README.md

pact-jvm-consumer-junit

Provides a DSL and a base test class for use with Junit to build consumer tests.

Dependency

The library is available on maven central using:

  • group-id = au.com.dius
  • artifact-id = pact-jvm-consumer-junit_2.12
  • version-id = 3.5.x

Usage

Using the base ConsumerPactTest

To write a pact spec extend ConsumerPactTestMk2. This base class defines the following four methods which must be overridden in your test class.

  • providerName: Returns the name of the API provider that Pact will mock
  • consumerName: Returns the name of the API consumer that we are testing.
  • createFragment: Returns the PactFragment containing the interactions that the test setup using the ConsumerPactBuilder DSL
  • runTest: The actual test run. It receives the URL to the mock server as a parameter.

Here is an example:

import au.com.dius.pact.consumer.dsl.PactDslWithProvider;
import au.com.dius.pact.consumer.exampleclients.ConsumerClient;
import au.com.dius.pact.consumer.ConsumerPactTest;
import au.com.dius.pact.model.PactFragment;
import org.junit.Assert;

import java.io.IOException;
import java.util.HashMap;
import java.util.Map;

import static org.junit.Assert.assertEquals;

public class ExampleJavaConsumerPactTest extends ConsumerPactTestMk2 {

    @Override
    protected RequestResponsePact createFragment(PactDslWithProvider builder) {
        Map<String, String> headers = new HashMap<String, String>();
        headers.put("testreqheader", "testreqheadervalue");

        return builder
            .given("test state") // NOTE: Using provider states are optional, you can leave it out
            .uponReceiving("ExampleJavaConsumerPactTest test interaction")
                .path("/")
                .method("GET")
                .headers(headers)
            .willRespondWith()
                .status(200)
                .headers(headers)
                .body("{\"responsetest\": true, \"name\": \"harry\"}")
            .given("test state 2") // NOTE: Using provider states are optional, you can leave it out
            .uponReceiving("ExampleJavaConsumerPactTest second test interaction")
                .method("OPTIONS")
                .headers(headers)
                .path("/second")
                .body("")
            .willRespondWith()
                .status(200)
                .headers(headers)
                .body("")
            .toPact();
    }


    @Override
    protected String providerName() {
        return "test_provider";
    }

    @Override
    protected String consumerName() {
        return "test_consumer";
    }

    @Override
    protected void runTest(MockServer mockServer) throws IOException {
        Assert.assertEquals(new ConsumerClient(mockServer.getUrl()).options("/second"), 200);
        Map expectedResponse = new HashMap();
        expectedResponse.put("responsetest", true);
        expectedResponse.put("name", "harry");
        assertEquals(new ConsumerClient(mockServer.getUrl()).getAsMap("/", ""), expectedResponse);
        assertEquals(new ConsumerClient(mockServer.getUrl()).options("/second"), 200);
    }
}

Using the Pact JUnit Rule

Thanks to @warmuuh we have a JUnit rule that simplifies running Pact consumer tests. To use it, create a test class and then add the rule:

1. Add the Pact Rule to your test class to represent your provider.

    @Rule
    public PactProviderRuleMk2 mockProvider = new PactProviderRuleMk2("test_provider", "localhost", 8080, this);

The hostname and port are optional. If left out, it will default to 127.0.0.1 and a random available port. You can get the URL and port from the pact provider rule.

2. Annotate a method with Pact that returns a pact fragment for the provider and consumer

    @Pact(provider="test_provider", consumer="test_consumer")
    public RequestResponsePact createPact(PactDslWithProvider builder) {
        return builder
            .given("test state")
            .uponReceiving("ExampleJavaConsumerPactRuleTest test interaction")
                .path("/")
                .method("GET")
            .willRespondWith()
                .status(200)
                .body("{\"responsetest\": true}")
            .toPact();
    }
Versions 3.0.2/2.2.13+

You can leave the provider name out. It will then use the provider name of the first mock provider found. I.e.,

    @Pact(consumer="test_consumer") // will default to the provider name from mockProvider
    public RequestResponsePact createFragment(PactDslWithProvider builder) {
        return builder
            .given("test state")
            .uponReceiving("ExampleJavaConsumerPactRuleTest test interaction")
                .path("/")
                .method("GET")
            .willRespondWith()
                .status(200)
                .body("{\"responsetest\": true}")
            .toPact();
    }

