Congressional Research Service

Antoine McGrath edited this page Sep 18, 2018 · 70 revisions

Introduction

The following materials pertain to questions around the public availability of Congressional Research Service Reports. Some information on CRS is available at the Congressional Research Service website.

If you wish to share a shortlink to this page, use http://bit.ly/CRSWiki.

Most Useful Resources at a Glance

  • Best introduction: "Where taxpayers pay ($100 million a year) but interest groups benefit," Kevin Kosar, R Street Institute, in the Washington Post (11/10/2015)
  • What nonprofit orgs say: 41 Organizations Call for Public Access to CRS Reports, Address Concerns Raised by CRS, August 2015 (PDF)
  • What former CRS employees say: 22 Former CRS Employees with More than 500 Years Tenure Call for Public Access, October 2015 (PDF)
  • Video discussing the issues at play: Congressional Transparency Caucus panel discussion on public access, addressing why non-confidential CRS reports should be publicly available; the legal and constitutional issues; the policy issues; and the CRS perspective. Participants included former Rep. Chris Shays (R-CT), Stan Brand, Kevin Kosar, Prue Adler, and me as moderator. Reps. Leonard Lance (R-NJ) and Mike Quigley (D-IL) both spoke; they have introduced House Resolution 34 in support of public access. (Video is here)
  • Senate Access Policy: Letter from Senate Rules Committee to Colleagues (6/10/1998)
  • CRS Perspective: Memo from CRS Acting Director to Rep. Quigley upon the introduction of a bill to release CRS reports online (May 13, 2011)

Table of Contents

  1. Introduction
    ⋅⋅⋅i. Most Useful Resources at a Glance
    ⋅⋅⋅ii. Table of Contents
  2. Background Articles/ Papers on Public Access
    ⋅⋅⋅i. Non-profit organizations
    ⋅⋅⋅ii. Members of Congress & Org. Letters
    ⋅⋅⋅iii. [News Coverage and Editorials] (https://github.com/DanielSchuman/Policy/wiki/Congressional-Research-Service#news-coverage-and-editorials)
    ⋅⋅⋅iv. Other
  3. Publication and Policy Issues
    ⋅⋅⋅i. "Speech or Debate" clause; other legal issues
    ⋅⋅⋅ii. CRS Policy Statements on Distribution
    ⋅⋅⋅iii. Congressional policies on Access to CRS Reports
  4. Public Resources for CRS Reports
    ⋅⋅⋅i. Statistics on Public Usage of CRS Reports
    ⋅⋅⋅ii. Resources to obtain reports
    ⋅⋅⋅iii. International examples of public access to CRS-like reports
  5. Legislation Pertaining to CRS
    ⋅⋅⋅i. Draft Legislation Requiring CRS Reports be Publicly Available
    ⋅⋅⋅ii. Co-sponsors of CRS Bills and Resolutions in the House and Senate
    ⋅⋅⋅iii. Legislative Resources on CRS Appropriations
    ⋅⋅⋅iv. CRS Annual Reports
    ⋅⋅⋅v. Congressional Budget Justifications
    ⋅⋅⋅vi. Appropriations
    ⋅⋅⋅vii. Frequently used appropriations language

