>
<p>If there is a construction or a planned construction at the specified
coordinates, designates it for removal, or instantly cancels the planned one.
Returns <em>true, was_only_planned</em> if removed; or <em>false</em> if none found.</p>
<div class="section" id="screen-api">
<h3><a class="toc-backref" href="#id27">Screen API</a></h3>
<p>The screen module implements support for drawing to the tiled screen of the game.
Note that drawing only has any effect when done from callbacks, so it can only
be feasibly used in the core context.</p>
<p>Basic painting functions:</p>
<li><p class="first"><tt class="docutils literal">dfhack.screen.getWindowSize()</tt></p>
<p>Returns <em>width, height</em> of the screen.</p>
<li><p class="first"><tt class="docutils literal">dfhack.screen.getMousePos()</tt></p>
<p>Returns <em>x,y</em> of the tile the mouse is over.</p>
<li><p class="first"><tt class="docutils literal">dfhack.screen.inGraphicsMode()</tt></p>
<p>Checks if [GRAPHICS:YES] was specified in init.</p>
<li><p class="first"><tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">dfhack.screen.paintTile(pen,x,y[,char,tile])</span></tt></p>
<p>Paints a tile using given parameters. Pen is a table with following possible fields:</p>
<dl class="docutils">
<dt><tt class="docutils literal">ch</tt></dt>
<dd><p class="first last">Provides the ordinary tile character, as either a 1-character string or a number.
Can be overridden with the <tt class="docutils literal">char</tt> function parameter.</p>
<dt><tt class="docutils literal">fg</tt></dt>
<dd><p class="first last">Foreground color for the ordinary tile. Defaults to COLOR_GREY (7).</p>
<dt><tt class="docutils literal">bg</tt></dt>
<dd><p class="first last">Background color for the ordinary tile. Defaults to COLOR_BLACK (0).</p>
<dt><tt class="docutils literal">bold</tt></dt>
<dd><p class="first last">Bright/bold text flag. If <em>nil</em>, computed based on (fg &amp; 8); fg is masked to 3 bits.
Otherwise should be <em>true/false</em>.</p>
<dt><tt class="docutils literal">tile</tt></dt>
<dd><p class="first last">Graphical tile id. Ignored unless [GRAPHICS:YES] was in init.txt.</p>
<dt><tt class="docutils literal">tile_color = true</tt></dt>
<dd><p class="first last">Specifies that the tile should be shaded with <em>fg/bg</em>.</p>
<dt><tt class="docutils literal">tile_fg, tile_bg</tt></dt>
<dd><p class="first last">If specified, overrides <em>tile_color</em> and supplies shading colors directly.</p>
<p>Returns <em>false</em> if coordinates out of bounds, or other error.</p>
<li><p class="first"><tt class="docutils literal">dfhack.screen.readTile(x,y)</tt></p>
<p>Retrieves the contents of the specified tile from the screen buffers.
Returns a pen, or <em>nil</em> if invalid or TrueType.</p>
<li><p class="first"><tt class="docutils literal">dfhack.screen.paintString(pen,x,y,text)</tt></p>
<p>Paints the string starting at <em>x,y</em>. Uses the string characters
in sequence to override the <tt class="docutils literal">ch</tt> field of pen.</p>
<p>Returns <em>true</em> if painting at least one character succeeded.</p>
<li><p class="first"><tt class="docutils literal">dfhack.screen.fillRect(pen,x1,y1,x2,y2)</tt></p>
<p>Fills the rectangle specified by the coordinates with the given pen.
Returns <em>true</em> if painting at least one character succeeded.</p>
<li><p class="first"><tt class="docutils literal">dfhack.screen.findGraphicsTile(pagename,x,y)</tt></p>
<p>Finds a tile from a graphics set (i.e. the raws used for creatures),
if in graphics mode and loaded.</p>
<p>Returns: <em>tile, tile_grayscale</em>, or <em>nil</em> if not found.
