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README
NitroHack
=========

NitroHack is a modernized, network-capable fork of NetHack.


Back end features:
    - NitroHack network protocol
      NitroHack supports network play without telnet or ssh over its own
      protocol. The protocol is based on JSON and should make it very easy to
      implement a browser-based NitroHack client (TODO!).
      
    - New save game format
      The old format was mostly just a dump of the data structures from memory
      onto disk.
      The new format has 2 sections:
      1) A log of the initial random seed and every game action performed
         afterwards. This allows a perfect reconstruction of the game.
      2) A binary save appended after the log. It uses a fixed-width,
         fixed-endian architecture and compiler independent format, but is
         otherwise a direct descendant of the old save format. This format was
         kept mostly so that bones files could be created in it, but it is also
         used in the savegames for slightly improved loading speed.
      The log file is written continuously, so the "INSURANCE" option and the
      recover utility are gone - a crashed game can always be restored by
      replaying the log. After the game ends, the log marked as closed and kept.
      
    - Built in game replay viewing (aka new and improved ttyrec)
      The reason for keeping logs of finished games. Once there was a way to
      reconstruct the state of the game at any point it would have been silly
      not to use it for game viewing.
      Since the replay mode is based on abstract game commands rather than
      directly recorded screen output, it is completely feasible to replay a
      that was played on a unix tty in a windows tile port or vice versa.
      A viewer for games is built into the new nethack UI. You can perform
      commands that don't affect the game state (like view inventory) while
      viewing a game replay.
      
    - New options code
      Options changed ingame are written back to the options file, which you are
      not supposed to edit by hand any more. The options have moved from
      ~/.nethackrc to ~/.config/NitroHack/NitroHack.conf (for game options) and
      ~/.config/NitroHack/curses.conf for the options of the curses UI.
      Logs of active and completed games are also under ~/.config/NitroHack/
      
    - Birth options
      Want to play without Elbereth? It is now possible to do so without
      recompiling. ELBERETH, REINCARNATION, SEDUCE and bones files have become
      a new kind of option: birth options, which can only be set before the
      character is created.
      
    - Full separation of user interface code from game code.
      The core game code has moved into a library (libnitrohack.so or
      nitrohack.dll). The game library exposes an API of exactly 23 functions
      and is largely OS independent. The display code is part of the OS/platform
      dependent executable and must provide a list of callbacks (windowprocs)
      to the game. There is no shared global state between the two.
      This was a prerequisite for the network protocol, which encodes the api
      calls and callbacks almost literally.
      With this change, the days of multiple window port binaries are over. It
      now makes much more sense to have separate programs, for example
      nitrohack-qt and xnitrohack.
      The NitroHack network server is technically a UI port and uses the same
      mechanisms.
      
    - rewritten input system
      The came core never, ever requests a key from the UI. All interactions
      happen on an abstract level: The ui sends commands to the core as a string
      ("wait", "move", etc.), the game my request a direction or a position
      (etc).
      This allows the UI to perform key mapping safely, because it is never
      necessary to guess what context some request for input occurs in.
      
    - All-new curses based text mode UI
      All the old window ports became obsolete due to the extensive API changes.
      A new UI based on curses (ncurses on unix, pdcurses on windows) has been
      written. It is a significant upgrade compared to the old tty port in terms
      of usability and features:
       * unicode display, with customizable display chars
       * configurable keymap, with a configuration dialog
       * full arrow key and function key use
       * multiple visible message lines
       * improved status
       * permanent inventory display (if your terminal is wide)
       * Inventory menu with item actions
       * real line editing
      
    - Layered drawing
      The game core provides a set of display items for each location to the UI,
      rather than a single display char. For example a monster on an item on a
      trap can be represented logically.
      The curses UI displays the alternatives by blinking between them (unless
      you disable blinking in the options).
      
    - Mersenne twister random number generator
      An OS independent RNG with known state was required in order to make game
      logs replayable. The mersenne twister is the best choice.
      
    - Re-runnable game core.
      Several of the main data structures have been made const, all others are
      carefully re-initialized when a game is started or loaded.
      This makes it possible to have a main menu for starting games, viewing the
      top ten or changing options.
      Previously this was not possible, as the altered global state from one
      game would have affected a second, so quitting was the only option.
      NitroHack now uses an exception mechanism based on setjmp/longjmp to
      escape from deep callchains when the game ends or panics
      
    - No more level files and no more lock files.
      All levels are now kept in memory at all times. This makes a lot of
      locking unnecessary. It also allows viewing of levels you are not
      currently on.
      The only remaining locking is of active game logs via OS mechanisms which
      are not based on files: fcntl on UNIX and LockFile on Windows.
      (For a game where all levels have been visited, this change could result
      in up to 5 Mb of extra memory use! The horror!!)
      