Background Articles/ Papers on Public Access

Non-Profit organizations

  • Data Coalition: "Coalition Endorses a More Open CRS" (3/10/2016)
  • Federation of American Scientists: "Bill With Authorize Release of CRS Reports" - Steve Aftergood (3/4/2016)
  • "The Grover Norquist Show: Government Transparency and the Congressional Research Service" - Grover Norquist, Americans for Tax Reform (December 1, 2015)
  • "It's Time to Publish CRS Reports" - Daniel Schuman, Demand Progress ([June 2015] (https://medium.com/demand-progress/it-s-time-for-public-access-to-crs-reports-92c22cd98769)]
  • 15 Reasons Congressional Research Service Reports Should be Public -- Kevin Kosar, R Street (October 2015)
  • "Why I Quit the Congressional Research Service" - Kevin Kosar, R Street ([January 2015] (http://www.washingtonmonthly.com/magazine/januaryfebruary_2015/features/why_i_quit_the_congressional_r053467.php?page=all)]
  • "It's time to Give the Public Access to CRS Reports" - Matt Rumsey (March 2013)
  • "New Bill would Open CRS Reports to Public" - Daniel Schuman (July 2012)
  • “Hopefully Coming Soon: CRS Access For All, and Other Opengov Initiatives from Congress” - Lauren Perry (April 2010)
  • “CRS Reports Should Be Publicly Available” - Daniel Schuman (May 2009) (Archived)
  • “S. Res. 118 – Free CRS Reports” - Ellen Miller (April 2009) (Archived)
  • The Open House Project Recommendations Report: Congressional Research Service (May 2007)
  • "Across the Hill: The congressional research service and providing research for congress-A retrospective on origins," Harold C Relyea, Government Information Quarterly, Volume 26, Issue 3, Pages 414-422 (2009 ($))
  • Press Release: “POGO joins coaliton calling for Senators to allow public access of CRS reports” 5/4/2009
  • Report: “Congressional Research Service Products: Taxpayers Should Have Easy Access” (2/10/2003)

Members of Congress and Organizational Letters

  • Coalition Letters Thanking Original Co-Sponsors for CRS Legislation (March 9, 2016) (McCain) (Leahy) (Lance) (Quigley)
  • 12 Free-Market, Conservative Groups Urge Public Access to CRS Reports (February 29, 2015) (PDF)
  • Seventh District Congressional Report (Rep. Lance), with Guest Grover Norquist, December 2015 (Video
  • Americans for Tax Reform Urge Congress to Make CRS Reports Public, November 2015 (PDF)
  • Rep. Leonard Lance (R-NJ) gives a 5-minute floor speech in favor of public access to CRS Reports (Video)
  • Rep. Mike Quigley (D-Il) gives a 5-minute floor speech in favor of public access to CRS Reports (Video)
  • 22 Former CRS Employees with More than 500 Years Tenure Call for Public Access, October 2015 (PDF)
  • Congressional Transparency Caucus panel discussion on public access, addressing why non-confidential CRS reports should be publicly available; the legal and constitutional issues; the policy issues; and the CRS perspective. Participants included former Rep. Chris Shays (R-CT), Stan Brand, Kevin Kosar, Prue Adler, and me as moderator. Reps. Leonard Lance (R-NJ) and Mike Quigley (D-IL) both spoke; they have introduced House Resolution 34 in support of public access. (Video is here)
  • 41 Organizations Call for Public Access to CRS Reports, Address Concerns Raised by CRS, August 2015 ([PDF] (https://s3.amazonaws.com/new.demandprogress.org/letters/Letter_Calling_for_Public_Access_to_CRS_Reports_2015-11-12.pdf))
  • Memo from CRS Acting Director to Rep. Quigley upon the introduction of a bill to release CRS reports online (May 13, 2011)
  • Coalition of organizations letter to Reps. Issa and Cummings on public availability of CRS Reports, April 5, 2011 (PDF)
  • Coalition of organizations letter to Sens. Lieberman and Collins on public availability of CRS Reports, April 5, 2011 (PDF)
  • Coalition of organizations letter to Legislative Branch Appropriations Subcommittee Members on Library of Congress Appropriations, April 5, 2011 (PDF)
  • Coalition of organization letter to Librarian of Congress regarding the selection of the next CRS Director, February 25, 2010 (PDF)
  • Sen. Lieberman Urges Better Public Access to CRS Reports In Letter to Sen. Schumer, Chairman, Committee on Rules and Administration (4/9/2009)
  • Sen. Lieberman Calls for Wider, Easier, Timely Access to CRS Reports in Letter to Sen. Feinstein, Chairman, Committee on Rules and Administration (2/27/2008)
  • Congressional Accountability Project letter advocating that CRS reports should be placed online (8/6/1997)