3. Annotate your test method with PactVerification to have it run in the context of the mock server setup with the appropriate pact from step 1 and 2

    @Test
    @PactVerification("test_provider")
    public void runTest() {
        Map expectedResponse = new HashMap();
        expectedResponse.put("responsetest", true);
        assertEquals(new ConsumerClient(mockProvider.getUrl()).get("/"), expectedResponse);
    }
Versions 3.0.2/2.2.13+

You can leave the provider name out. It will then use the provider name of the first mock provider found. I.e.,

    @Test
    @PactVerification
    public void runTest() {
        // This will run against mockProvider
        Map expectedResponse = new HashMap();
        expectedResponse.put("responsetest", true);
        assertEquals(new ConsumerClient("http://localhost:8080").get("/"), expectedResponse);
    }

For an example, have a look at ExampleJavaConsumerPactRuleTest

Requiring a test with multiple providers

The Pact Rule can be used to test with multiple providers. Just add a rule to the test class for each provider, and then include all the providers required in the @PactVerification annotation. For an example, look at PactMultiProviderTest.

Note that if more than one provider fails verification for the same test, you will only receive a failure for one of them. Also, to have multiple tests in the same test class, the providers must be setup with random ports (i.e. don't specify a hostname and port). Also, if the provider name is left out of any of the annotations, the first one found will be used (which may not be the first one defined).

Requiring the mock server to run with HTTPS [versions 3.2.7/2.4.9+]

From versions 3.2.7/2.4.9+ the mock server can be started running with HTTPS using a self-signed certificate instead of HTTP. To enable this set the https parameter to true.

E.g.:

    @Rule
    public PactProviderRule mockTestProvider = new PactProviderRule("test_provider", "localhost", 8443, true,
      PactSpecVersion.V2, this);                                                                     // ^^^^

For an example test doing this, see PactProviderHttpsTest.

NOTE: The provider will start handling HTTPS requests using a self-signed certificate. Most HTTP clients will not accept connections to a self-signed server as the certificate is untrusted. You may need to enable insecure HTTPS with your client for this test to work. For an example of how to enable insecure HTTPS client connections with Apache Http Client, have a look at InsecureHttpsRequest.

Requiring the mock server to run with HTTPS with a keystore [versions 3.4.1+]

From versions 3.4.1+ the mock server can be started running with HTTPS using a keystore. To enable this set the https parameter to true, set the keystore path/file, and the keystore's password.

E.g.:

    @Rule
    public PactProviderRule mockTestProvider = new PactProviderRule("test_provider", "localhost", 8443, true,
            "/path/to/your/keystore.jks", "your-keystore-password", PactSpecVersion.V2, this);

For an example test doing this, see PactProviderHttpsKeystoreTest.

Setting default expected request and response values [versions 3.5.10+]

If you have a lot of tests that may share some values (like headers), you can setup default values that will be applied to all the expected requests and responses for the tests. To do this, you need to create a method that takes single parameter of the appropriate type (PactDslRequestWithoutPath or PactDslResponse) and annotate it with the default marker annotation (@DefaultRequestValues or @DefaultResponseValues).

For example:

    @DefaultRequestValues
    public void defaultRequestValues(PactDslRequestWithoutPath request) {
      Map<String, String> headers = new HashMap<String, String>();
      headers.put("testreqheader", "testreqheadervalue");
      request.headers(headers);
    }

    @DefaultResponseValues
    public void defaultResponseValues(PactDslResponse response) {
      Map<String, String> headers = new HashMap<String, String>();
      headers.put("testresheader", "testresheadervalue");
      response.headers(headers);
    }

For an example test that uses these, have a look at PactProviderWithMultipleFragmentsTest

Note on HTTP clients and persistent connections

Some HTTP clients may keep the connection open, based on the live connections settings or if they use a connection cache. This could cause your tests to fail if the client you are testing lives longer than an individual test, as the mock server will be started and shutdown for each test. This will result in the HTTP client connection cache having invalid connections. For an example of this where the there was a failure for every second test, see Issue #342.

Using the Pact DSL directly

Sometimes it is not convenient to use the ConsumerPactTest as it only allows one test per test class. The DSL can be used directly in this case.