    - No more support for antique systems and compilers
      Support for everything that belongs in a computer history museum has been
      removed: BE, DOS, Classic Mac, Atari, VMS, Ultrix, etc ...
      The list of supported compilers has likewise been reduced to gcc, clang
      and msvc (and probably Intel's compiler, too).
      This allowed the removal of lots and lots of crufty code and compat macros.
      All current compilers support "void" and "static", so wrapping them in
      #defines not necessary any more.
      
    - Code cleanups
      The number of "#ifdef FOO" has been cut down from 1938 to just 51. That
      makes the code much more readable, because the indentation isn't being
      interrupted every couple of lines. To this end almost all compile options
      that didn't becom birth options were enabled unconditionally or removed
      due to being obsolete.
      All functions have been converted to use standard prototypes rather than
      K&R declarations. Ugly things like prototype widening and the follow-on
      <FOO>_P #defines went away. Tools like git diff can now correctly show
      what function a line is in.
      All instances of the keyword "register" have been removed - optimizing
      compilers handle this for us. Likewise NEARDATA; that only made sense on
      16-bit computers.
      
    - New build system: Cmake
      This replaces some of the ugliest Makefiles known to man (I kid).
      On Linux you get safe parallel builds with pretty colorized output, on
      Windows the generated Visual Studio 2010 project builds without problems

      
Game features:
    - Autopickup rules
      Real rule sets that control what gets picked up replace the pickup list +
      exceptions system. Rules can match based on the name, object type and BUC
      status.
      The following rule set picks up all food as well as lizard corpses, but
      no other corpses:
       1. IF name matches "*lizard*" AND type is "food": < GRAB
       2. IF name matches "*corpse*" AND type is "food":   LEAVE >
       3. IF type is "food":                             < GRAB
      Rules are evaluated in order until a matching rule is found. If no rule
      matches, the item is left behind by default.
      
    - Character history tracking
      NitroHack will automatically track the following items (with a turn
      timestamp) for use in your ascension posts:
       * new depth reached
       * new experience level reached
       * wishes with the exact wish text
       * killed a unique monster
       * lifesaved
       * crowning
       * artifact gifts
       * basic quest status
       * major oracle consultations
       * performed the invocation
       * gained/lost the amulet of yendor (only shown if the amulet is
         identified)
      You can view your heroic deeds with #history
    
    - Dungeon overview + dungeon annotations
      This change was inspired by the "Dungeon Map Overview 3" patch (by Hojita
      Discordia) as found in UnNetHack.
      You can now #annotate a level to name/describe it.
      #overview / Ctrl+O will show a menu of all the levels you remember
      including your annotations and significant features (shops, altars, ...)
      You can select a level from the overview menu to view your memory of it.
    
    - Dump log
      Inspired by Jukka Lahtinen's dumplog patch.
      When you die, a dump log containing the following information will be
      created:
       * Final (ascii) screenshot
       * Player stats
       * Full inventory, including listings of the contents of containers
       * Player attributes
       * Known spells
       * Skills
       * Conducts
       * Vanquished opponents
       * Final messages
       * dungeon overview
       * heroic deeds
      
    - sorted loot
      based on code by Jukka Lahtinen and Patric Müller in UnNetHack.
      Item types are sorted based on:
       1) item name
       2) enchantment
       3) BUC
       4) erodeproofing
       5) erosion
       6) greasedness
       
    - Miscellaneous changes, in no particular order
       * You can use adjust to split stacks (Sam Dennis)
       * Top ten saves 10000 entries by default
       * Unexplored locations, stone and dark rooms are all logically different
         in the drawing code (but only dark rooms are shown differently)
       * object class symbols are shown in menu headers
       * you may choose to always show uncursed status in the options
         (Pasi Kallinen)
       * you will be prompted to quiver if firing with an empty quiver
         (Jukka Lahtinen)
       * thrown or fired items will always be picked up automatically if you
         set pickup_thrown in the options (Roderick Schertler)
       * reading spellbooks early is allowed (Alex Smith)
       * naming of monsters, items & item types via menu (from NAO)
       * Improved the died while helpless descriptions (Pasi Kallinen)
       * monster targeting with m when a position is requested (inspired by
         Pasi Kallinen's patch)
       * Very long message history (20k messages)
       * Removing armor and accessories will always trigger a prompt, even if
         there is only one possible choice.
       * Open doors when the player walks into them (AceHack)
       * extinct species are shown together with genocided species (based on a
         patch by Jukka Lahtinen)
    