News Coverage and Editorials

  • GovExec: "Should Congressional Research Service Reports Be Kept Secret?" - Charles Clark (6/20/2016)
  • The Washington Post: "In the race to open Congress’s secretive think tank, a new trove of confidential research goes public" - Lisa Rein (12/14/2015)
  • The Examiner: "Here's how to make the Congressional Research Service more transparent" - Andrew Collins - (11/24/2015)
  • The Hill: "Give Public Access to Congressional research service reports" - Reps. Leonard Lance (R-NJ) and Mike Quigley (D-IL) - (10/22/2015)
  • Politico: "The publicly funded reports you can't read" - Darren Samuelsohn - (10/2015]
  • Roll Call: "Congress' selfish reason for not sharing CRS Reports" - Hannah Hess - (10/23/2015)
  • Washington Post: "Trying to crack open Congress' confidential think tank after a century of secrecy" - Lisa Rein (10/29/2015)]
  • Free Beacon: "Reps. Push Congress to Digitize Congressional Research Service Database" - Robert Davis Edelman - (6/19/2015)
  • New York Times: "Congressional Research Belongs to the Public" - the Editorial Board - (6/17/2015)
  • Washington Post: "Public pays for congressional reports it can't see" - Colby Itkowitz - (1/14/2015)
  • Federal News Radio: Interview - Daniel Schuman - (1/23/2012)
  • Huffington Post: "Congressional Research Service Public Database Pushed in House Measure" - Nate Willis (7/11/2012)
  • Fierce Government IT: "House Proposal would make CRS reports available online" - David Perera (7/11/2012)
  • Quigley, Lance Push to Grant Public Access to Congressional Research - Rep. Quigley website (7/10/2012)
  • Roll Call: "Advocates Push for Transparency at CRS" - Jonathan Easley (8/19/2011)
  • The New York Times: “Group Seeks Public Access to Congressional Research” - Stephanie Strom (5/4/2009)

Other

Publication Policy Issues

"Speech or Debate Clause" and other legal considerations

  • Legal Issues Presented by Proposals for the General Release of CRS Products to the Public (2000-12-14) (PDF) 
  • Former House of Representatives General Counsel Stanley Brand Letter arguing that making CRS reports publicly available raises no legal issues (responding to CRS' internal memo dated 1/2/1998) (1/27/1998) (PDF)
  • CRS's discussion of the legal issues surrounding public release of its reports (1/2/1998) (PDF) 

CRS Policy Statement on Distribution of Reports to Non-Congressional Staff

  • CRS Policy on Confidentiality (2015-09-22)
  • Considerations arising from the public dissemination of CRS Reports (2015-04)
  • Memo from CRS Acting Director to Rep. Quigley upon the introduction of a bill to release CRS reports online (2011-05-11)
  • CRS Memo: "Discussion of the implications of direct public access to all crs reports" (2009-05-28) (PDF)
  • CRS Memo: “Distribution of CRS Products to Non-Congressionals” (3/20/2007)(PDF)
  • CRS internal memo on on publication of CRS products (2003)
  • Letter from James H. Billington, Librarian of Congress, to Mr. Ari Schwartz and Mr. Rick Blum (10/3/1999)

Congressional Policies on Access to CRS Reports

  • Senate Access Policy: Letter from Senate Rules Committee to Colleagues (6/10/1998)

Public Sources for CRS Reports

Statistics on Public Usage of CRS Reports

Between 2005-2015:

  • 190 Federal court opinions cited 190 CRS reports
  • 57 cited by the Court of Appeals
  • 5 cited by the US Bankruptcy Court
  • 7 cited by the Supreme Court

Between 2009-2011, major newspapers cited CRS reports 779 times, including 70 mentions in the Washington Post and 65 mentions in the New York Times.

  • From 2001-2010, federal courts have cited CRS Reports 130 times.
  • From 1973-2010, the U.S. Supreme Court cited CRS Reports 34 times
  • From 1973-2010, circuit courts cited CRS 112 times.

