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User Guide to the DM2E Command Line Tools

Setting up the environment

Set up the repositories:

cd $HOME
mkdir repo && cd repo
git clone
git clone

Now build and install the projects (order matters!)

cd $HOME/repo/dm2e-ontologies
mvn install                     # Installs the JAR into the repository
mvn package                     # creates the JARs
cd $HOME/repo/edm-validation
mvn install

Now install the raptor RDF library using the package manager of your choice:

sudo apt-get install raptor-utils   # Debian, Ubuntu
sudo pacman -S raptor               # Arch Linux

Install LibXSLT's xsltproc to execute XSL transformation scripts:

sudo apt-get install xsltproc   # Debian, Ubuntu
sudo pacman -S libxslt          # Arch Linux

Install curl to URL-encode SPARQL queries:

sudo apt-get install curl  # Debian, Ubuntu
sudo pacman -S curl        # Arch Linux

Executing SPARQL queries

To execute queries against a SPARQL endpoint and in particular the DM2E endpoint, the script can be used. In addition to query execution, the script makes namespace management easier and allows for variable interpolation in queries.

cd $HOME/repo/dm2e-ontologies/src/main/resources/sparql-queries/

Without any paramaters, the script will print its usage, which is as of Fri Aug 1 13:54:21 CEST 2014:


  <queryFile>                 File containing the SPARQL query, REQUIRED


  --endpoint <endpoint>       SPARQL endpoint to query [Default: 'http://localhost:9997/dm2e-direct/sparql']
  --prefixes <prefixfile>     Load SPARQL Prefixes from prefixfile [Default: 'prefixes.rq']
  --format <tsv|xml|json|ntriples>     Format for displaying the result bindings [Default: 'tsv']
  --bind <var> <val>          Replace all occurences of ?val by the value
                              (to parameterize the query) REPEATABLE
  • --endpoint gives the SPARQL endpoint to query. Note that the script has only been tested with Fuseki but should work with every SPARQL1.1-compliant endpoint.
  • --prefixes contains the name of the namespace prefixes file. This file should only contain prefix definitions in the SPARQL syntax. A reasonable set of defaults is bundled.
  • --format specifies the format that results of queries should be serialized as. The default format is applicable for SELECT queries. For CONSTRUCT queries, this must be changed to either xml for RDF/XML or ntriples for N-TRIPLE serialization of RDF data.
  • --bind define key-value pairs for variable interpolation

The queryFile parameter is the path of a file that contains SPARQL clauses sans the namespaces.

Variable interpolation

Suppose you have a query that returns all statements within a Named Graph but you want to apply that query to a lot of different Named Graphs named /tmp/SELECT-all-in-graph.rq:

  GRAPH ?graph {
    ?s ?p ?o

Now you can interpolate ?graph to a concrete value:

bash --bind '?graph' '<>' /tmp/SELECT-all-in-graph.rq

What this does is replacing all occurences of ?graph with <>.

Now, in another file graphs.lst you have the URIs of the graphs, one per line. Now you can ...

DM2E validation

Validation of DM2E data can be executed with the following command:

cd $HOME/repo/dm2e-ontologies/target
java -jar dm2e-validator-jar-with-dependencies.jar --help

This will give you a help screen on the invocation of the tool. As of Thu Jul 31 11:21:49 CEST 2014, these options are:

 -format <RDF/XML | N-TRIPLE | TURTLE>                           RDF input serialization format [Default: RDF/XML]
 -level <NOTICE | WARNING | ERROR | FATAL>                       Minimum Validation level [Default: NOTICE]
 -skipOk                                                         Skip writing results for valid results
 -stdout                                                         Write to STDOUT [Default: false]
 -suffix <suffix>                                                output file suffix [default: '.validation.${model-version}.txt']
 -terse                                                          Output results very terse [Default: false]
 -version <1.1_Rev{1.2|1.3|1.4|1.5|1.6|Final} | 1.2_{RC1|RC2}>   DM2E Data Model version [REQUIRED]

The only required option is -version.

skipOk can be useful for large numbers of files, since only for those files that fail validation, reports will be written.

When -terse is given, a more dense error report is generated, containing only the type of error (corresponding to the Enum names in ValidationProblemCategory and the problematic resource/string instead of the full textual description.

You can safely ignore problems of level NOTICE and WARNING, but all data that contains ERROR or FATAL problems should not be transformed to EDM since the conversion is likely to fail and it is even more likely that EDM validation will fail, i.e. that the data will not be ingestible by Europeana. -- Interacting with DM2E data is a Bash script that makes it convenient to interact with the data in DM2E convenient.

It is important to note that the script must be executed in the directory it resides, because it uses relative paths to the various JARs. This means:

cd $HOME/repo/dm2e-ontologies
cd src/main/bash
bash [...]


The script uses a few global variables that can be either set when invoking the tool (see Options) or using a profile shell script that contains only variable assignments see Profile File.

The following variables can sensibly be changed:

  • IN_DIR: The directory of the DM2E RDF/XML files
  • OUT_DIR: The directory where the EDM converted raw RDF/XML files should be written to
  • CLEAN_DIR: The directory where the sorted, re-serialized and Europeana-Ingestion-ready EDM RDF/XML files should be written to

The following variables can be changed but under most circumstances should not:

Profile file

The profile script must be named and is searched in

  • the current working directory
  • the $HOME directory

For example, if I have my DM2E input data in $HOME/dm2e-in, want the EDM output data in /tmp/edm and the ingestion-ready EDM files in /data/edm-ingestion-ready:

$> cat $HOME/


As of Thu Jul 31 11:57:01 CEST 2014, the command line parameters for are

    bash <action> [options]

    Global options:
        --purge             Empty directories and list files before writing to them
        --in-dir            Set $IN_DIR
        --out-dir           Set $IN_DIR
        --clean-dir         Set $CLEAN_DIR

    Actions / options:
        list-datasets       List the latest versions of all datasets
            --dataset-list              File to write the dataset URIs to [OPTIONAL]
        list-aggregations   List the latest versions of all datasets
            --dataset/ds <URI>          URI of the dataset [REQUIRED]
        dump-aggregations   Dump the transitive closure of the list of aggregations to $IN_DIR
            --dataset/ds <URI>          URI of the dataset [REQUIRED]
        convert-to-edm      Convert the data in $IN_DIR to EDM RDF/XML in $OUT_DIR
        cleanup-edm         Transform the EDM RDF/XML in $OUT_DIR to prettier RDF/XML in $CLEAN_DIR
        batch-dump          Combines 'list-datasets', 'list-aggregations' and 'dump-aggregations'
        batch-convert       Combines 'convert-to-edm' and 'cleanup-edm'
        validate-edm        Validate the EDM RDF/XML in $OUT_DIR to prettier RDF/XML in $CLEAN_DIR

For the conversion to EDM, we have two assumptions:

  • The data is valid against the DM2E model
  • The data can be accessed using a SPARQL endpoint

The central interface to interaction with data in the DM2E triplestore and subsequent conversion/validation is in