The values can then be used for the <em>tile</em> field of <em>pen</em> structures.</p>
<li><p class="first"><tt class="docutils literal">dfhack.screen.clear()</tt></p>
<p>Fills the screen with blank background.</p>
<li><p class="first"><tt class="docutils literal">dfhack.screen.invalidate()</tt></p>
<p>Requests repaint of the screen by setting a flag. Unlike other
functions in this section, this may be used at any time.</p>
<p>In order to actually be able to paint to the screen, it is necessary
to create and register a viewscreen (basically a modal dialog) with
the game.</p>
<p><strong>NOTE</strong>: As a matter of policy, in order to avoid user confusion, all
interface screens added by dfhack should bear the &quot;DFHack&quot; signature.</p>
<p>Screens are managed with the following functions:</p>
<li><p class="first"><tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">[,below])</span></tt></p>
<p>Displays the given screen, possibly placing it below a different one.
The screen must not be already shown. Returns <em>true</em> if success.</p>
<li><p class="first"><tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">dfhack.screen.dismiss(screen[,to_first])</span></tt></p>
<p>Marks the screen to be removed when the game enters its event loop.
If <tt class="docutils literal">to_first</tt> is <em>true</em>, all screens up to the first one will be deleted.</p>
<li><p class="first"><tt class="docutils literal">dfhack.screen.isDismissed(screen)</tt></p>
<p>Checks if the screen is already marked for removal.</p>
<p>Apart from a native viewscreen object, these functions accept a table
as a screen. In this case, <tt class="docutils literal">show</tt> creates a new native viewscreen
that delegates all processing to methods stored in that table.</p>
<p><strong>NOTE</strong>: Lua-implemented screens are only supported in the core context.</p>
<p>Supported callbacks and fields are:</p>
<li><p class="first"><tt class="docutils literal">screen._native</tt></p>
<p>Initialized by <tt class="docutils literal">show</tt> with a reference to the backing viewscreen
object, and removed again when the object is deleted.</p>
<li><p class="first"><tt class="docutils literal">function screen:onShow()</tt></p>
<p>Called by <tt class="docutils literal"></tt> if successful.</p>
<li><p class="first"><tt class="docutils literal">function screen:onDismiss()</tt></p>
<p>Called by <tt class="docutils literal">dfhack.screen.dismiss</tt> if successful.</p>
<li><p class="first"><tt class="docutils literal">function screen:onDestroy()</tt></p>
<p>Called from the destructor when the viewscreen is deleted.</p>
<li><p class="first"><tt class="docutils literal">function screen:onResize(w, h)</tt></p>
<p>Called before <tt class="docutils literal">onRender</tt> or <tt class="docutils literal">onIdle</tt> when the window size has changed.</p>
<li><p class="first"><tt class="docutils literal">function screen:onRender()</tt></p>
<p>Called when the viewscreen should paint itself. This is the only context
where the above painting functions work correctly.</p>
<p>If omitted, the screen is cleared; otherwise it should do that itself.
In order to make a see-through dialog, call <tt class="docutils literal">self._native.parent:render()</tt>.</p>
<li><p class="first"><tt class="docutils literal">function screen:onIdle()</tt></p>
<p>Called every frame when the screen is on top of the stack.</p>
<li><p class="first"><tt class="docutils literal">function screen:onHelp()</tt></p>
<p>Called when the help keybinding is activated (usually '?').</p>
<li><p class="first"><tt class="docutils literal">function screen:onInput(keys)</tt></p>
<p>Called when keyboard or mouse events are available.
If any keys are pressed, the keys argument is a table mapping them to <em>true</em>.