Resources to Obtain Reports

Nonprofit websites (free to use)

Government Websites

For-profit websites

Examples of other countries who make CRS-like reports publicly available

According to the World e-Parliament Report 2010, page 110:

47% of parliaments make research and analyses from subject matter experts available to the public on the parliament or library website.

legislative_research_agency_reports.png

  • 85% of the G-20 members whose chambers have subject matter experts (11 out of 13) make those reports available to the public.
  • Of all the countries that have subject matter experts on public policy issues who provide research and analysis for members and committees, nearly half (47%) make the results of that research and analysis available to the public.

CRS Review

In the 1980s and early 1990s, CRS published the "CRS Review," which analyzed issues before Congress and was distributed to congressional staff and members of the public. Here are a few examples of the CRS Reviews. Here is how CRS described the document:

The CRS Review is a digest of selected policy research and analysis for the United States Congress and its legislative staff. It is issued periodically and comprised of analytical articles summarizing and highlighting CRS products on substantive policy issues. The Review is distributed to Members of Congress, their staffs, congressional committees, and other offices of the legislative branch. It is also available through Government Printing Office stores. CRS products cited in the CRS Review are available only to congressional offices.

Here are some sample editions:

  • Congressional Research Service Review: 1983 Space Activities and a Look Forward, Volume 5 No. 3 (March 1984)  
  • Congressional Research Service Review: United States Withdrawal from World Court Jurisdiction, Volume 6 No. 4 (April 1985)
  • Congressional Research Service Review: Major Issue Forum: Arms Control, Volume 8 No. 6 (June 1987)
  • CRS Review: Major Issue Forum: Japan-U.S. Relations, Volume 10 No. 6 (July 1989)
  • CRS Review: Major ISsues: Second Session, Volume 13 No. 1 (January 1992)

Legislation Pertaining to CRS

Legislation Requiring CRS Reports Be Made Publicly Available

114th Congress

  • H.R. 4702: Equal Access to Congressional Research Service Reports Act of 2016
  • S. 2639: Equal Access to Congressional Research Service Reports Act of 2016
  • H. Res. 34: Public Access to Congressional Research Service Reports Resolution of 2015

113th Congress

  • H.Res 110: Congressional Research Service Electronic Accessibility Resolution of 2013.  

  • H. R. 4245: Transparency in Government Act of 2014: Title III

112th Congress

  • H. Res 727: Congressional Research Service Electronic Accessibility Resolution of 2012

111th Congress

  • H.R.4983: Transparency in Government Act of 2010 (introduced 3/25/2010) Sponsors: Reps. Quigley, Speier.
  • H.R.3762: Congressional Research Service Electronic Accessibility Act of 2009 (introduced 10/8/2009) Sponsors: Kratovil, Lance, Polis.
  • S.Res.118: A resolution to provide Internet access to certain Congressional Research Service publications. (introduced 4/29/2009) Sponsors: Sens. Lieberman, Collins, Feingold, Harkin, Leahy, Lugar, McCain.

110th Congress

  • S.Res401: A resolution to provide Internet access to certain Congressional Research Service publications. (introduced 12/11/2007). Sponsors: Sens. Lieberman, Collins, Cornyn, Feingold, Harkin, Leahy, Lugar, McCain, McCaskill.
  • H.R.2545: Congressional Research Accessibility Act (introduced 5/24/2007). Sponsors: Reps. Shays, Inslee, Price.

109th Congress

  • None found.

108th Congress

  • H.R.3630: Congressional Research Accessibility Act (introduced 11/21/2003). Sponsors: Reps. Shays, Green, Inslee, Price.
  • S.Res.54: A resolution to provide Internet access to certain Congressional documents, including certain Congressional Research Service publications, certain Senate gift reports, and Senate and Joint Committee documents. (introduced 2/11/2003). Sponsors: Sens. McCain, Cornyn, Corzine, Feingold, Harkin, Leahy, Lieberman.