Example:

import au.com.dius.pact.consumer.ConsumerPactBuilder;
import au.com.dius.pact.consumer.PactVerificationResult;
import au.com.dius.pact.consumer.exampleclients.ProviderClient;
import au.com.dius.pact.model.MockProviderConfig;
import au.com.dius.pact.model.RequestResponsePact;
import org.junit.Test;

import java.io.IOException;
import java.util.HashMap;
import java.util.Map;

import static au.com.dius.pact.consumer.ConsumerPactRunnerKt.runConsumerTest;
import static org.junit.Assert.assertEquals;

/**
 * Sometimes it is not convenient to use the ConsumerPactTest as it only allows one test per test class.
 * The DSL can be used directly in this case.
 */
public class DirectDSLConsumerPactTest {

    @Test
    public void testPact() {
        RequestResponsePact pact = ConsumerPactBuilder
                .consumer("Some Consumer")
                .hasPactWith("Some Provider")
                .uponReceiving("a request to say Hello")
                .path("/hello")
                .method("POST")
                .body("{\"name\": \"harry\"}")
                .willRespondWith()
                .status(200)
                .body("{\"hello\": \"harry\"}")
                .toPact();

        MockProviderConfig config = MockProviderConfig.createDefault();
        PactVerificationResult result = runConsumerTest(pact, config, mockServer -> {
            Map expectedResponse = new HashMap();
            expectedResponse.put("hello", "harry");
            try {
                assertEquals(new ProviderClient(mockServer.getUrl()).hello("{\"name\": \"harry\"}"),
                        expectedResponse);
            } catch (IOException e) {
                throw new RuntimeException(e);
            }
        });

        if (result instanceof PactVerificationResult.Error) {
            throw new RuntimeException(((PactVerificationResult.Error)result).getError());
        }

        assertEquals(PactVerificationResult.Ok.INSTANCE, result);
    }

}

The Pact JUnit DSL

The DSL has the following pattern:

.consumer("Some Consumer")
.hasPactWith("Some Provider")
.given("a certain state on the provider")
    .uponReceiving("a request for something")
        .path("/hello")
        .method("POST")
        .body("{\"name\": \"harry\"}")
    .willRespondWith()
        .status(200)
        .body("{\"hello\": \"harry\"}")
    .uponReceiving("another request for something")
        .path("/hello")
        .method("POST")
        .body("{\"name\": \"harry\"}")
    .willRespondWith()
        .status(200)
        .body("{\"hello\": \"harry\"}")
    .
    .
    .
.toPact()

You can define as many interactions as required. Each interaction starts with uponReceiving followed by willRespondWith. The test state setup with given is a mechanism to describe what the state of the provider should be in before the provider is verified. It is only recorded in the consumer tests and used by the provider verification tasks.

Building JSON bodies with PactDslJsonBody DSL

NOTE: If you are using Java 8, there is an updated DSL for consumer tests.

The body method of the ConsumerPactBuilder can accept a PactDslJsonBody, which can construct a JSON body as well as define regex and type matchers.

For example:

PactDslJsonBody body = new PactDslJsonBody()
    .stringType("name")
    .booleanType("happy")
    .hexValue("hexCode")
    .id()
    .ipAddress("localAddress")
    .numberValue("age", 100)
    .timestamp();

DSL Matching methods

The following matching methods are provided with the DSL. In most cases, they take an optional value parameter which will be used to generate example values (i.e. when returning a mock response). If no example value is given, a random one will be generated.

method description
string, stringValue Match a string value (using string equality)
number, numberValue Match a number value (using Number.equals)*
booleanValue Match a boolean value (using equality)
stringType Will match all Strings
numberType Will match all numbers*
integerType Will match all numbers that are integers (both ints and longs)*
decimalType Will match all real numbers (floating point and decimal)*
booleanType Will match all boolean values (true and false)
stringMatcher Will match strings using the provided regular expression
timestamp Will match string containing timestamps. If a timestamp format is not given, will match an ISO timestamp format
date Will match string containing dates. If a date format is not given, will match an ISO date format
time Will match string containing times. If a time format is not given, will match an ISO time format
ipAddress Will match string containing IP4 formatted address.
id Will match all numbers by type
hexValue Will match all hexadecimal encoded strings
uuid Will match strings containing UUIDs
includesStr Will match strings containing the provided string
equalsTo Will match using equals
matchUrl Defines a matcher for URLs, given the base URL path and a sequence of path fragments. The path fragments could be strings or regular expression matchers

* Note: JSON only supports double precision floating point values. Depending on the language implementation, they may parsed as integer, floating point or decimal numbers.