Note that this refers to logical keybingings computed from real keys via
options; if multiple interpretations exist, the table will contain multiple keys.</p>
<p>The table also may contain special keys:</p>
<dl class="docutils">
<dt><tt class="docutils literal">_STRING</tt></dt>
<dd><p class="first last">Maps to an integer in range 0-255. Duplicates a separate &quot;STRING_A???&quot; code for convenience.</p>
<dt><tt class="docutils literal">_MOUSE_L, _MOUSE_R</tt></dt>
<dd><p class="first last">If the left or right mouse button is pressed.</p>
<p>If this method is omitted, the screen is dismissed on receival of the <tt class="docutils literal">LEAVESCREEN</tt> key.</p>
<li><p class="first"><tt class="docutils literal">function screen:onGetSelectedUnit()</tt></p>
<li><p class="first"><tt class="docutils literal">function screen:onGetSelectedItem()</tt></p>
<li><p class="first"><tt class="docutils literal">function screen:onGetSelectedJob()</tt></p>
<li><p class="first"><tt class="docutils literal">function screen:onGetSelectedBuilding()</tt></p>
<p>Implement these to provide a return value for the matching
<tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">dfhack.gui.getSelected...</span></tt> function.</p>
<div class="section" id="internal-api">
<h3><a class="toc-backref" href="#id28">Internal API</a></h3>
<p>These functions are intended for the use by dfhack developers,
and are only documented here for completeness:</p>
<li><p class="first"><tt class="docutils literal">dfhack.internal.scripts</tt></p>
<p>The table used by <tt class="docutils literal">dfhack.run_script()</tt> to give every script its own
global environment, persistent between calls to the script.</p>
<li><p class="first"><tt class="docutils literal">dfhack.internal.getAddress(name)</tt></p>
<p>Returns the global address <tt class="docutils literal">name</tt>, or <em>nil</em>.</p>
<li><p class="first"><tt class="docutils literal">dfhack.internal.setAddress(name, value)</tt></p>
<p>Sets the global address <tt class="docutils literal">name</tt>. Returns the value of <tt class="docutils literal">getAddress</tt> before the change.</p>
<li><p class="first"><tt class="docutils literal">dfhack.internal.getVTable(name)</tt></p>
<p>Returns the pre-extracted vtable address <tt class="docutils literal">name</tt>, or <em>nil</em>.</p>
<li><p class="first"><tt class="docutils literal">dfhack.internal.getRebaseDelta()</tt></p>
<p>Returns the ASLR rebase offset of the DF executable.</p>
<li><p class="first"><tt class="docutils literal">dfhack.internal.getMemRanges()</tt></p>
<p>Returns a sequence of tables describing virtual memory ranges of the process.</p>
<li><p class="first"><tt class="docutils literal">dfhack.internal.patchMemory(dest,src,count)</tt></p>
<p>Like memmove below, but works even if dest is read-only memory, e.g. code.
If destination overlaps a completely invalid memory region, or another error
occurs, returns false.</p>
<li><p class="first"><tt class="docutils literal">dfhack.internal.memmove(dest,src,count)</tt></p>
<p>Wraps the standard memmove function. Accepts both numbers and refs as pointers.</p>
<li><p class="first"><tt class="docutils literal">dfhack.internal.memcmp(ptr1,ptr2,count)</tt></p>
<p>Wraps the standard memcmp function.</p>
<li><p class="first"><tt class="docutils literal">dfhack.internal.memscan(haystack,count,step,needle,nsize)</tt></p>
<p>Searches for <tt class="docutils literal">needle</tt> of <tt class="docutils literal">nsize</tt> bytes in <tt class="docutils literal">haystack</tt>,
using <tt class="docutils literal">count</tt> steps of <tt class="docutils literal">step</tt> bytes.
Returns: <em>step_idx, sum_idx, found_ptr</em>, or <em>nil</em> if not found.</p>
<li><p class="first"><tt class="docutils literal">dfhack.internal.diffscan(old_data, new_data, start_idx, end_idx, eltsize[, oldval, newval, delta])</tt></p>
<p>Searches for differences between buffers at ptr1 and ptr2, as integers of size eltsize.
The oldval, newval or delta arguments may be used to specify additional constraints.