107th Congress

  • S.Res.21: A resolution directing the Sergeant-at-Arms to provide Internet access to certain Congressional documents, including certain Congressional Research Service publications, Senate lobbying and gift report filings, and Senate and Joint Committee documents. (introduced 2/14/2001). Sponsors: Sens. McCain, Harkin, Leahy, Lieberman, Lott.

106th Congress

  • H.R.4582: Citizen Legislature Empowerment through Access to Resources (CLEAR) Act (introduced 6/6/2000). Sponsors: Reps. DeMint, Canady, Chenoweth-Hage, Coburn, English, Green, Hill, Metcalf, Salmon, Sanford, Schaffer, Shays, Tancredo, Toomey.
  • S.393: Congressional Openness Act (introduced 2/9/1999). Sponsors: Sens. McCain, Abraham, Ashcroft, Enzi, Feingold, Leahy, Lincoln, Lott, Robb, Sessions.
  • H.R.654: Congressional Research Accessibility Act (introduced 2/9/1999). Sponsors: Says, Baldwin, Boehlert, Brown, Campbell, DeMint, Dreier, Green, Hobson, Horn, Inslee, Luther, Nussle, Pallone, Price, Salmon, Shows, Slaughter, Stark, Towns, Udall, Upton.

105th Congress

  • S.1578: A bill to make available on the Internet, for purposes of access and retrieval by the public, certain information available through the Congressional Research Service web site. (introduced 1/28/1998). Sponsors: Sens. McCain, Abraham, Ashcroft, Coats, Enzi, Faircloth, Feingold, Kerrey, Leahy, Lott, Robb, Wyden.
  • H.R.3131: To make available on the Internet, for purposes of access and retrieval by the public, certain information available through the Congressional Research Service web site. (introduced 1/28/1998). Sponsors: Reps. Shays, Barrett, Berman, Boehlert, Boucher, Campbell, Clyburn, Conyers, Davis, DeFazio, Dooley, Doyle, Dreier, English, Frost, Furse, Greenwood, Hefner, Hobson, Hulshof, Lantos, Lowey, McHale, Meehan (Marty), Morella, Pallone, Price, Salmon, Stark, Torres, Towns, Underwood, White, Woolsey.

Sponsors of CRS Bills and Resolutions

In the House

This chart lists members of the House of Representatives in the 114th Congress who have sponsored CRS reports and resolutions in prior Congresses.

Member Most Recent Congress Bill Name
Clyburn 105 HR 3131
Conyers 105 HR 3131
Cooper 114 H Res 34
DeFazio 105 HR 3131
Green 108 HR 3630
Grijalva 113 H Res 110
Hill 106 HR 4582
Speier 111 HR 4983
Vargas 113 H Res 110
Amash 113 H Res 110
Sinema 113 HR 4245
Lance 114 H Res 34
Lowey 105 HR 3131
McGovern 114 H Res 34
Meehan M. 105 HR 3131
Pallone 106 HR 3482
Polis 114 H Res 34
Price 9David) 110 HR 2545
Quigley 114 H Res 34
Salmon 106 HR 4582
Sanford 106 HR 4582
Schiff 113 H Res 110
Slaughter 114 H Res 34
Young 113 H Res 110
Upton 106 HR 4582
Walz 114 H Res 34

In the Senate

This chart lists Senators who are serving in the 114th Congress and have sponsored CRS reports and resolutions in prior Congresses.

Senator Most Recent Session Bill Name
McCain 111 S Res 118
Collins 111 S Res 118
Leahy 111 S Res 118
Cornyn 110 S Res 401
McCaskill 110 S Res 401
Enzi 106 S 393
Sessions 106 S 393
Wyden 105 S 1578

Legislative Resources On CRS Appropriations

CRS Annual Reports

Note: CRS releases to the public a truncated version of its annual report after it has been voted upon by Congress. CRS removes prior year reports upon publication of the new version. The full reports, which include a list of CRS reports issued during the prior year, were obtained through other sources.