    - Fix about 10% of all known NetHack bugs
      C343-  2 Wielded silver arrows don't cause silver damage on some silver-
               haters. (Alex Smith)
      C343-  7 When a steed pushes a boulder into a pool, the message misuses
               "you". (Alex Smith)
      C343-  8 Plural of Nazgul is Nazgul - not Nazguls. (Patric Müller)
      C343- 12 You can't use '>' to enter a pit. (Patric Müller)
      C343- 15 You can get a message that an invisible monster looks much
               better. (Alex Smith)
      C343- 18 Scaring a mimicing mimic gives an incorrect "turns to flee"
               message. (Alex Smith)
      C343- 30 Cursed scroll of destroy armor on cursed armor doesn’t always
               interact correctly. (Alex Smith)
      C343- 50 A sleeping steed may answer a #chat. (Alex Smith)
      C343- 54,-55 "Ulch" message fixes. (Alex Smith)
      C343- 74 Entering a long running, uninterruptible command after stoning
               starts will kill you. (Patric Müller)
      C343- 88 Polymorphing a statue into a boulder can leave an incorrect
               display. (Alex Smith)
      C343- 94,SC343-8 Probing a re-anmiated statue may cause a panic.
               (Patric Müller)
      C343-100 Game may crash if thrown potion hits bars before a monster.
               (Patric Müller)
      C343-109 There is a grammar error in the Tourist leader's greeting.
               (Alex Smith)
      C343-111 Grammar of some graveyard sounds messages is wrong in some cases.
               (Alex Smith)
      C343-116 Grammar error in messages related to choking on gold.
               (Patric Müller)
      C343-123 Plural of "mother-in-law" is incorrect. (Alex Smith)
      C343-136 A samurai quest guardian message uses "ninja" where "ronin" is
               intended. (Patric Müller)
      C343-160 The name "leather spellbook" is misleading. (Alex Smith)
      C343-171 Silver weapon damage message is sometimes missing when hero is
               polymorphed. (Patric Müller)
      C343-179 If a potion of acid is destroyed by water, the game may crash.
               (Patric Müller)
      C343-189 Temple donations and protection lost to gremlin attack interact
               incorrectly. (Patric Müller)
      C343-211 Engraving under water gives a poorly worded message. (Patric Müller)
      C343-218 Applying a wielded cream pie can crash the game. (Patric Müller)
      C343-222 It's possible to end up wielding a cockatrice corpse when no
               longer polymorphed. (Quuxplusone)
      C343-231 Time is distorted while sinking into lava.
      C343-235 Casting spell of protection gives incorrect message if hero is
               swallowed or in rock. (Patric Müller)
      C343-248 You can’t put candles in a candelabrum while underwater (Sgeo)
      C343-252 There is a typo in the quote from "The Count of Monte Cristo."
               (Patric Müller)
      C343-258 Grammar error in samurai quest: "wakarimasu?" instead of
               "wakarimasu ka?" (Patric Müller)
      C343-259 "Dr. Dolittle" is spelled incorrectly. (Patric Müller)
      C343-270 Dying in a shop while wielding two weapons may cause a warning
               message. (Patric Müller)
      C343-275 If a lit, wielded, candle or potion of oil burns out, the game
               may crash. (Patric Müller)
      C343-276 If a figurine auto-transforms while wielded or worn, the game
               may crash. (Patric Müller)
      C343-298 Kicking at "empty space" uses no time.
      C343-318 Opening or closing the castle drawbridge using music takes no
               time. (Alex Smith)
      C343-324 Bisecting a long worm with 1hp crashes the game. (Patric Müller)
      C343-356 Wearing an amulet of restful sleep confuses internal sleep state
               bookkeeping. (L's "Gremlin's Curse")
      C343-386 Pearl rings can rust. (Alex Smith)
      C343-398 The game may crash if a wielded potion of polymorph is drunk.
               (Alex Smith)
      C343-399 Messages referring to a named vault guard have grammatical errors.
               (Alex Smith)
      SC343-12 Calling high priests on Astral reveals their identity.
      SC343-20 Hangup save while picking up gold in a shop may duplicate the
               gold. (Patric Müller)
      My sources for these fixes were UnNetHack, AceHack, the Patchdb.
      Aside:
       While gathering these fixes, he official bug list became a major source
       of annoyance to me. It seemed to say: "Look, we have all these fixes and
       you don't. Nee nee nee."


What didn't change:
    - The game mechanics, monsters items etc are exactly as in NetHack 3.4.3.
      I am not opposed to changing these things and in fact I think several
      things should be changed.
    - There is a lot of code in the core that remains very obscure, because the
      cleanups only improved it superficially.


Plans:
    - QT4 based tile UI
    - Browser based network client
    - Maybe: port Vulture?


Build instructions:
From the top source dir run
    mkdir build
    cd build
    cmake ..
    ccmake . # only necessary if you want to edit the install target paths
    make
    make install # into $HOME/nitrohack if you didn't change the paths in ccmake
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