Returns: <em>found_index</em>, or <em>nil</em> if end reached.</p>
<div class="section" id="core-interpreter-context">
<h2><a class="toc-backref" href="#id29">Core interpreter context</a></h2>
<p>While plugins can create any number of interpreter instances,
there is one special context managed by dfhack core. It is the
only context that can receive events from DF and plugins.</p>
<p>Core context specific functions:</p>
<li><p class="first"><tt class="docutils literal">dfhack.is_core_context</tt></p>
<p>Boolean value; <em>true</em> in the core context.</p>
<li><p class="first"><tt class="docutils literal">dfhack.timeout(time,mode,callback)</tt></p>
<p>Arranges for the callback to be called once the specified
period of time passes. The <tt class="docutils literal">mode</tt> argument specifies the
unit of time used, and may be one of <tt class="docutils literal">'frames'</tt> (raw FPS),
<tt class="docutils literal">'ticks'</tt> (unpaused FPS), <tt class="docutils literal">'days'</tt>, <tt class="docutils literal">'months'</tt>,
<tt class="docutils literal">'years'</tt> (in-game time). All timers other than
<tt class="docutils literal">'frames'</tt> are cancelled when the world is unloaded,
and cannot be queued until it is loaded again.
Returns the timer id, or <em>nil</em> if unsuccessful due to
world being unloaded.</p>
<li><p class="first"><tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">dfhack.timeout_active(id[,new_callback])</span></tt></p>
<p>Returns the active callback with the given id, or <em>nil</em>
if inactive or nil id. If called with 2 arguments, replaces
the current callback with the given value, if still active.
Using <tt class="docutils literal">timeout_active(id,nil)</tt> cancels the timer.</p>
<li><p class="first"><tt class="docutils literal"> = function(code)</tt></p>
<p>Event. Receives the same codes as plugin_onstatechange in C++.</p>
<div class="section" id="event-type">
<h3><a class="toc-backref" href="#id30">Event type</a></h3>
<p>An event is a native object transparently wrapping a lua table,
and implementing a __call metamethod. When it is invoked, it loops
through the table with next and calls all contained values.
This is intended as an extensible way to add listeners.</p>
<p>This type itself is available in any context, but only the
core context has the actual events defined by C++ code.</p>
<li><p class="first"><tt class="docutils literal"></tt></p>
<p>Creates a new instance of an event.</p>
<li><p class="first"><tt class="docutils literal">event[key] = function</tt></p>
<p>Sets the function as one of the listeners. Assign <em>nil</em> to remove it.</p>
<p><strong>NOTE</strong>: The <tt class="docutils literal">df.NULL</tt> key is reserved for the use by
the C++ owner of the event; it is an error to try setting it.</p>
<li><p class="first"><tt class="docutils literal">#event</tt></p>
<p>Returns the number of non-nil listeners.</p>
<li><p class="first"><tt class="docutils literal">pairs(event)</tt></p>
<p>Iterates over all listeners in the table.</p>
<li><p class="first"><tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">event(args...)</span></tt></p>
<p>Invokes all listeners contained in the event in an arbitrary
order using <tt class="docutils literal">dfhack.safecall</tt>.</p>
<div class="section" id="lua-modules">
<h1><a class="toc-backref" href="#id31">Lua Modules</a></h1>
<p>DFHack sets up the lua interpreter so that the built-in <tt class="docutils literal">require</tt>
function can be used to load shared lua code from hack/lua/.
The <tt class="docutils literal">dfhack</tt> namespace reference itself may be obtained via
<tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">require('dfhack')</span></tt>, although it is initially created as a
global by C++ bootstrap code.</p>
<p>The following module management functions are provided:</p>
<li><p class="first"><tt class="docutils literal">mkmodule(name)</tt></p>
<p>Creates an environment table for the module. Intended to be used as:</p>
<pre class="literal-block">
local _ENV = mkmodule('foo')
return _ENV
<p>If called the second time, returns the same table; thus providing reload support.</p>
<li><p class="first"><tt class="docutils literal">reload(name)</tt></p>
<p>Reloads a previously <tt class="docutils literal">require</tt>-d module <em>&quot;name&quot;</em> from the file.