  • CRS Annual Report Fiscal Year 2017 (full)

  • CRS Annual Report Fiscal Year 2016 (full) (truncated)

  • CRS Annual Report Fiscal Year 2015 (full) (truncated)

  • CRS Annual Report Fiscal Year 2014 (full) (truncated)

  • CRS Annual Report Fiscal Year 2013 (full)

  • CRS annual Report Fiscal Year 2012 (full) (truncated)

  • CRS Annual Report Fiscal Year 2011 (full) (truncated)

  • CRS Annual Report Fiscal Year 2010 (full) (truncated)

  • CRS Annual Report Fiscal Year 2009 (full) (truncated)

  • CRS Annual Report Fiscal Year 2008 (full) (truncated)

  • CRS Annual Report Fiscal Year 2007 (full)(truncated)

  • CRS Annual Report Fiscal Year 2006 (full) (truncated)

  • CRS Annual Report Fiscal Year 2005 (full) (truncated)

  • CRS Annual Report Fiscal Year 2004 (full) (truncated)

  • CRS Annual Report Fiscal Year 2003 (full) (truncated)

  • CRS Annual Report Fiscal Year 2002 (full) (truncated)

  • CRS Annual Report Fiscal Year 2001 (full) (truncated)

  • CRS Annual Report Fiscal Year 2000 (full)

  • CRS Annual Report Fiscal Year 1999 (full)

  • CRS Annual Report Fiscal Year 1998 (full)

  • CRS Annual Report Fiscal Year 1997 (full)

  • CRS Annual Report Fiscal Year 1996 (full)

  • CRS Annual Report Fiscal Year 1995 (full)

  • CRS Annual Report Fiscal Year 1994 (MISSING)

  • CRS Annual Report Fiscal Year 1993 (MISSING)

  • CRS Annual Report Fiscal Year 1992 (MISSING)

  • CRS Annual Report Fiscal Year 1991 (MISSING)

  • CRS Annual Report Fiscal Year 1990 (MISSING)

  • CRS Annual Report Fiscal Year 1989 (MISSING)

  • CRS Annual Report Fiscal Year 1988 (MISSING)

  • CRS Annual Report Fiscal Year 1987 (MISSING)

  • CRS Annual Report Fiscal Year 1986 (MISSING)

  • CRS Annual Report Fiscal Year 1985 (MISSING)

  • CRS Annual Report Fiscal Year 1984 (MISSING)

  • CRS Annual Report Fiscal Year 1983 (MISSING)

  • CRS Annual Report Fiscal Year 1982 (MISSING)

  • CRS Annual Report Fiscal Year 1981 (MISSING)

  • CRS Annual Report Fiscal Year 1980 (full)

  • CRS Annual Report Fiscal Year 1979 (full)

  • CRS Annual Report Fiscal Year 1978 (full)

  • CRS Annual Report Fiscal Year 1977 (full)

  • CRS Annual Report Fiscal Year 1976 (full)

  • CRS Annual Report Fiscal Year 1975 (full)

Library of Congress Annual Reports

  • FY 2000- FY2013 (link) (contains sections on CRS) (from LOC)
  • FY 1866-2007 (not inclusive) (link)

Library of Congress Financial Statements

  • FY 1996-2013 (link)

Congressional Budget Justifications

These justifications are submitted to the Appropriations Subcommittee for the Legislative Branch

Appropriations

FY 2012

  • Omnibus Appropriations H.R. 2055: Division G (link]
  • House Report 112-148 (link)
  • Senate Report 112-80 (link)

FY 2011

FY 2010

  • Legislative Branch Appropriations Act, FY 2010 (link)
  • House Report 111-160 (link)
  • Conference Report aka House Report 111-265 (link)

FY 2009

  • Omnibus Appropriations Act, FY 2009 (link)
  • Joint Explanatory Statement -- from House Rules website (link)

FY 2008

  • Consolidated Appropriations Act, FY 2008 (link)
  • House Report 110-198 (link)
  • Senate Report 110-089 (link) -- criticizes CRS for holding expensive offsite management retreats; castigates CRS for acting as an independent agency from LOC