Ensuring all items in a list match an example (2.2.0+)

Lots of the time you might not know the number of items that will be in a list, but you want to ensure that the list has a minimum or maximum size and that each item in the list matches a given example. You can do this with the arrayLike, minArrayLike and maxArrayLike functions.

function description
eachLike Ensure that each item in the list matches the provided example
maxArrayLike Ensure that each item in the list matches the provided example and the list is no bigger than the provided max
minArrayLike Ensure that each item in the list matches the provided example and the list is no smaller than the provided min

For example:

    DslPart body = new PactDslJsonBody()
        .minArrayLike("users", 1)
            .id()
            .stringType("name")
            .closeObject()
        .closeArray();

This will ensure that the users list is never empty and that each user has an identifier that is a number and a name that is a string.

Version 3.2.4/2.4.6+ You can specify the number of example items to generate in the array. The default is 1.

    DslPart body = new PactDslJsonBody()
        .minArrayLike("users", 1, 2)
            .id()
            .stringType("name")
            .closeObject()
        .closeArray();

This will generate the example body with 2 items in the users list.

Root level arrays that match all items (version 2.2.11+)

If the root of the body is an array, you can create PactDslJsonArray classes with the following methods:

function description
arrayEachLike Ensure that each item in the list matches the provided example
arrayMinLike Ensure that each item in the list matches the provided example and the list is no bigger than the provided max
arrayMaxLike Ensure that each item in the list matches the provided example and the list is no smaller than the provided min

For example:

PactDslJsonArray.arrayEachLike()
    .date("clearedDate", "mm/dd/yyyy", date)
    .stringType("status", "STATUS")
    .decimalType("amount", 100.0)
    .closeObject()

This will then match a body like:

[ {
  "clearedDate" : "07/22/2015",
  "status" : "C",
  "amount" : 15.0
}, {
  "clearedDate" : "07/22/2015",
  "status" : "C",
  "amount" : 15.0
}, {

  "clearedDate" : "07/22/2015",
  "status" : "C",
  "amount" : 15.0
} ]

Version 3.2.4/2.4.6+ You can specify the number of example items to generate in the array. The default is 1.

Matching JSON values at the root (Version 3.2.2/2.4.3+)

For cases where you are expecting basic JSON values (strings, numbers, booleans and null) at the root level of the body and need to use matchers, you can use the PactDslJsonRootValue class. It has all the DSL matching methods for basic values that you can use.

For example:

.consumer("Some Consumer")
.hasPactWith("Some Provider")
    .uponReceiving("a request for a basic JSON value")
        .path("/hello")
    .willRespondWith()
        .status(200)
        .body(PactDslJsonRootValue.integerType())

Matching any key in a map (3.3.1/2.5.0+)

The DSL has been extended for cases where the keys in a map are IDs. For an example of this, see #313. In this case you can use the eachKeyLike method, which takes an example key as a parameter.

For example:

DslPart body = new PactDslJsonBody()
  .object("one")
    .eachKeyLike("001", PactDslJsonRootValue.id(12345L)) // key like an id mapped to a matcher
  .closeObject()
  .object("two")
    .eachKeyLike("001-A") // key like an id where the value is matched by the following example
      .stringType("description", "Some Description")
    .closeObject()
  .closeObject()
  .object("three")
    .eachKeyMappedToAnArrayLike("001") // key like an id mapped to an array where each item is matched by the following example
      .id("someId", 23456L)
      .closeObject()
    .closeArray()
  .closeObject();

For an example, have a look at WildcardKeysTest.

NOTE: The eachKeyLike method adds a * to the matching path, so the matching definition will be applied to all keys of the map if there is not a more specific matcher defined for a particular key. Having more than one eachKeyLike condition applied to a map will result in only one being applied when the pact is verified (probably the last).

Combining matching rules with AND/OR

Matching rules can be combined with AND/OR. There are two methods available on the DSL for this. For example:

DslPart body = new PactDslJsonBody()
  .numberValue("valueA", 100)
  .and("valueB","AB", PM.includesStr("A"), PM.includesStr("B")) // Must match both matching rules
  .or("valueC", null, PM.date(), PM.nullValue()) // will match either a valid date or a null value

The and and or methods take a variable number of matchers (varargs).