Intended as a help for module development.</p>
<li><p class="first"><tt class="docutils literal">dfhack.BASE_G</tt></p>
<p>This variable contains the root global environment table, which is
used as a base for all module and script environments. Its contents
should be kept limited to the standard Lua library and API described
in this document.</p>
<div class="section" id="global-environment">
<h2><a class="toc-backref" href="#id32">Global environment</a></h2>
<p>A number of variables and functions are provided in the base global
environment by the mandatory init file dfhack.lua:</p>
<li><p class="first">Color constants</p>
<p>These are applicable both for <tt class="docutils literal">dfhack.color()</tt> and color fields
in DF functions or structures:</p>
<li><p class="first"><tt class="docutils literal">dfhack.onStateChange</tt> event codes</p>
<p>Available only in the core context, as is the event itself:</p>
<li><p class="first">Functions already described above</p>
<p>safecall, qerror, mkmodule, reload</p>
<li><p class="first"><tt class="docutils literal">printall(obj)</tt></p>
<p>If the argument is a lua table or DF object reference, prints all fields.</p>
<li><p class="first"><tt class="docutils literal">copyall(obj)</tt></p>
<p>Returns a shallow copy of the table or reference as a lua table.</p>
<li><p class="first"><tt class="docutils literal">pos2xyz(obj)</tt></p>
<p>The object must have fields x, y and z. Returns them as 3 values.
If obj is <em>nil</em>, or x is -30000 (the usual marker for undefined
coordinates), returns <em>nil</em>.</p>
<li><p class="first"><tt class="docutils literal">xyz2pos(x,y,z)</tt></p>
<p>Returns a table with x, y and z as fields.</p>
<li><p class="first"><tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">safe_index(obj,index...)</span></tt></p>
<p>Walks a sequence of dereferences, which may be represented by numbers or strings.
Returns <em>nil</em> if any of obj or indices is <em>nil</em>, or a numeric index is out of array bounds.</p>
<div class="section" id="utils">
<h2><a class="toc-backref" href="#id33">utils</a></h2>
<li><p class="first"><tt class="docutils literal">,b)</tt></p>
<p>Comparator function; returns <em>-1</em> if a&lt;b, <em>1</em> if a&gt;b, <em>0</em> otherwise.</p>
<li><p class="first"><tt class="docutils literal">utils.compare_name(a,b)</tt></p>
<p>Comparator for names; compares empty string last.</p>
<li><p class="first"><tt class="docutils literal">utils.is_container(obj)</tt></p>
<p>Checks if obj is a container ref.</p>
<li><p class="first"><tt class="docutils literal">utils.make_index_sequence(start,end)</tt></p>
<p>Returns a lua sequence of numbers in start..end.</p>
<li><p class="first"><tt class="docutils literal">utils.make_sort_order(data, ordering)</tt></p>
<p>Computes a sorted permutation of objects in data, as a table of integer
indices into the data sequence. Uses <tt class="docutils literal">data.n</tt> as input length
if present.</p>
<p>The ordering argument is a sequence of ordering specs, represented
as lua tables with following possible fields:</p>
<dl class="docutils">
<dt>ord.key = <em>function(value)</em></dt>
<dd><p class="first last">Computes comparison key from input data value. Not called on nil.
If omitted, the comparison key is the value itself.</p>
<dt>ord.key_table = <em>function(data)</em></dt>
<dd><p class="first last">Computes a key table from the data table in one go.</p>
<dt> = <em>function(a,b)</em></dt>
<dd><p class="first last">Comparison function. Defaults to <tt class="docutils literal"></tt> above.
Called on non-nil keys; nil sorts last.</p>
<dt>ord.nil_first = <em>true/false</em></dt>
<dd><p class="first last">If true, nil keys are sorted first instead of last.</p>
<dt>ord.reverse = <em>true/false</em></dt>
<dd><p class="first last">If true, sort non-nil keys in descending order.</p>
<p>For every comparison during sorting the specs are applied in
order until an unambiguous decision is reached. Sorting is stable.</p>
<p>Example of sorting a sequence by field foo:</p>
<pre class="literal-block">
local spec = { key = function(v) return end }
local order = utils.make_sort_order(data, { spec })
local output = {}
for i = 1,#order do output[i] = data[order[i]] end
<p>Separating the actual reordering of the sequence in this
way enables applying the same permutation to multiple arrays.
This function is used by the sort plugin.</p>
<li><p class="first"><tt class="docutils literal">utils.assign(tgt, src)</tt></p>
<p>Does a recursive assignment of src into tgt.