FY 2007

  • Revised Continuing Appropriations Resolution, 2007 (link)
  • House Report 109-485 (link)
  • Senate Report 109-267 (link)

FY 2006

  • Legislative Branch Appropriations Act, FY 2006 (link)
  • House Report 109-139 (link) - extra money for research materials
  • Senate Report 109-89 (link) - additional requirements for a study on resources drained by assisting other parliaments; to conduct a study of staff salaries
  • Conference Report: House Report 108-189 (link)

FY 2005

  • Consolidated Appropriations Act, FY 2005 (link)
  • House Report 108-577 (link) - requires report on duplications of services between CRS and LOC on issues including technology
  • Senate Report 108-307 (link) - funding for add'l security and XML capabilities

FY 2004

  • Legislative Branch Appropriations Act, 2004 (link)
  • House Report 108-186 (link)
  • Senate Report 108-88 (link) - tells CRS to hire its allocated full time employees and reduce use of contractors
  • Conference Report: House Report 108-279 (link)

FY 2003

  • Consolidated Appropriations Resolution, FY 2003 (link)
  • House Report 107-576 (link) - denies request for FTEs b/c work can be done by contractors
  • Senate Report 107-209 (link)
  • Conference Committee (for Omnibus): House Report 108-10 (link)
  • Emergency Wartime Supplemental Appropriation Act, FY 2003 (link) -- adds another 1.8m
  • House Report 108-55 (link) -- recommends creation of alternate computing facility
  • Senate Report 108-33 (link) -- for mirroring online critical information
  • Conference Report: House Report 108-76 (link) - $1.8m for salaries

FY 2002

  • Legislative Branch Appropriations Act, FY 2002 (link)
  • House Report 107-169 (link) - funds mass transit benefit program
  • Senate Report 107-03 (link) - more money to acquire technical staff and tools
  • Conference Report: House Report 107-259 (link)

FY 2001

FY 2000

  • Legislative Branch Appropriations Act, FY 2000 (link)
  • House Report 106-156 (link)
  • Senate Report 106-75 (link)

FY 1999

  • Legislative Branch Appropriations Act, FY 1999 (link)
  • House Report 105-595 (link) - discussion of how to deal with impending retirement of many senior staff and job opportunities for non-professional staff.
  • Conference Report: House Report 105-734 (link). Adds unique provision: "Provided further, That, notwithstanding any other provision of law, the compensation of the Director of the Congressional Research Service, Library of Congress, shall be at an annual rate which is equal to the annual rate of basic pay for positions at level IV of the Executive Schedule under section 5315 of title 5, United States Code."

FY 1998

  • Legislative Branch Appropriations Act, FY 1998 (link) -- adds: "Provided further, (NOTE: 2 USC 166 note.) That, notwithstanding any other provision of law, the compensation of the Director of the Congressional Research Service, Library of Congress, shall be at an annual rate which is equal to the annual rate of basic pay for positions"
  • House Report 105-196 (link)
  • Senate Report 105-047 (link) - Adds provision: "Provided further, That, notwithstanding any other provision of law, the compensation of the Director of the Congressional Research Service, Library of Congress, shall be at an annual rate which is equal to the annual rate of basic pay for positions at level IV of the Executive Schedule under section 5315 of title 5, United States Code."

Legislative Appropriations Letters to Congress - April 2011

Letters sent in April 2011 signed by a number of organizations urging Congress to allow CRS to have the option of allocating funds to make its reports publicly available. Signatories include: OpenTheGovernment.org, the Sunlight Foundation, the Federation of American Scientists, iSolon.org, OMB Watch, and many others. 