Matching on paths (version 2.1.5+)

You can use regular expressions to match incoming requests. The DSL has a matchPath method for this. You can provide a real path as a second value to use when generating requests, and if you leave it out it will generate a random one from the regular expression.

For example:

  .given("test state")
    .uponReceiving("a test interaction")
        .matchPath("/transaction/[0-9]+") // or .matchPath("/transaction/[0-9]+", "/transaction/1234567890")
        .method("POST")
        .body("{\"name\": \"harry\"}")
    .willRespondWith()
        .status(200)
        .body("{\"hello\": \"harry\"}")

Matching on headers (version 2.2.2+)

You can use regular expressions to match request and response headers. The DSL has a matchHeader method for this. You can provide an example header value to use when generating requests and responses, and if you leave it out it will generate a random one from the regular expression.

For example:

  .given("test state")
    .uponReceiving("a test interaction")
        .path("/hello")
        .method("POST")
        .matchHeader("testreqheader", "test.*value")
        .body("{\"name\": \"harry\"}")
    .willRespondWith()
        .status(200)
        .body("{\"hello\": \"harry\"}")
        .matchHeader("Location", ".*/hello/[0-9]+", "/hello/1234")

Matching on query parameters (version 3.3.7+)

You can use regular expressions to match request query parameters. The DSL has a matchQuery method for this. You can provide an example value to use when generating requests, and if you leave it out it will generate a random one from the regular expression.

For example:

  .given("test state")
    .uponReceiving("a test interaction")
        .path("/hello")
        .method("POST")
        .matchQuery("a", "\\d+", "100")
        .matchQuery("b", "[A-Z]", "X")
        .body("{\"name\": \"harry\"}")
    .willRespondWith()
        .status(200)
        .body("{\"hello\": \"harry\"}")

Debugging pact failures

When the test runs, Pact will start a mock provider that will listen for requests and match them against the expectations you setup in createFragment. If the request does not match, it will return a 500 error response.

Each request received and the generated response is logged using SLF4J. Just enable debug level logging for au.com.dius.pact.consumer.UnfilteredMockProvider. Most failures tend to be mismatched headers or bodies.

Changing the directory pact files are written to (2.1.9+)

By default, pact files are written to target/pacts, but this can be overwritten with the pact.rootDir system property. This property needs to be set on the test JVM as most build tools will fork a new JVM to run the tests.

For Gradle, add this to your build.gradle:

test {
    systemProperties['pact.rootDir'] = "$buildDir/pacts"
}

For maven, use the systemPropertyVariables configuration:

<project>
  [...]
  <build>
    <plugins>
      <plugin>
        <groupId>org.apache.maven.plugins</groupId>
        <artifactId>maven-surefire-plugin</artifactId>
        <version>2.18</version>
        <configuration>
          <systemPropertyVariables>
            <pact.rootDir>some/other/directory</pact.rootDir>
            <buildDirectory>${project.build.directory}</buildDirectory>
            [...]
          </systemPropertyVariables>
        </configuration>
      </plugin>
    </plugins>
  </build>
  [...]
</project>

For SBT:

fork in Test := true,
javaOptions in Test := Seq("-Dpact.rootDir=some/other/directory")

Publishing your pact files to a pact broker

If you use Gradle, you can use the pact Gradle plugin to publish your pact files.

Pact Specification V3

Version 3 of the pact specification changes the format of pact files in the following ways:

  • Query parameters are stored in a map form and are un-encoded (see #66 and #97 for information on what this can cause).
  • Introduces a new message pact format for testing interactions via a message queue.
  • Multiple provider states can be defined with data parameters.

Generating V2 spec pact files (3.1.0+, 2.3.0+)

To have your consumer tests generate V2 format pacts, you can set the specification version to V2. If you're using the ConsumerPactTest base class, you can override the getSpecificationVersion method. For example:

    @Override
    protected PactSpecVersion getSpecificationVersion() {
        return PactSpecVersion.V2;
    }

If you are using the PactProviderRuleMk2, you can pass the version into the constructor for the rule.

    @Rule
    public PactProviderRuleMk2 mockTestProvider = new PactProviderRuleMk2("test_provider", PactSpecVersion.V2, this);

Consumer test for a message consumer

For testing a consumer of messages from a message queue, the MessagePactProviderRule rule class works in much the same way as the PactProviderRule class for Request-Response interactions, but will generate a V3 format message pact file.

For an example, look at ExampleMessageConsumerTest