Uses <tt class="docutils literal">df.assign</tt> if tgt is a native object ref; otherwise
recurses into lua tables.</p>
<li><p class="first"><tt class="docutils literal">utils.clone(obj, deep)</tt></p>
<p>Performs a shallow, or semi-deep copy of the object as a lua table tree.
The deep mode recurses into lua tables and subobjects, except pointers
to other heap objects.
Null pointers are represented as df.NULL. Zero-based native containers
are converted to 1-based lua sequences.</p>
<li><p class="first"><tt class="docutils literal">utils.clone_with_default(obj, default, force)</tt></p>
<p>Copies the object, using the <tt class="docutils literal">default</tt> lua table tree
as a guide to which values should be skipped as uninteresting.
The <tt class="docutils literal">force</tt> argument makes it always return a non-<em>nil</em> value.</p>
<li><p class="first"><tt class="docutils literal">utils.sort_vector(vector,field,cmpfun)</tt></p>
<p>Sorts a native vector or lua sequence using the comparator function.
If <tt class="docutils literal">field</tt> is not <em>nil</em>, applies the comparator to the field instead
of the whole object.</p>
<li><p class="first"><tt class="docutils literal">utils.binsearch(vector,key,field,cmpfun,min,max)</tt></p>
<p>Does a binary search in a native vector or lua sequence for
<tt class="docutils literal">key</tt>, using <tt class="docutils literal">cmpfun</tt> and <tt class="docutils literal">field</tt> like sort_vector.
If <tt class="docutils literal">min</tt> and <tt class="docutils literal">max</tt> are specified, they are used as the
search subrange bounds.</p>
<p>If found, returns <em>item, true, idx</em>. Otherwise returns
<em>nil, false, insert_idx</em>, where <em>insert_idx</em> is the correct
insertion point.</p>
<li><p class="first"><tt class="docutils literal">utils.insert_sorted(vector,item,field,cmpfun)</tt></p>
<p>Does a binary search, and inserts item if not found.
Returns <em>did_insert, vector[idx], idx</em>.</p>
<li><p class="first"><tt class="docutils literal">utils.insert_or_update(vector,item,field,cmpfun)</tt></p>
<p>Like <tt class="docutils literal">insert_sorted</tt>, but also assigns the item into
the vector cell if insertion didn't happen.</p>
<p>As an example, you can use this to set skill values:</p>
<pre class="literal-block">
utils.insert_or_update(soul.skills, {new=true, id=..., rating=...}, 'id')
<p>(For an explanation of <tt class="docutils literal">new=true</tt>, see table assignment in the wrapper section)</p>
<li><p class="first"><tt class="docutils literal">utils.prompt_yes_no(prompt, default)</tt></p>
<p>Presents a yes/no prompt to the user. If <tt class="docutils literal">default</tt> is not <em>nil</em>,
allows just pressing Enter to submit the default choice.
If the user enters <tt class="docutils literal">'abort'</tt>, throws an error.</p>
<li><p class="first"><tt class="docutils literal">utils.prompt_input(prompt, checkfun, quit_str)</tt></p>
<p>Presents a prompt to input data, until a valid string is entered.