  • Letter to Rep. Sanford Bishop (PDF)
  • Letter to Sen. Sherrod Brown (PDF)
  • Letter to Rep. Ken Calvert (PDF)
  • Letter to Rep. Ander Crenshaw (PDF)
  • Letter to Rep. Jo Ann Emerson (PDF)
  • Letter to Sen. Lindsey Graham (PDF)
  • Letter to Sen. John Hoeven (PDF)
  • Letter to Rep. Mike Honda (PDF)
  • Letter to Rep. Steven LaTourette (PDF)
  • Letter to Sen. Ben Nelson (PDF)
  • Letter to Rep. David Price (PDF)
  • Letter to Rep. Denny Rehberg (PDF)
  • Letter to Sen. Jon Tester (PDF)

Frequently Used Appropriations Language

Used with the Legislative Branch Appropriations Act of 1954, P.L. 83-470, and in appropriations language going forward; available here.

"Salaries and expenses: For expenses necessary to carry out the provisions of section 203 of the Legislative Reorganization Act of 1946 (2 U. S. C. 166); $875,000: Provided, That no part of this appropriation may be used to pay any salary or expense in connection with any publication, or preparation of material therefor (except the Digest of Public General Bills), to be issued by the Library of Congress unless such publication has obtained prior approval of either the Committee on House Administration or the Senate Committee on Rules and Administration."

Used with the Legislative Branch Appropriations Act of 1953, P.L. 82-471, available here.

"Salaries and expenses: For necessary personal services to enable the Librarian to carry out the provisions of section 203 of the Legislative Reorganization Act of 1946, including not to exceed $20,000 for employees engaged by the day or hour at rates to be fixed by the Librarian; services as authorized by section 15 of the Act of August 2, 1946 (5 U. S. C. 55a); printing and binding; and supplies and materials; $891,159: Provided, That no part of this appropriation may be used to pay any salary or expense in connection with any publication, or preparation of material therefor (except the Digest of Public General Bills), to be issued by the Library of Congress."

Used in the Legislative Branch Appropriations Act of 1952, P.L. 82-168, available here.

"Salaries and expenses: For necessary personlal services to enable the Librarian to carry out the provisions of section 203 of the Legislative Reorganization Act of 1946, including not to exceed $20,000 for employees engaged by the day or hour at rates to be fixed by the Library; services as authorized by section 15 of the Act of August 2, 1946 (5 U. S. C. 55a); printing and binding; and supplies and materials; $800,000: Provided, That no part of this appropriation may be used to pay any salary or expense in connection with any publication, or preparation of material therefor (except the Digest of Public General Bills), to be issued by the Library of Congress."

Committee language accompanying the Legislative Branch Appropriation Bill Report from 1952, available here.

"The 1952 budget estimates for the operations of the Library of Congress total $9,438,200  and involve proposed increases in all but two appropriation items. The Committee has approved none of the increases requested and has recommended a total of $8,455,280. This is $100,000 less than the appropriations for 1952 and $982,920 less than the 1952 estimates. The Library of Congress should be maintained as a repository of recorded knowledge second to none, but the current national financial situation will not permit the increased expenses contemplated by the Library. Increased emphasis on preserving the materials entrusted to the care of the Library and greater concentration on the activities of classification and cataloging to facilitate use of materials in the Library by the Congress and the public will permit the Library to be maintained in the finest manner with appropriations contained in the bill. Use for research and related purposes of the Library's facilities can be financed by public and private agencies having programs requiring such activities, rather than by appropriations made to the Library.

The Committee has provided $700,000 for the Legislative Reference Service instead of the $922,100 as requested, and a provision in the bill prevents the use of that appropriation for financing the preparation of materials for publication or to be issued by the Library of Congress, and no funds are approved for printing and binding by the Legislative Reference Service. This provision will in no way interfere with the publication by Committee or Members of either House of Congress of material prepared by the Legislative Reference Service. 

The Legislative Reference Service can carry out the needs of Congress with the appropriation contained in the bill by limiting its services to those expressly requested by Members and Committees....

The following limitation not heretofore carried in the bill is recommended:

On page 16, in connection with Legislative Reference Service, beginning at line 9:

Provided, That no part of this appropriation may be used to pay any salary or expense in connection with any publication, or preparation of material therefor, to be issued by the Library of Congress."

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