Once <tt class="docutils literal">checkfun(input)</tt> returns <em>true, ...</em>, passes the values
through. If the user enters the quit_str (defaults to <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">'~~~'</span></tt>),
throws an error.</p>
<li><p class="first"><tt class="docutils literal">utils.check_number(text)</tt></p>
<p>A <tt class="docutils literal">prompt_input</tt> <tt class="docutils literal">checkfun</tt> that verifies a number input.</p>
<div class="section" id="dumper">
<h2><a class="toc-backref" href="#id34">dumper</a></h2>
<p>A third-party lua table dumper module from
<a class="reference external" href=""></a>. Defines one
<li><p class="first"><tt class="docutils literal">dumper.DataDumper(value, varname, fastmode, ident, indent_step)</tt></p>
<p>Returns <tt class="docutils literal">value</tt> converted to a string. The <tt class="docutils literal">indent_step</tt>
argument specifies the indentation step size in spaces. For
the other arguments see the original documentation link above.</p>
<div class="section" id="class">
<h2><a class="toc-backref" href="#id35">class</a></h2>
<p>Implements a trivial single-inheritance class system.</p>
<li><p class="first"><tt class="docutils literal">Foo = defclass(Foo[, ParentClass])</tt></p>
<p>Defines or updates class Foo. The <tt class="docutils literal">Foo = defclass(Foo)</tt> syntax
is needed so that when the module or script is reloaded, the
class identity will be preserved through the preservation of
global variable values.</p>
<p>The <tt class="docutils literal">defclass</tt> function is defined as a stub in the global
namespace, and using it will auto-load the class module.</p>
<li><p class="first"><tt class="docutils literal">Class.super</tt></p>
<p>This class field is set by defclass to the parent class, and
allows a readable <tt class="docutils literal">Class.super.method(self, <span class="pre">...)</span></tt> syntax for
calling superclass methods.</p>
<li><p class="first"><tt class="docutils literal">Class.ATTRS { foo = xxx, bar = yyy }</tt></p>
<p>Declares certain instance fields to be attributes, i.e. auto-initialized
from fields in the table used as the constructor argument. If omitted,
they are initialized with the default values specified in this declaration.</p>
<p>If the default value should be <em>nil</em>, use <tt class="docutils literal">ATTRS { foo = DEFAULT_NIL }</tt>.</p>
<li><p class="first"><tt class="docutils literal">new_obj = Class{ foo = arg, bar = arg, ... }</tt></p>
<p>Calling the class as a function creates and initializes a new instance.
Initialization happens in this order:</p>
<ol class="arabic simple">
<li>An empty instance table is created, and its metatable set.</li>
<li>The <tt class="docutils literal">preinit</tt> method is called via <tt class="docutils literal">invoke_before</tt> (see below)
with the table used as argument to the class. This method is intended
for validating and tweaking that argument table.</li>
<li>Declared ATTRS are initialized from the argument table or their default values.</li>
<li>The <tt class="docutils literal">init</tt> method is called via <tt class="docutils literal">invoke_after</tt> with the argument table.
This is the main constructor method.</li>
<li>The <tt class="docutils literal">postinit</tt> method is called via <tt class="docutils literal">invoke_after</tt> with the argument table.
Place code that should be called after the object is fully constructed here.</li>
<p>Predefined instance methods:</p>
<li><p class="first"><tt class="docutils literal">instance:assign{ foo = xxx }</tt></p>
<p>Assigns all values in the input table to the matching instance fields.</p>
<li><p class="first"><tt class="docutils literal">instance:callback(method_name, <span class="pre">[args...])</span></tt></p>
<p>Returns a closure that invokes the specified method of the class,
properly passing in self, and optionally a number of initial arguments too.
The arguments given to the closure are appended to these.</p>
<li><p class="first"><tt class="docutils literal">instance:invoke_before(method_name, <span class="pre">args...)</span></tt></p>
<p>Navigates the inheritance chain of the instance starting from the most specific
class, and invokes the specified method with the arguments if it is defined in
that specific class. Equivalent to the following definition in every class:</p>
<pre class="literal-block">
function Class:invoke_before(method, ...)
if rawget(Class, method) then
rawget(Class, method)(self, ...)
Class.super.invoke_before(method, ...)
<li><p class="first"><tt class="docutils literal">instance:invoke_after(method_name, <span class="pre">args...)</span></tt></p>
<p>Like invoke_before, only the method is called after the recursive call to super,
i.e. invocations happen in the parent to child order.</p>
<p>These two methods are inspired by the Common Lisp before and after methods, and
are intended for implementing similar protocols for certain things. The class
library itself uses them for constructors.</p>
<p>To avoid confusion, these methods cannot be redefined.</p>
<div class="section" id="plugins">
<h1><a class="toc-backref" href="#id36">Plugins</a></h1>
<p>DFHack plugins may export native functions and events
to lua contexts. They are automatically imported by
<tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">mkmodule('plugins.&lt;name&gt;')</span></tt>; this means that a lua
module file is still necessary for <tt class="docutils literal">require</tt> to read.</p>
<p>The following plugins have lua support.</p>
<div class="section" id="burrows">
<h2><a class="toc-backref" href="#id37">burrows</a></h2>
<p>Implements extended burrow manipulations.</p>
<li><p class="first"><tt class="docutils literal"> = function(burrow)</tt></p>
<p>Emitted when a burrow might have been renamed either through
the game UI, or <tt class="docutils literal">renameBurrow()</tt>.</p>
<li><p class="first"><tt class="docutils literal"> = function(job_type,pos,old_tiletype,new_tiletype,worker)</tt></p>
<p>Emitted when a tile might have been dug out. Only tracked if the
auto-growing burrows feature is enabled.</p>
<p>Native functions:</p>
<li><p class="first"><tt class="docutils literal">renameBurrow(burrow,name)</tt></p>
<p>Renames the burrow, emitting <tt class="docutils literal">onBurrowRename</tt> and updating auto-grow state properly.</p>
<li><p class="first"><tt class="docutils literal">findByName(burrow,name)</tt></p>
<p>Finds a burrow by name, using the same rules as the plugin command line interface.
Namely, trailing <tt class="docutils literal">'+'</tt> characters marking auto-grow burrows are ignored.</p>
<li><p class="first"><tt class="docutils literal">copyUnits(target,source,enable)</tt></p>
<p>Applies units from <tt class="docutils literal">source</tt> burrow to <tt class="docutils literal">target</tt>. The <tt class="docutils literal">enable</tt>
parameter specifies if they are to be added or removed.</p>
<li><p class="first"><tt class="docutils literal">copyTiles(target,source,enable)</tt></p>
<p>Applies tiles from <tt class="docutils literal">source</tt> burrow to <tt class="docutils literal">target</tt>. The <tt class="docutils literal">enable</tt>
parameter specifies if they are to be added or removed.</p>
<li><p class="first"><tt class="docutils literal">setTilesByKeyword(target,keyword,enable)</tt></p>
<p>Adds or removes tiles matching a predefined keyword. The keyword
set is the same as used by the command line.</p>
<p>The lua module file also re-exports functions from <tt class="docutils literal">dfhack.burrows</tt>.</p>
<div class="section" id="sort">
<h2><a class="toc-backref" href="#id38">sort</a></h2>
<p>Does not export any native functions as of now. Instead, it
calls lua code to perform the actual ordering of list items.</p>
<div class="section" id="scripts">
<h1><a class="toc-backref" href="#id39">Scripts</a></h1>
<p>Any files with the .lua extension placed into hack/scripts/*
are automatically used by the DFHack core as commands. The
matching command name consists of the name of the file sans
the extension.</p>
<p>If the first line of the script is a one-line comment, it is
used by the built-in <tt class="docutils literal">ls</tt> and <tt class="docutils literal">help</tt> commands.</p>
<p><strong>NOTE:</strong> Scripts placed in subdirectories still can be accessed, but
do not clutter the <tt class="docutils literal">ls</tt> command list; thus it is preferred
for obscure developer-oriented scripts and scripts used by tools.
When calling such scripts, always use '/' as the separator for
directories, e.g. <tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">devel/lua-example</span></tt>.</p>
<p>Scripts are re-read from disk every time they are used
(this may be changed later to check the file change time); however
the global variable values persist in memory between calls.
Every script gets its own separate environment for global
<p>Arguments are passed in to the scripts via the <strong>...</strong> built-in
quasi-variable; when the script is called by the DFHack core,
they are all guaranteed to be non-nil strings.</p>
<p>DFHack core invokes the scripts in the <em>core context</em> (see above);
however it is possible to call them from any lua code (including
from other scripts) in any context, via the same function the core uses:</p>
<li><p class="first"><tt class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">dfhack.run_script(name[,args...])</span></tt></p>
<p>Run a lua script in hack/scripts/, as if it was started from dfhack command-line.
The <tt class="docutils literal">name</tt> argument should be the name stem, as would be used on the command line.</p>
<p>Note that this function lets errors propagate to the caller.</p>
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